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absolute the measured distance on a number line from one location to the origin

value ( 0 ).

absolute all the solution values are outside the endpoints away from zero; |A| > B

value with means A < -B or A > B

greater than

absolute all the solution values are between the endpoints and zero: |A| < B

value with means -B < A < B

less than

adding combine like terms, the real numbers with themselves and the imaginary

complex numbers with themselves

numbers

adding combining all like terms in an algebraic expression

polynomials

adding with add like terms with the same signs; subtract like terms with opposite

signs signs using the sign of the larger term for the answer

additive the value that can be added without changing any number; i.e., 0

identity

additive the value that can add with a number to produce 0; the number with the

inverse same absolute value but opposite sign as the given number; i.e., the

inverse of a is -a

algebra of process of adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing functions with

functions functions

and connector used with inequalities to indicate that the solution set will

include only values which satisfy both inequalities in the problem;

sometimes referred to as an intersection.

approximation a line or curve created to approximately represent the pattern produced

by graphing single pieces of data on a plane.

arithmetic an ordered collection of numbers in which the difference between any two

sequence consecutive terms is a constant (d); these sequences follow the pattern

an = a1 + (n - 1)d

arithmetic an = a1 + ( n - 1 )d

sequence

general form

arithmetic the sum of the terms in an arithmetic sequence;

series

n n

Sn = ( a1 + aL )or Sn = ( First term + Last term )

2 2

property

of multiplication, a · b · c = (a · b) · c = a · (b · c)

asymptote a line that the graph of a function approaches but never reaches.

Asymptotes can be either horizontal or vertical

augmented an array for a system of equations which utilizes as elements both the

matrix coefficients of the variables and the constants in the equations

average one number used to represent a group of values, calculated by adding all

the values in the group then dividing by the number of values included in

the group

axis of the imaginary line that passes through the vertex of a parabola and is

symmetry parallel to the axis along which the curve is opening

b variable used to represent the y-intercept in the slope-intercept equation

for a line.

base the number or variable to which an exponent is attached

binomial an algebraic expression composed of two monomial terms linked by

addition or subtraction

binomial n

coefficient n!

m =

formula m!(n - m)!

theorem

directly the patterns developed in Pascal′s triangle.

long as the numbers being divided are either both in the same fraction or

are in fractions which are multiplying with each other.

Cartesian the ordered pair, usually (x,y), that designates the location of a point on a

coordinates Cartesian plane

Cartesian the flat surface created by two number lines which intersect at right

plane angles

Center of a the fixed point that is a set distance from each point in the set of points

circle that is the circle; usually designated as the ordered pair (h, k) where h is

the x-value and k is the y-value of the point.

change-of- change of base theorem:

base theorem

loga x

logb x =

loga b

allows revising a logarithm problem to be in a base

that is easier to use in solving the problem

circle the set of all the points at a fixed distance, the radius (r), from a specified

point, the center (h,k); a completely symmetrical figure

clearing the practice of elminating a radical from the denominator of a fraction

denominator

coefficient a constant multiplying with an algebraic variable

combined a situation that mixes direct and indirect proportions

variation

combining collecting terms that have the same variables each to the same degree or

like terms power

common a number that can be used as the denominator for every fraction in a

denominator problem; generally it is the lowest multiple common to all the existing

denominators in the problem

common ( d )a constant value that separates each term in an

difference

artihmetic sequence from its neighboring term on each

side; a constant value that multiplies with ( n - 1 ) to derive

a product to add to a1 to create a specific term in an

arithmetic sequence; the constant d in the general statement

of an arithmetic sequence an = a1 + d(n - 1)

common ratio ( r )a constant value found when any term in a geometric sequence

is divided by the preceding term; the constant value that multiplies

with any term in a geometric sequence to produce the term

following; r in the general formula for a geometric sequence

an = a1 rn - 1

property

of multiplication, ab = ba, where a and b are real numbers

completing the process of isolating on one side of the equation the terms containing

the square the variable being solved for, then adding the value necessary for that

side to be a perfect square to both sides of the equation, then factoring or

taking the square root of both sides, and finally performing arithmetic as

needed to solve for the variable.

complex a fraction which has one or more fractions in its numerator, denominator

fraction or both.

complex a value composed of both a real number and an imaginary number.

number Complex numbers are often written in the form a + bi, where a is the real

number and bi is the imaginary number.

composite a value composed of prime numbers that are multiplying; a value with

number more than two factors

composition multiple functions acting on each other in a specified order.

compound two inequalities linked by and or or

inequality

compound A = P( 1 + r/m )mt

interest

formula

conditional a linking of two individual statements in the form that if the first one is

statement true, then the second one is also true; if p, then q

conic halves the curves produced when conic equations are solved for or graphed only

for the positive roots; also known as square root or half-conic functions

conic section any curve which is derived by intersecting a cone with a plane, such

figures include: the point (the plane touches the tip of the cone) line (the

plane is tangent to the side of the cone) parabola (the plane intersects

the cone parallel to its side) circle (the plane intersects the cone parallel

to the base of the cone) ellipse (the plane intersects the cone at an

angle), and hyperbola (the plane intersects the cone vertically).

consecutive even numbers that follow one another when counting, i.e., 2, 4, 6, ... or

even numbers x, x + 2, x + 4, ...

consecutive numbers that follow one another when counting; i.e., 3, 4, 5, ... or x, x +

numbers 1, x + 2, ...

consecutive odd numbers that follow one another when counting, i.e., 3, 5, 7, ..., or

odd numbers 2x + 1, 2x + 3, 2x + 5, ..., or x, x + 2, x + 4 ... given that x is an odd

number

constant a number which always has the same value, i.e., 7; the value in a

function which does not change

constant a constant change in position with respect to time; traveling a distance

velocity over some amount of time at an even speed, can be determined using a

formula that specifies that speed equals distance traveled divided by time

used travelling

continuously A = Pert where A is the interest accumulated, P is the principal

compounded

interest on which the interest is being accumulated, r is the interest rate,

and t is the time in years.

contradiction an equation with no solution; there is no value for the variable that

produces a true mathematical sentence

contrapositive a statement that links two clauses such that one originally stated as true

and dependent on the other is now stated as false and controlling of the

other

converse a sentence that links two statements but changes their original order so

that the one originally stated second and dependent on the first is not

first and controling of the other; logically this combination cannot be held

to be true without additional information

Cramer's rule a process utilizing determinants to solve systems of linear equations

cross- a practice used to eliminate denominators when one or more fractions are

multiplying found in an equation; the procedure involves multiplying the common

denominator from one side of the equation with the numerators on the

other side of the equation with the result that the multiplying

denominator disappears into the receiving numerator

cube root the number r that multiplied with itself twice produces the given number;

the number that with two more of itself and 1 are the only factors of the

given number

cubic an equation in the third degree; y = ax3 + c or x = ay3 + c.

equation

curve fitting superimposing a line or curve over the graph of single points of data to

approximately represent the pattern produced in the graph

degree the highest power used in any of the terms of an algebraic expression

degree of highest power used in any of the terms of the algebraic expression

polynomial

denominator number or expression on the bottom, or doing the dividing, of a fraction

dependent a group of three equations in three unknowns that has an infinite number

system of solutions; the planes for the three equations intersect in a line

dependent the quantity in an algebraic expession whose value changes as

variable calculations are made subsequent to one or more substitutions for the

independent variable, i.e., the variable whose value "depends" on what is

substituted in for the other, or "independent," variable.

determinant |D|, det(D), a number, or scalar, that represents the value of a matrix

difference of x3 - y3 = ( x - y )( x2 + xy + y2 ).

two cubes

difference of a2 - b2 = ( a - b )( a + b )

two squares

difference of x2 - y2 = ( x - y )( x + y ).

two squares

a matrix

direct two or more quantities increase or decrease in the same way to the same

proportion degree, each in accordance with its size

direct two or more quantities increase or decrease in the same way to the same

variation degree, each quantity in accordance with its size

directrix the fixed line that helps determine the points in a parabola;

1

a parabola of the form y = cx2 has its directrix as y = - c.

4

discriminant the algebraic expression under the radical in the quadratic formula;

used to determine the number and type of roots for the equation.

If the discriminant > 0, the equation has two real roots.

If the discriminant = 0, the equation has one real root.

If the discriminant < 0, the equation has two complex roots.

formula

the shortest distance between any two points

on a Cartesian plane;

_____________________

d= √(x2 - x1 )2 + (y2 - y1 )2

distance on a subtract the end values to determine the number of units apart the two

number line endpoints are on the line

distributive (of multiplication over addition), a(b + c) = ab + ac, where a, b, and c

property are real numbers.

dividing by 0 result is undefined; never do it

domain the set of all values that the independent variable for a function, usually

x, can use in that function

domain of a the set of all values available for the variable such that the denominator

rational of the rational never equals zero

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