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People work at different rates. Let the letters r ,t, and A represent the rate at which the

work is done, the time required, and the amount of work done, respectively. Then A = rt .

Notice the similarity to the distance formula, d = rt . The amount of work is often

measured in terms of jobs accomplished. Thus, if 1 job is completed, A = 1, and the

formula gives

1 = rt

1

r=

t

as the rate.

1

job per unit of time.

t

In solving a work problem, we begin by using this fact to express all rates of work.

EXAMPLE: John and Sejong are working on a neighborhood cleanup. Sejong can clean

up all the trash in the area in 7 hours, while John can do the same job in 5 hours. How

long will it take them if they work together?

• Variation

Direct variation: y varies directly as x if there exists some constant k such that

y = kx

This can be worded also “y is proportional to x. The number k is called constant of

variation. In directly variation, for k>0, as the value of x increases, the value of y also

increase. Similarly, as x decreases, y also decreases.

EXAMPLE: Supposes that y varies directly as z, and y=50 when z=100. Find k and the

equation connecting y and z.

Inverse variation: y varies inversely as x if there exists a real number k such that

k

y= .

x

Also, y varies inversely as the nth power of x if there exists a real number k such that

k

y= n

.

x

For inverse variation, for k>0, as x increases, y decreases, and as x decreases, y increases.

An example of inverse variation can be found by looking at the formula for the area of a

parallelogram. In its usual form, the formula is

A = bh

Dividing both sides by b gives

A

h= .

b

Here, h(height) varies inversely as b(base), with A(the area) serving as the constant of

variation.

EXAMPLE: The weight of an object above the earth varies inversely as the square of its

distance from the center of the earth. A space vehicle is an elliptical orbit has a maximum

distance from the center of the earth (apogee) of 6700 miles. Its minimum distance from

the center of the earth (perigee) is 4090 miles. If an astronaut in the vehicle weighs 57

pounds at its apogee, what does the astronaut weigh at its perigee?

Joint variation: It is common for one variable to depend on several others. For example, if

one variable varies as the product of several other variables (perhaps raised to powers),

the first variable is said to vary jointly as the others.

EXAMPLE: Strength of a rectangular beam varies jointly as its width and the square of

its depth. If the strength of a beam 2 inches wide by 10 inches deep is 1000 pounds per

square inch, what is the strength of a beam 4 inches wide and 8 inches deep?

EXAMPLE: The maximum load that a cylindrical column with a circular cross section

can hold varies directly as the fourth power of the diameter of the cross section and

inversely as the square of the height. A 9-meter column 1 meter in diameter will support

8 metric tons. How many metric tons can be supported by a column 12 meters high and

2/3 meter in diameter?

2) 8.4.1~8.4.4

• Radical Expressions

EXAMPLE: 5⋅ 7

= 5 ⋅ 7 = 35

4 8 y ⋅ 4 3r 2

= 4 24 yr 2

n

a a

Quotient Rule: n = The radical of a quotient is the quotient of the radical.

n

b b

8

EXAMPLE: 3 −

125

3

−8 −2

= =

3

125 5

3

7

216

3

7

=

6

Simplified radical:

1. The radicand has no factor raised to a power greater than or equal to the index.

2. Exponents in the radicand and the index of the radical have no common factor

(except 1)

3. The radicand has no fractions.

4. No denominator contains a radical.

Simplify 4 162

Multiplying Radicals: kn

a km = n a m

Power rules for solving equations with radicals: If both sides of an equation are raised to

the same power, all solutions of the original equation are also solutions of the new

equation.

Note: When the power rule is used to solve an equation, every solution of the new

equation must be checked in the original equation.

Step1: Isolate the radical. Make sure that one radical term is along on one side of

the equation

Step2: Apply the power rule. Raise each side of the equation to a power that is

the same as the index of the radical.

Step3: Solve. Solve the rEsulting equation; if it still contains a radical, repeat step

1 and 2.

Step4: Check. It is essential that all potential solutions be checked in the original

equation.

EXAMPLE:

Solve 4−x = x+ 2

Solve m2 − 4m + 9 = m − 1

Solve 5m + 6 = 2 − 3m + 4

3)9.1.1~9.2.4

9.1.2, 9.1.3, 9.2.2, 9.2.3, 9.2.4

• Function

A Function is a relation in which, for each value of the first component of the ordered

pairs, there is exactly one value of the second component

A Function is a rule or correspondence that assigns exactly one range value to each

domain value.

variable.

Domain and Range: In a relation, the set of all values of the independent variable (x) is

the domain; the set of all values of the dependent variable (y) is the range.

The domain of a relation is assumed to be all real numbers that produce real numbers

when substituted for the independent variable.

Vertical line test: If a vertical line intersects the graph of a relation in more than one point,

then the relation does not represent a function.

EXAMPLE:

For the following, decide whether or not it is a function.

{(1,1) , (1, −1) , ( 2,4 ) , ( 2,−4 ) , ( 3,9 ) , ( 3, − 9)}

{( 2,5 ) , ( 3,7 ) , ( 4,9) , ( 5,11)}

EXAMPLE:

Decide whether the each given relation defines y as a function x. Give the domain.

y = x2

x+ y <4

xy = 1

2

y=

x −9

x = y2

4) 10.2.3, 10.3.3, 10.4.1, 10.5.3~10.7.5

10.2.3, 10.3.3, 10.4.1, 10.6.1, 10.6.2, 10.7.1~10.7.5

• Quadratic Functions

Vertical Shifts: the graph of f ( x ) = x 2 + k is a parabola with the same shape as the graph

of f ( x ) = x 2 . The parabola is shifted k units upward if k>0, and |k| units downward if k>0.

The vertex is (0, k).

Horizontal Shifts: The graph of f ( x ) = ( x − h) 2 is a parabola with the same shape as the

graph of f ( x ) = x 2 . The parabola is shifted h units horizontally: h units to the right if h>0,

and |h| units to the left if h<0. The vertex is (h,0)

Vertex and Axis: The graph of f ( x ) = ( x − h) 2 + k is a parabola with the same shape as

f ( x ) = x 2 and with vertex at (h, k). The axis is the vertical line x=h.

f ( x ) = a ( x − h) 2 + k, a ≠ 0

is a parabola with vertex at (h, k) and vertical line x=h as axis.

2. The graph opens upward if a is positive and downward if a is negative.

3. The graph is wider than f ( x ) = x 2 if 0<|a|<1. The graph is narrower than

f ( x ) = x 2 if |a|>1.

To derive a formula for the vertex of the graph of the quadratic function

f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c , complete the square on the standard form of the equation.

2

−b 4ac − b 2

y = a x − +

2a 4a

y = a [ x − h]

2

+k

This equation shows that the vertex (h, k) can be expressed in terms of a, b, and c.

However, it is not necessary to remember this expression for k, since it can be found by

b

replacing x with − . Using function notation, if y=f(x), then y-value of the vertex is

2a

b

f (− ) .

2a

b b

Vertex formula: − , f −

2a 2a

EXAMPLE:

Complete the square of each following equation.

f (x ) = x 2 − 4 x + 5

y = −3x 2 + 6x − 1

−b ± b2 − 4ac

Quadratic formula: x =

2a

By calculating the discriminant before solving a quadratic equation, we can predict

whether the solutions will be rational numbers, irrational numbers, or imaginary numbers.

Positive, and the square of an integer Two different rational solutions

Positive, but not the square of an integer Two different irrational solutions

Zero One rational solution

Negative Two different imaginary solution

EXAMPLE: Two mechanic take 4 hours to repair a car. If each worked along, one them

could do the job in 1hour less time than the other. How long would it take the slower one

to complete the job done?

EXAMPLE: Predict the number and type of solutions for the following equations.

a. 6 x 2 − x − 15 = 0

b. 3m 2 − 4m = 5

c. 4x 2 + x + 1 = 0

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