International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
www.elsevier.com/locate/ijengsci
Damage identiﬁcation based on ridges and maxima lines of the wavelet transform
M. Haase ^{a}^{,}^{*} , J. Widjajakusuma ^{b}
^{a} Institut f€uur Computeranwendungen (ICA II), University of Stuttgart, D70569Stuttgart, Germany ^{b} Institut f€uur Mechanik (Bauwesen), University of Stuttgart, D70569Stuttgart, Germany
Abstract
The paper analyses the transient vibration behaviour of structures using the continuous wavelet trans form (CWT), which provides eﬀective tools for detecting changes in the structure of the material. The advantage of the CWTover commonly used timefrequency methods like the Wigner–Ville and the Gabor transform is its ability to decompose signals simultaneously both in time (or space) and frequency (or scale) with adaptive windows. The essential information is contained in the maxima of the wavelet transform. From the ridges, the modal parameters of the decoupled modes can be extracted and the signal can be reconstructed. From the maxima lines, defects can be localized. This paper presents a new approach for the calculation of wavelet transform ridges and maxima lines, which is based on a direct integration of dif ferential equations. The potential of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of the impact vibration response of diﬀerent bars. 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Parameter identiﬁcation; Nondestructive testing; Wavelet transform; Maxima lines; Ridges
1. Introduction
Damage can be deﬁned as the deterioration of the material properties due to the presence of microcracks, microvoids and other microdefects. As a result of damage, the function and the working condition of engineering structures and designs such as buildings, bridges, platforms, aircraft and machines are aﬀected. Furthermore, as a result of excessive service loads, impact and fatigue, the damage continuously accumulates within the structures or designs during their service
^{*} Corresponding author. Tel.: +497116853700; fax: +497116853758. Email address: mh@ica.unistuttgart.de (M. Haase).
00207225/03/$  see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S00207225(03)000260
1424 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
period. Therefore, in order to avoid the failure of the structure, which may lead to accidents and cost human lives, the structure s damage should be detected as early as possible. Damage detection by nondestructive testing is carried out in most cases by visual inspection. However, this is unreliable for complex structures because certain microdefects may occur in inaccessible areas. Therefore, in addition to visual inspection, other more sophisticated methods such as thermal methods, radiography, eddy currents, liquid penetrants, ultrasonic methods and vibration measurements [1] have been developed and are applied to detect the damage. The advantage of vibrationbased methods is that they can detect damage in a global sense even when the location of the damage is inaccessible. Due to the damage, the dynamic behaviour of structures is changed and can therefore be used to identify and quantify the structural damage. The change of the dynamic behaviour can be expressed in terms of the variation of damping parameters and the change of the vibration frequencies. Furthermore, as long as the defects are large enough, they can be localized by analysing and interpreting sonic echo traces [2]. In order to estimate the modal parameters of a structure, it is useful to analyse its free response to a shortterm impulse excitation. This excitation merely inﬂuences the amplitude of the resulting vibration. During the transient phase, the structure exhibits oscillations at its natural frequencies. The decay of these oscillations determines the damping behaviour [14]. Diﬀerent techniques have been proposed for the estimation of modal parameters; most of them work either in the time or the frequency domain. For general nonlinear multidegreeoffreedom (MDOF) systems, there are limitations to all these methods (for details see [3,4] and the references therein). For systems which display changes in their instantaneous frequencies as time evolves, combined timefrequency approaches are used. Among the most commonly used timefrequency methods are Wigner–Ville and Gabor representations. These approaches also suﬀer from several drawbacks. The Wigner–Ville transform shows spurious interference phenomena due to the quadratic form of the transformation. These artifacts can only be removed at the expense of a reduction of the timefrequency resolution. The Gabor transform, although taking advantage of an optimal timefrequency localization according to Heisenberg s uncertainty principle [11], suf fers from the drawback of having ﬁxed windows, a disadvantage common to all windowed Fourier transforms. Timefrequency methods are often used together with the Hilbert transform [5–7]. In this case, one ﬁrst has to decouple the modes using the band pass ﬁltration of the signal which, however, may fail in nonlinear situations. Following recent advances in wavelet analysis, new techniques in signal processing have been developed. The main advantage of the continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) is its ability to provide information simultaneously in time and scale with adaptive windows. The CWT oﬀers promising tools for the estimation of modal parameters and new perspectives for damage iden tiﬁcation within the structures. There is a growing number of publications reporting on system identiﬁcation using wavelet techniques, see, for example, [2,4,8,9,25]. Two main features make the CWTparticularly attractive. Firstly, the vibration modes can be automatically decoupled in most cases where the natural frequencies are not too close, which allows for an accurate extraction of the instantaneous frequencies and damping parameters. Secondly, the essential information is contained in a small subset of the CWT, namely in the maxima lines and ridges. Therefore, in contrast to other studies, we propose in this paper to restrict the calculation of the CWTfrom the beginning only to these special lines, which are obtained by direct tracing. For this purpose, we derive sets of ordinary diﬀerential equations which are directly integrated in physical space leading
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1425
either to maxima lines or ridges. Hence, timeconsuming calculations of the complete CWTand cumbersome chaining techniques are avoided. The outline of the paper is as follows. In Section 2, we brieﬂy discuss the CWT. Two families of wavelets, the real Gaussian and the complex Morlet family of wavelets with an increasing number of vanishing moments, are presented in Sections 3.1 and 3.2, respectively. For both families, we derive recursive relations and partial diﬀerential equations for the wavelet transform, which are the basis for a direct integration of maxima lines and ridges in the time or space domain. Two examples are given in Section 3.3 to describe the special ﬁelds of applications for the Gaussian and the Morlet family of wavelets. Section 4 reviews the potential of complex progressive wavelets for the analysis of asymptotic signals which are characterized by slowly varying amplitudes and phase variations. In Section 5, we derive two systems of ordinary diﬀerential equations for the direct integration of maxima lines and ridges, respectively. In Section 6, the method is demonstrated on a twodegreeoffreedom system. In Section 7, we apply the analysis to the experimental data of the impact vibration response of bars with and without joint connections [23]. The results of the wavelet analysis are compared with those of the vibration analysis system Medusa [24]. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 8 and future work is discussed.
2. Continuous wavelet transform
Recently, wavelet analysis has attracted much attention since it allows signals to be unfolded in time and scale. According to the deﬁnition
Wf ða; bÞ ¼
1
a Z
þ1
1
fðtÞw
t b
a
dt
ða; b 2 R; a > 0Þ;
ð1Þ
the CWTdecomposes the signal f ðtÞ 2 L ^{2} ðRÞ hierarchically in terms of elementary components wððt bÞ=aÞ which are obtained from a single mother wavelet wðtÞ by dilations and translations.
Here, wðtÞ denotes the complex conjugate of wðtÞ, a the scale and b the shift parameter. The
crucial point is to choose wðtÞ so that it is well localized both in physical and Fourier space.
^
A unique reconstruction of the signal is ensured if wðtÞ (resp. its Fourier transform wwðxÞ)
satisﬁes the admissibility condition
C w ¼ ^{Z} þ1
0
j
^
wwðxÞj
2
x
dx < 1;
ð2Þ
which reduces for wðtÞ 2 L ^{1} ðRÞ to the simple zero mean condition for wðtÞ
1
Z
1
wðtÞdt ¼ 0:
ð3Þ
There is an inﬁnite number of possible choices for the mother wavelets. For example, some of them are especially suitable for detecting and characterizing irregularities in the signal or even in
1426 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
its N th derivative. For this purpose, we require wðtÞ to be orthogonal to polynomials up to order N. Hence,
þ1
Z
1
t ^{k} wðtÞdt ¼ 0
0 6k 6N:
ð4Þ
Complex analytic wavelets, often denoted as progressive wavelets, i.e. wavelets wðtÞ such that
^
wwðxÞ ¼ 0 for negative values x, are used to extract instantaneous frequencies. In the next section,
we describe the properties of two such families of wavelets. The signal f ðtÞ can be uniquely recovered by the inverse wavelet transform
fðtÞ ¼
C w Z
1
1
þ1
^{Z} 1
0
Wf ða; bÞw
t b ^{} da
a
a
^{2}
db:
ð5Þ
Note that, analogously to the Fourier transform, the CWTis a linear integral transformation and therefore according to Parseval s theorem conserves energy, i.e. inner products and norms in L ^{2} ðRÞ, up to a factor 2p [10,11]. Consequently, the CWTmay as well be performed in Fourier space reading
Wf ða; bÞ ¼
2p Z
1
^{1}
þ1
ffðxÞe ^{i}^{b}^{x} wwðaxÞdx:
^
^
ð6Þ
^
Here, we used the following convention for the Fourier transform ff ðxÞ of a function f ðtÞ 2 L ^{2} ðRÞ
þ1
ffðxÞ ¼ Z
^
1
fðtÞe ^{} ^{i}^{x}^{t} dt;
t 2 R:
ð7Þ
3. Two families of wavelets
In this section, two families of wavelets, each of speciﬁc use for diﬀerent purposes, are intro duced. The ﬁrst is the Gaussian family which consists of real wavelets. This family is obtained as derivatives of the Gaussian function. They are very eﬃcient in detecting sharp signal transitions and irregularities. The second is the Morlet family which consists of complex progressive wavelets. Using Morlet wavelets means the vibration modes can be decoupled and the temporal evolution of frequency transients and damping coeﬃcients can be measured.
3.1. Gaussian family of wavelets
We deﬁne Gaussian wavelets of nth order wðtÞ as
d
w _{n} ðtÞ ¼ _{d}_{t} w _{n} _{} _{1} ðtÞ
ðn 2 NÞ;
ð8Þ
ψ _{2} t( )
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
where
w _{0} ðtÞ ¼ e ^{} ^{t} ^{2} ^{=}^{2} :
1427
ð9Þ
By induction, it can be shown that the following relation holds
ðn þ 1Þw _{n} ðtÞ þ tw _{n}_{þ}_{1} ðtÞ þ w _{n}_{þ}_{2} ðtÞ ¼ 0:
ð10Þ
For n > 0, the functions w _{n} ðtÞ fulﬁl the admissibility condition Eq. (2) and can thus be used as mother wavelets. Although w _{n} ðtÞ has an inﬁnite support, the function as well as its Fourier transform decay rapidly to zero. Therefore, in practice, it can be considered to be well localized in time and frequency. The second derivative w _{2} ðtÞ is called Mexican hat and was ﬁrst used in computer vision to detect multiscale edges [21]. Fig. 1 shows the Mexican hat together with its Fourier transform. For the CWTof a signal f ðtÞ using w _{n} ðtÞ as a kernel, we use the following abbreviation
Wf ða; bÞ ¼
1
a Z
þ1
1
fðtÞw _{n}
t b
a
dt ¼: W ^{n} f :
ð11Þ
The special properties of Gaussian wavelets can be used to derive a partial diﬀerential equation for W ^{n} f (for details, see [22])
a
o
^{2}
oa ^{þ} n
_{a}
o
ob ^{2}
W ^{n} f ¼ 0;
ð12Þ
which is subsequently used for a direct integration of the maxima lines. An important point is that, for discretely sampled functions f ðtÞ, it is possible to derive explicit expressions for the convolution integral Eq. (11). It is then possible to evaluate W ^{n} f at any
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
4 
2 
0 
2 
4 
6 
4 
2 
0 
2 
4 
6 
t 
ω 
Fig. 1. (a) Mexican hat wavelet w _{2} ðtÞ, (b) corresponding Fourier transform ^{c}
2
w _{2} ðxÞ.
w
1428 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
arbitrarily chosen point ða; bÞ separately which proves to be essential for an eﬃcient direct inte gration of the maxima lines presented in Section 5. This method contrasts with the commonly
^ ^
used method to evaluate the integral Eq. (11) as an inverse Fourier transform of ffðxÞ wwðaxÞ according to Eq. (6) where the full wavelet transform has to be calculated for each ﬁxed scale a.
3.2. Morlet family of wavelets
In contrast with real wavelets, the complex wavelets can separate amplitude and phase, en abling the measurement of instantaneous frequencies and their temporal evolution. Let us deﬁne a family of complex wavelets which are obtained as derivatives of the classical Morlet wavelet
W _{0} ðtÞ ¼ e ^{} ^{t} ^{2} ^{=}^{2} e ^{i}^{x} ^{0} ^{t}
ð13Þ
which marks the starting point of the development of wavelet analysis. Initially, it was employed by the geophysicist Jean Morlet in the late 1970s for oil exploration. The Morlet wavelet does not fulﬁl the admissibility condition (2) in a strict sense. However, for practical purposes, because of the fast decay of its envelope towards zero we can consider the Morlet wavelet W _{0} ðtÞ to be ad missible for x _{0} P 5. Contrary to W _{0} ðtÞ which depends on x _{0} , all derivatives of W _{0} ðtÞ are wavelets in a strict sense
d
W _{n} ðtÞ ¼ _{d}_{t} W _{n} _{} _{1} ðtÞ
ðn 2 NÞ:
ð14Þ
The main importance of the usefulness of this family of wavelets is the fact that all members are progressive (or analytic) meaning
^ 

WW _{n} ðxÞ ¼ 0 
for x < 0: 
ð15Þ 
This condition is easily understood if we consider the wavelet transform of f ðtÞ ¼ cos x _{1} t. By
^
inserting its Fourier transform ffðxÞ ¼ p½dðx þ x _{1} Þ þ dðx x _{1} Þ into Eq. (6), one obtains
Wf ða; bÞ ¼ ^{1}
2
h
_{e}
ibx _{1}
^
WWðax _{1} Þ
_{þ} _{e} ibx _{1}
WWð ax _{1} Þ i ;
^
ð16Þ
which means that in general jWf ða; bÞj is oscillating in bdirection. However, for progressive wavelets satisfying Eq. (15), these oscillations disappear, resulting in the relation
jWf ða; bÞj ¼
1
2 ^{j}
^
WWðax _{1} Þj:
^
For the Morlet wavelet, the Fourier transform reads WW _{0} ðxÞ ¼
ð17Þ
p
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
2p e ^{} ^{ð}^{x} ^{} ^{x} 0 ^{Þ} ^{2} ^{=}^{2} and one observes
a perfect localization of energy around the line a ¼ x _{0} =x _{1} [11]. In Fig. 2, the Morlet wavelet is plotted together with its Fourier transform.
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
1429
Fig. 2. Morlet wavelets: (a) W _{0} ðtÞ and (b) W _{0} ð2t 2Þ; (c, d) Modulus of the corresponding Fourier transforms.
In analogy to the Gaussian family, both a recursive relation
ðn þ 1ÞW _{n} ðtÞþðt ix _{0} ÞW _{n}_{þ}_{1} ðtÞ þ
W _{n}_{þ}_{2} ðtÞ ¼ 0
and a partial diﬀerential equation
a
o
^{2}
o
ob ^{2}
_{o}_{a} ix _{0}
ob ^{þ} n
_{a}
o
W ^{n} f ¼ 0
ð18Þ
ð19Þ
can be derived for the Morlet family [12]. These relations enable us to evaluate the wavelet transform for discretely sampled functions f ðtÞ explicitly in the physical space. As mentioned before, this is proven to be crucial for direct integration of ridges described in the next section.
3.3. Two examples
The CWT based on Gaussian wavelets is especially suitable for detecting unexpected events in signals. For example, these may be caused by reﬂection of waves at cracks or boundaries leading to discontinuities in the derivatives [2].
1430 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
As a ﬁrst example, let us consider the CWTof the function
fðtÞ ¼ c _{1} e ^{} ^{k}^{ð}^{t} ^{} ^{t} ^{1} ^{Þ} ^{2} þ c _{2} jt t _{2} j ^{h} ;
ð20Þ
(c _{1} ¼ 0:2, c _{2} ¼ 0:6, k ¼ 312:5, h ¼ 0:5, t _{1} ¼ 0:2, t _{2} ¼ 0:8, 0 6 t 6 1). Fig. 3a shows the graph of the function. Apart from the irregular cusp at t _{2} , the function is everywhere C ^{1} . In Fig. 3b, the CWTbased on the Mexican hat wavelet w _{2} ðtÞ is plotted where a logarithmic scale is used for a and small scales are at the top. It can be shown [17,18] that the CWTscales like
jWf ða; t _{0} Þj a ^{h}^{ð}^{t} ^{0} ^{Þ}
for a ! 0
ð21Þ
provided there is no oscillating singularity (like for instance f ðtÞ ¼ sin½1=ðt t _{0} Þ at t _{0} ) and the mother wavelet has n _{w} > hðt _{0} Þ vanishing moments. The exponent hðt _{0} Þ is denoted as Hoolder€ ex ponent and characterizes the strength of the irregular behaviour at t _{0} : the faster jWf ða; t _{0} Þj tends to zero as a ! 0, the more regular the function is [17]. If hðt _{0} Þ > n _{w} , then
jWf ða; t _{0} Þj a ^{n} ^{w}
for a ! 0:
ð22Þ
Fig. 3. (a) Signal f ðtÞ with cusp irregularity, (b) modulus of the CWTusing the Mexican hat wavelet, (c) maxima lines, (d) scaling behaviour along maxima lines.
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
1431
This scaling information is completely contained in the maxima lines of the CWT deﬁned by
_{o}_{b} o jWf ða; bÞj ¼ 0
and
o
2
_{o}_{b} _{2} jWf ða; bÞj < 0;
ð23Þ
see Fig. 3c. From the log–log plot displayed in Fig. 3d, the scaling exponent at t _{2} ¼ 0:8 can be read oﬀ as h ¼ 0:5 according to the signal given in Eq. (20), while the scaling exponent at t _{1} ¼ 0:2 just reﬂects the number of vanishing moments n _{w} ¼ 2 of the Mexican hat w _{2} ðtÞ. Moreover, only at the irregular point t _{2} do the maxima lines converge towards t _{2} , thus identifying its location. The extraction of irregularities in the signal or in its derivatives can be used for the interpre tation of experimental vibration data recorded for damage detection. Transient events are often buried in the vibration signals but can be highlighted and located with the aid of wavelets. Ex amples, among others, are the nondestructive testing of foundation piles [2], toothfault detection in gearboxes [19] or detection of cracks that open and close during vibration [20]. Another in teresting area would be the interpretation of vibration frequency spectra where wavelets could help to estimate the location of peaks better, to detect additional frequencies or their shifts stemming from deteriorations. As a second example, let us demonstrate the diﬀerence in use between real and complex wavelets. We consider a nonstationary signal with increasing frequency, a socalled linear chirp
ð24Þ
The graph of f ðtÞ is plotted in Fig. 4a. We calculate the modulus of the CWTof f ðtÞ using both the real wavelet w _{1} ðtÞ and the complex progressive wavelet W _{1} ðtÞ as mother wavelet (Fig 4b and c). Clearly, the CWTusing the real wavelet repeats all oscillations of the signal, the increase in frequency can be seen only qualitatively. In contrast, the modulus of the CWTusing the complex wavelet W _{1} ðtÞ shows a concentration near a line, the socalled ridge, which traces the instanta neous frequency; note that again a logarithmic scale is used for the parameter a. From these examples, it is easy to understand that complex progressive wavelets are very ef ﬁcient in ﬁltering out the natural frequencies and the damping behaviour of the modes of vi brating systems, while real wavelets are used to detect abrupt changes and to characterize irregular behaviour.
f ðtÞ ¼ sinf2p½t þ ðt 256Þ ^{2} =8000 g:
Fig. 4. Linear chirp: (a) graph of f ðtÞ, (b) modulus of the wavelet transform using the real wavelet w _{1} ðtÞ, (c) modulus of the wavelet transform using the complex progressive wavelet W _{1} ðtÞ.
1432 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
4. Wavelet transform of asymptotic signals
An arbitrary real signal f ðtÞ can always be written in the form
~
~
f ðtÞ ¼ sin AAðtÞ cos½ UUðtÞ :
ð25Þ
However, such a representation is not unique. To achieve uniqueness, it is common to intro duce the analytic function
zðtÞ ¼ f ðtÞ þ iHf ðtÞ
ð26Þ
with f ðtÞ as the real part and the Hilbert transform Hf ðtÞ as the complex part, deﬁned as
Hf ðtÞ ¼
p Z
1
1
þ1
fðsÞ _{t} ds:
s
ð27Þ
By deﬁnition, zðtÞ is entirely characterized by its real part and its Fourier transform ^zzðxÞ is zero for negative frequencies. The socalled canonical representation of f ðtÞ
zðtÞ ¼ AðtÞe ^{i}^{U}^{ð}^{t}^{Þ}
ð28Þ
is then unique if we assume AðtÞ P 0 and UðtÞ2½0; 2p , see [11]. This allows one to introduce the instantaneous frequency
xðtÞ ¼ U ^{0} ðtÞ;
ð29Þ
where the sign ^{0} denotes the derivative with respect to time t. The physical signiﬁcance of xðtÞ might be doubtful in speciﬁc cases unless we restrict consideration to asymptotic signals with AðtÞ and U ^{0} ðtÞ slowly varying [16]. The envelope AðtÞ and xðtÞ then have a physical meaning. Using a wavelet of the Morlet family, the CWTcan be approximated by the ﬁrst term of an asymptotic expansion using the stationary phase argument [15,16]
^
Wzða; bÞ ¼ AðbÞe ^{i}^{U}^{ð}^{b}^{Þ} WWðaU ^{0} ðbÞÞ þ O
^{j}^{A} ^{0} ^{j} _{;} jUU ^{0}^{0} j
jAj
_{U}
02
! :
ð30Þ
For a monocomponent signal Eq. (28), the modulus of the wavelet transform is concentrated in the neighbourhood of a curve, called ridge of the wavelet transform satisfying the condition
a
¼ a _{r} ðbÞ ¼
^{x} _{ð}_{b}_{Þ} ;
U
^{0}
ð31Þ
where x ^{} denotes the peak frequency of W _{n} ðxÞ [16]. By inserting this relation into (30), we see that the wavelet transform along the ridge is approximately proportional to the analytic signal zðtÞ given in Eq. (28) with a constant factor
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
^ ^
C ¼ WWðaU ^{0} ðbÞÞ ¼ WWðx ^{} Þ:
1433
ð32Þ
In this paper, the investigated signals are vibrations of MDOF systems which in general can be written as a superposition of monochromatic components
M
fðtÞ ¼ ^{X} A _{j} ðtÞ cos U _{j} ðtÞ
j¼1
ð33Þ
0
which can be assumed to have slowly varying amplitudes A _{j} ðtÞ and phases U _{j} ðtÞ. The corre sponding wavelet transform, being a linear operation, may be written in the form
Wf ða; bÞ ¼
1
2 X
M
j¼1
^
0
A _{j} ðbÞ cos U _{j} ðbÞ WWðaU _{j} ðbÞÞ þ rða; bÞ;
ð34Þ
where
rða; bÞ O
^{j}^{A}
0
j
^{j}
00 j
j
jU _{j} U
jA _{j} j ^{;}
U
02
j
! :
If the signal contains several components whose frequencies are suﬃciently apart, the single components can be reconstructed again from the ridges of the wavelet transform. For interacting ridges or close frequencies, the analysis and reconstruction of a kfrequency shifted version of f ðtÞ are recommended to analyse and reconstruct in order to obtain a better frequency resolution (for details see [15,4]).
5. Direct tracing of maxima lines and ridges
One of the most valuable features of the wavelet transform is that it allows a very precise analysis of the regularity properties of a signal. Even for sampled functions given by
; f _{n} g, one can ﬁlter out very precisely those points where the signal or one of its de
rivatives displays abrupt changes. This is possible by analysing the scaling behaviour, Eq. (21), along some special lines, the socalled maxima lines where the modulus of the CWTis concen trated. Another main feature of the wavelet transform is its capacity to decompose vibrations into natural components according to their natural frequencies, see Eqs. (33) and (34). If the Fourier transform of an analysing progressive wavelet wðtÞ concentrates near a ﬁxed frequency x ^{} , the modulus of the CWTconcentrates near a series of curves called ridges. The CWT Wf ða; bÞ is a twodimensional unfolding in scale and time of a onedimensional signal f ðtÞ and therefore highly redundant. We have seen that the most relevant information is contained in a much smaller set of ða; bÞvalues, namely the maxima lines and the ridges, see Figs. 3 and 4. The signal may even be reconstructed accurately from these special lines; an example is
ff _{1} ; f _{2} ;
1434 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
given in the next section. In the following, we describe how maxima lines and ridges can be de termined directly without having to calculate the full CWTﬁrst. Commonly, the calculation of maxima lines and ridges is performed by ﬁrst evaluating the CWT, which is done, as for other convolutions, by a fast Fourier transform. Hence, the CWT is obtained for a discrete mesh of points ða _{i} ; b _{j} Þ. Local maxima are next determined either for a constant scale a _{i} or a constant time b _{j} for maxima lines and ridges, respectively. An additional chaining stage is then necessary to obtain connected lines, which might be diﬃcult in the case of bifurcating lines. We do not follow this line but propose instead a method for calculating the CWTcontinuously only along the relevant lines, thus avoiding unnecessary calculations and diﬃcult chaining al gorithms. The special properties of the Gaussian and Morlet family of wavelets allow the deri vation of a set of ordinary diﬀerential equations for the parameterized lines aðsÞ, bðsÞ which may be integrated numerically. Such a procedure is only eﬀective if the calculation of the CWTcan be performed for each point ða; bÞ separately in the time domain, which is possible for discretely sampled functions. This method has another advantage over the common scheme, where the wavelet transform is evaluated in the Fourier domain, which is based on the assumption that the signal is periodic. The advantage is that spurious wraparound eﬀects are avoided (see [2,25]).
5.1. Diﬀerential equations for the maxima lines
For a ﬁxed scale a _{0} the local maximum of jW ^{n} fða _{0} ; bÞj is deﬁned as
jW ^{n} fða _{0} ; bÞj _{b} ¼ 0
and
jW ^{n} fða _{0} ; bÞj _{b}_{b} < 0;
ð35Þ
where we used the abbreviation ðoF =obÞ ¼ F _{b} . Connected lines of local maxima are called maxima lines. For simplicity, let us restrict ourselves here to the Gaussian family of wavelets. An extension to complex wavelets is straightforward. Instead of Eq. (35), we use the following simpler condi tions
ðW ^{n} fða _{0} ; bÞÞ _{b} ¼ 0
and
ðW ^{n} fða _{0} ; bÞÞ _{b}_{b} < 0;
ð36Þ
which lead to maxima lines of ðW ^{n} fða _{0} ; bÞÞ ^{2} . Describing the maxima lines in a parametric form faðsÞ; bðsÞg, we may approximate the change of ðW ^{n} fÞ _{b} along the line by the ﬁrst terms in a Taylor expansion yielding
d
_{d}_{s} ðW ^{n} fÞ _{b} ¼ ðW ^{n} fÞ _{b}_{a}
da
ds
þ ðW ^{n} fÞ _{b}_{b}
db
ds
¼ 0:
ð37Þ
The diﬀerential equations for maxima lines can thus be written in the form
da
ds
¼
cðW ^{n} fÞ _{b}_{a} ;
^{d}^{b} ds ¼ cðW ^{n} fÞ _{b}_{b}
ð38Þ
with an arbitrary constant c regulating the parameterization. Explicit expressions for the Gaussian and the Morlet family can easily be obtained using Eqs. (8)–(10) and (12), and Eqs. (13,
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
1435
14) and (18, 19), respectively. Strictly speaking, Eq. (38) is a set of two integrodiﬀerential equations. However, the integrals on the right hand side can be explicitly expressed for the Gaussian and Morlet family of wavelets of each point ða; bÞ in terms of the sampling values
ff _{1} ; f _{2} ;
; b _{M} g
of all maxima of ðW ^{n} fÞ ^{2} on the smallest scale a _{m}_{i}_{n} . Each pair ða _{m}_{i}_{n} ; b _{i} Þ ði ¼ 1;
as an initial condition for the diﬀerential equations (38), which can be integrated numerically. The
maxima lines are obtained following this procedure (Fig. 3c).
; MÞ is then used
; f _{n} g. The procedure works as follows. First, one calculates the bvalues fb _{1} ; b _{2} ;
5.2. Diﬀerential equations for the ridges
The transient vibration behaviour of structures can be described by a function f ðtÞ in the form of Eq. (33), i.e. as a superposition of asymptotic components with slowly varying amplitudes and phase variations. If we use wavelets W _{n} ðtÞ of the Morlet family, the modulus of the CWTshows high concentrations along a series of curves denoted as ridges and given by Eq. (31). For the determination of the ridges, it is in general suﬃcient to determine local maxima of jW ^{n} fða; b _{0} Þj for a ﬁxed time b _{0} [11]. Hence, the conditions for ridges can be written in the form
jW ^{n} fða; b _{0} Þj _{a} ¼ 0
and
jW ^{n} fða; b _{0} Þj _{a}_{a} < 0
ð39Þ
in analogy to Section 5.1. For practical calculations, we use
jW ^{n} fða; b _{0} Þj
2
a
¼ 0
and
2
jW ^{n} fða; b _{0} Þj _{a}_{a} < 0:
ð40Þ
As before, we derive diﬀerential equations for the ridges, which are written in a parametric form faðsÞ; bðsÞg. Since we use complex wavelets here, they have a slightly diﬀerent form
da
ds
¼
CG _{b} ða; bÞ
^{d}^{b} ds ¼ CG _{a} ða; bÞ;
ð41Þ
where Gða; bÞ ¼ R½ðW ^{n} fÞ _{a} W ^{n} f and C is an arbitrary constant. For the free response of a structure to a short time impulse, we calculate the local maxima
fa _{1} ; a _{2} ;
the integration of the diﬀerential equations (41). As an example, let us consider the free vibration of a Duﬃng oscillator with a nonlinear hard spring described by the equation of motion for the deﬂection yðtÞ [13]
; MÞ as initial conditions for
; a _{M} g for a ﬁxed time b _{0} and use the pairs ða _{i} ; b _{0} Þ ði ¼ 1;
y ^{0}^{0} þ cy ^{0} þ k _{1} y þ k _{3} y ^{3} ¼ 0
ð42Þ
with c ¼ 0:08, k _{1} ¼ 1, k _{3} ¼ 0:14. The equation is integrated for 0 6 t 6 90 using the initial con ditions y _{0} ¼ 3, y _{0} ¼ 0. The graph of yðtÞ is plotted in Fig. 5a. By inspection, one can see that the frequency decreases as time evolves and the vibration is damped. Fig. 5b shows the modulus of the CWTusing the Morlet wavelet. It can be seen that the modulus is highly concentrated along a
0
1436 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
Fig. 5. Duﬃng oscillator: (a) graph of vibration f ðtÞ, (b) modulus of the wavelet transform using the Morlet wavelet W _{0} ðtÞ.
curved sharp ridge displaying the increase in scale, i.e. the decrease of the instantaneous fre quency.
6. Application to system identiﬁcation
To illustrate the method, we analyse the simple case of a linear 2 degreesoffreedom system and demonstrate how instantaneous frequencies and damping parameters can be extracted from the information provided by the CWTalong the ridges alone. We also show that the signal can be accurately reconstructed in a simple way. Let us analyse the following impulse response of a twodegreeoffreedom system, which can be formulated as [4]
2
fðtÞ ¼ ^{X} A _{j} ðtÞ cos U _{j} ðtÞ;
j¼1
ð43Þ
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 f x _{j} t þ u _{j} ; x _{j} are the natural frequencies, f _{j} the damping
where A _{j} ðtÞ ¼ a _{j} e ^{} ^{f} j ^{x} ^{j} ^{t} and U _{j} ðtÞ ¼
ratios, a _{j} the amplitudes for t ¼ 0 and u _{j} the phase shift of the jth mode ða _{1} ¼ 0:5, a _{2} ¼ 3:0, f _{1} ¼ 0:03, f _{2} ¼ 0:045, x _{1} ¼ 40p ¼ 125:66, x _{2} ¼ 156p ¼ 490:09, u _{1} ¼ u _{2} ¼ p=2Þ. In Fig. 6a, the graph of the impulse response function is shown for 0 6 t 6 1. As the analysing wavelet for the calculation of CWT, we have chosen the ﬁrst derivative W _{1} ðtÞ ¼ ð t þ ix _{0} Þe ^{} ^{t} ^{2} ^{=}^{2} e ^{i}^{x} 0 ^{t} with x _{0} ¼ 5. In Fig. 6b and c, two views of the modulus of the CWT are plotted. It can be seen that the CWTdecouples the vibration modes automatically.
However, for our method, it is not necessary to calculate the full CWT. We only have to evaluate the CWTfor a ﬁxed time b _{0} (Fig. 6d) and estimate the scales a _{1} , a _{2} of the maxima yielding
q
2
j
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
1437
Fig. 6. Free vibration: (a) graph of f ðtÞ; (b, c) modulus of the wavelet transform using W _{1} ðtÞ; (d) extraction of scales and natural frequencies.
a _{1} ¼ 4:159 10 ^{} ^{2} and a _{2} ¼ 1:046 10 ^{} ^{2} . The corresponding frequencies x _{j} and damping pa rameters f _{j} are obtained from the equations
a j
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
q
1
2
f x _{j} ¼ x ^{} ;
j
f _{j} x _{j} ¼ m _{j} :
^
ð44Þ
The ﬁrst equation is obtained from Eq. (31), where, for the peak frequency x ^{} of WW _{1} ðxÞ we have
x ^{2} þ 4 Þ. The slope m _{j} in the second equation of (44) is ob
to insert the value x ^{} ¼ 1=2ðx _{0} þ
tained by ﬁtting a straight line to the logplot of jW ^{1} fða _{j} ; bÞj versus b along the ridge (see Fig. 7). The following values are obtained: m _{1} ¼ 3:76, m _{2} ¼ 21:34 and hence x _{1} ¼ 124:91, x _{2} ¼ 496:88, f _{1} ¼ 0:0301, f _{2} ¼ 0:0429.
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
p
0
Fig. 7. Identiﬁcation of damping parameters from ridges.
f t( )
1438 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
In the next step, we demonstrate how the signal can be reconstructed from the CWTalong the ridges. In Eq. (5), the general reconstruction formula is given. A simpler reconstruction rule has been proposed in [11] reading
fðtÞ ¼
C w Z 1
1
0
Wf ða; bÞ ^{d}^{a} :
a
ð45Þ
In this case, diﬀerent wavelets are used for the analysis and for the synthesis; in the particular case, a Dirac mass is used for reconstruction. With Eq. (34) as a basis, it is even simpler to recover the signal for the Morlet family of wavelets. Considering that aU ^{0} ðbÞ ¼ x ^{} holds along ridges, Eq. (34) can be rewritten in the form
Wf ða; bÞ
1
2 ^{C} X
M
j¼1
^
A _{j} ðbÞ cos U _{j} ðbÞ;
ð46Þ
where C ¼ WWðax ^{} Þ is a common constant to all ridges. Together with Eq. (33), the signal can immediately be read oﬀ as a superposition of the wavelet transform components along the ridges. In Fig. 8b and c the two modes resulting from the ridges are plotted together with their su perposition shown in Fig. 8a. Apart from small edge eﬀects, the reconstructed function match accurately with the signal plotted in Fig. 6a.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 8. (a) Reconstructed signal f ðtÞ as a superposition of two modes: (b, c) mode 1 and mode 2.
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
1439
The simplicity of the scheme becomes even more pronounced if we analyse nonlinear systems with timedependent frequencies.
7. Application to real structure
In analogy to the system identiﬁcation described in the previous section, we apply the wave let identiﬁcation technique to experimental data obtained from laboratory tests [23]. To inves tigate the inﬂuence of a bolted joint on the dynamic behaviour of steel rods of case hardened steel 16 Mn Cr 5 (diameters 40 mm) the vibrations of a homogeneous rod (length 729.70 mm) and a bolted rod (length 731.86 mm) are compared. The bolted rod is centrically connected by a
Fig. 9. (a) Free vibration of a homogeneous steel bar. Ridges (b) of the wavelet transform modulus (c) using W _{1} ðtÞ. (d) Identiﬁcation of natural frequencies.
Fig. 10. Logplot of the wavelet transform modulus along ridges vs time for homogeneous steel bar. Estimation of damping coeﬃcients using linear regression.
1440 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
threaded bolt M 12. Its contact surfaces have been machined by turning. To protect them from fretting, a polyester washer (thickness 50 lm) is embedded between the surfaces. The bolted joint connection has been tightened by applying a torque of 34.9 N m. Finally, to mini mize the inﬂuence of external bearings, the rods are suspended by plastic ropes at 3/7 and 4/7 of their overall length. On one side, the system is excited by means of an impact hammer, whereas on the other side, the velocity is measured using a laser vibrometer (sample rate D ¼ 196608 1/s). We apply the wavelet analysis described in the previous section to the velocity signal in the time domain in order to determine the eigenfrequencies and the damping ratios of the natural vibra tions. Due to the freefree suspension of the rods the hammer blow causes rigid body motions in addition to the vibrations of the ﬁrst eigenmodes. For comparison, these modal parameters are also determined by applying the analysing software Medusa [24]. For the CWTanalysis we chose the ﬁrst derivative W _{1} ðtÞ ¼ ð t þ ix _{0} Þe ^{} ^{t} ^{2} ^{=}^{2} e ^{i}^{x} 0 ^{t} as the analysing wavelet, where x _{0} ¼ 25 was chosen for a better resolution of frequencies. The measured dis placements for the bar without joint (case I) and the bolted bar with joint (case II) are displayed in Figs. 9a and 11a, respectively. Comparison of the two plots of the wavelet transform modulus (Figs. 9c and 11c) reveals the strong damping eﬀect on the odd modes, which is caused by the joint located in the center of the bar. Note, that for the determination of the modal parameters it is completely suﬃcient to calculate the CWTonly along the ridges. We calculate the wavelet transform modulus for a ﬁxed time t _{0} (see Figs. 9d and 11d) and extract the maxima, which identify the frequencies w _{i} ¼ 2pf _{i} . These maxima are then used as initial conditions for the direct integration of ridges according to Eq. (41). The ridges are plotted in Figs. 9b and 11b. The joint leads to a weak nonlinear behaviour giving rise to a slight increase of the frequency of the 1st mode as time evolves (see Table 1). The damping coeﬃcients of the diﬀerent modes are extracted from logplots of jW ^{1} uðf _{i} ; tÞj along the ridges (Figs. 10 and 12). The estimation of slopes from ﬁtting with straight lines can be performed with high accuracy by restricting to those time in
Fig. 11. (a) Free vibration of a homogeneous steel bar with joint connection. Ridges (b) of the wavelet transform modulus (c) using W _{1} ðtÞ. (d) Identiﬁcation of natural frequencies.
M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
1441
Fig. 12. Logplot of the wavelet transform modulus along ridges vs time for homogeneous steel bar with joint con nection. Estimation of damping coeﬃcients using linear regression.
tervals where the wavelet transform decreases exponentially. It should be emphasized, that con trarily to other wavelet algorithms [25] our results do not suﬀer from any wraparound eﬀect near the edges of the time interval. This eﬀect might impair the damping coeﬃcients. The reason is, that we calculate the CWTcompletely in physical space in contrast to other algorithms which are performed on the basis of the Fast Fourier Transform [2,4,8,25]. The natural frequencies and the damping coeﬃcients of the two bars resulting from the Medusa analyzer and the wavelet based identiﬁcation are summarized in Tables 1 and 2,
Table 1 Estimated natural frequencies [Hz] of vibrating bar without (case I) and with joint (case II)
Mode 1 
Mode 2 
Mode 3 
Mode 4 
Mode 5 

Case I 

Medusa 
3563.8 
7121.7 
10675.1 
14217.1 
17745.5 

Wavelets 
3564.0 
7122.0 
10676.0 
14212.0 
17744.0 

Case II 

Medusa 
3437.0 
7126.2 

Wavelets 
3432.0–3438.0 
7126.0 
10094.0 
14220.0 

Results from Medusa analyzer and wavelet analysis. 

Table 2 Estimated damping coeﬃcients [Hz] of vibrating bar without (case I) and with joint (case II) 

Mode 1 
Mode 2 
Mode 3 
Mode 4 
Mode 5 

Case I 

Medusa 
2.14 10 ^{} ^{3} 2.14 10 ^{} ^{3} 
2.31 10 ^{} ^{3} 2.30 10 ^{} ^{3} 
2.13 10 ^{} ^{3} 2.13 10 ^{} ^{3} 
2.13 10 ^{} ^{3} 2.15 10 ^{} ^{3} 
2.26 10 ^{} ^{3} 2.26 10 ^{} ^{3} 

Wavelets 

Case II 

Medusa 
9.21 10 ^{} ^{2} 9.17 10 ^{} ^{2} 
2.89 10 ^{} ^{3} 2.81 10 ^{} ^{3} 

Wavelets 
1.24 10 ^{} ^{1} 
4.43 10 ^{} ^{3} 
Results from Medusa analyzer and wavelet analysis.
1442 M. Haase, J. Widjajakusuma / International Journal of Engineering Science 41 (2003) 1423–1443
respectively. The results from both approaches are in good agreement. Obviously, the joint con nection with the centric joint leads to a change in the natural frequencies and damping properties of the bar.
8. Conclusions
In this paper, we have illustrated on pedagocial examples as well as on experimental mea surements, how the CWTcan be used to analyse the free vibration of structures. The essential information is contained in the skeleton of maxima lines and ridges. From the ridges, the modal parameters can be extracted and the signal can be reconstructed. From the maxima lines, defects can be located [2]. This is an important issue for damage detection. A new approach is presented which allows to determine maxima lines and ridges directly from integration of two ordinary diﬀerential equations in real space. The advantage of this approach is that it does not suﬀer from wraparound eﬀects, which usually occur in FFTbased wavelet al gorithms. In addition, the calculation of the full CWTis avoided and thus the computational eﬀort can be reduced. For nonlinear systems with time varying frequencies (cf. Figs. 4 and 5), this reduction is even more pronounced. We have applied our technique to real systems (bars with and without joint). The estimated modal parameters using wavelet analysis are in good agreement with those using commercial software (Medusa). Moreover, we have reconstructed the original signal by superposing the wavelet transform components along the ridges (cf. Fig. 8). This reconstruction method may be used as the departure point to model a system on the basis of measured data [8]. Further investigations are needed to study the capability of the method and are being carried out for more complex structures. Among these are the study of modes with close frequencies [4,15], the inﬂuence of noise on the integration of the diﬀerential equations for the ridges and the extraction of backbones to characterize the nonlinear behaviour [8,13].
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Stefan Oexl and Dr. Nils Wagner (Institute A of Mechanics, University of Stuttgart) for fruitful discussions. In particular, we are grateful to Stefan Oexl for supplying the experimental data.
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