You are on page 1of 68

Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd.

Calcgory - A l Fl:lrc S ~ s c c ~ n s

Rcliancc I~iduslrics Li~~iilcd P;~ial&?;la$?Tnitiilig S!.stcn~

I '

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014



NO. .. ..

.. ...





... .. ...... .... ,. OF ENTRY ... . . . ...




Cntcgon. A1 Flnrc Svs~crns

Rcliancc lndustncs L I I ~ I I I C ~ Patalgaflgil T n ~ n l n g Sys~cm

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-(114

Preprcd b\. : h.1. G.

Rev : 00

, '

.f *' { ' ; '

? ; f Rcvic\vcd bv : A . M . Hattangadi 1 Approved b\. : Dr. H. V. Doctor I 1 Date : ?Q!Gl~c;n' 1 ~JZ : r . .. - c. . / & r & ~ + ? r & -, -- .. -. - . , & .




Calcgoy - A l
Flarc Systems

Rcliana: lndustrics Limitcd 1 h t a l g a n p Training S~s~cm I

Mod~llc No.





What is flarir~g ?

Many industries generate significant amounts of waste streams, such as hydrocarbon vapors, which must be disposed of, on a continuous or intennittent basis. Some of the examples can be like off-spec product or the bypass streams generated during startup operations. Direct discharge of waste gas streams and vapors into the atmosphere i s unacceptable due to safety and environmental control considerations. Gas flaring is a standard operation aimed at converting flammable, toxic and corrosive vapors into environmentally acceptable discharges. Gas flaring converts flammable, toxic or corrosive vapor to less objectionable compounds by means of combustion. Flaring is a critical operation in many plants where design must be based on strict safety principles. i~


Whv i s flaring reauired ?

In general, proper planning and layout of process plants require that special consideration be given to the design of vanous safety facil~ties to prevent catastrophic equipment failure. These facilities are designed to prevent overpressure and to provide for safe disposal of dischuged vapors and liquids. Portions of these facilities are also used as an operational tool for safe disposal of hydrocarbons - particularly during start-up and shutdown phases Standard pressure relieving devices most often used are safety and relief valt~es, rupture disks, pressure control valves and equipment blowdown valves. Direct discharge of waste or excess vapors to atmosphere is unacceptable either 1

Because of restrictions imposed by local ordinances or plant practices. Concentrations of the contaminants at ground or adjacent platform levels may exceed permissible explosion or toxicological threshold limits. Meteorological considerations such as severe temperature inversions of long duration may occur, creating hazardous conditions.


Xon hazardot~s vapors such as low pressure steam are c;i;ally discharged di:ec;ly to the atmosphere ir: contrast, hydrocarbon vapors that are dischar~edon a continuous or intermittent basis can not be directly discharged to the atmosphere and should be disposed ofthrough a closed system, and burnt in a flare.

Prcpllrcd b-: M. G.Manc Rcv :00

I Rcvie\vcd by :A. M. Haltanpdi I Approvcd In.:Dr.H. V. Doctor I Date : 30/01/9Y I Page : 3 of 66

Carcgop A l

Flarc Svstcllis

Rclial~cc Industries Li~ilitcd Palnlg:injg 1'r;tioing S\slclll

hlodnlc No.


There are basically two types of flare systcm ~larncly,Elevated FI:~rcs & \I.(:ro~~nct Flrrrs. In an clevnted flare sys~enl,cotnbustion rcactlons are carried out : ~ tthe top of a pipe or stack w!iere thc bt~rnerand igniter arc located Rclicving gascs are sent throuzh an elevated stack from a closed collection systcm and Lmrned c!T at the top The flame generated is open in this casc E 2 the flarcs of PX and LAB I plants at RIL - PG
A sround flare is also similarly cquipped except that the combustion takes place at

or near ground level The flare flame is contained in a flare chamber

Three types of ground flares are in general use 1


The type that uses a water spray to disperse the combustion gases The venturi type that depends on the kinetic energy available in the waste gases to inspirate and mix the proper amount of air with the gases Multi Jet ground flares where the fiow of the waste gas is distributed through many,srna!l burners

* I

The principle advantages of a ~ r b u n d Flare system are 1

2 3 4 5

No structural support is required Erection is reIa!ively straight forward and requires light parts Maintenance is easy i Operating costs are negligible The flame of the flare is not visible since it is hidden in a box. It requires less steam to produce a 'smokeless flame since it produces relatively nonluminous flame because of more controlled combustion at the multiple burners. Finally, with the exception of the venturi type, it is a fairly quiet system

However, a disadvantage of the ground flares is that they must be well isolated from the remainder of the plant and process lines, thus requiring considerable space and Ions interconnecting piping. Concentrations of toxic gases are relatively high because of corr.!x;;ti~n t3kiog place at ground le:re! A :*a:er spray can be a possible solution, but it is often avoided because of


7 -. Prcprcd bv : h.1. G. M a w Re\ : 00

high water consumption the possibility ofextinpishing the pilot burners

I Rc~ic\vcd by : A. M. H n t a n g d i I
( D;ltc : 301011')X


. . .:


I Page : 4 of 66

Approved b?. : Dr. H. V. Doctor

Category A1

Flare S\.stcms

Rcfi:!~icclr~d~~sfrics 1.ini1tcd P:lfnlg~T~li~!ir~~: Svsfcrn I potential water darna~e to ~n~trumcntatlon


hlodul~' No. I'ES-1's-1'-01.1

The vcnturi type ground flare is alniost because of ol~jcctionnble h i ~ h noise levels. I The multi jet type norrnally used has high initial costs and capacity liinitcd

In contrast, an Elevated flare requires less gdund arca Becatlse o!. its high elevation, it can be locatcd within a process arca or on the periphery of tlic plant site, since radiation effects and ground level concentrations of pollutants can bc maintained within allowable limits P~pingcosts tend to bc lower duc to snlaller and shorter pipe runs Also the distance between the point of discharge from safety valves and the flare stack is less than that in the case of ground flares
A problem with elevated flares is that initial iand operating costs are high.

Maintenance is also difficult a d tedious. The visibility of the flame is the most serious disadvantage and sometimes causes objections from local community. These systems also require more steam to produce a smokeless flare. Afinal disadvantage is that noise levels are relatively high. The selection of the type of flare will be iduenced by availability of space, characteristics of the flare gas (i.e composition, quantity and pressure !eve!), economics including both initial investment and operating cost and concern over public relations with the sul~ounding community. I In genera!, elevated flares are most often reconlmended. In spite of the numerous advances of ground flares, the requirement of the large land area and the associated high initial cost makes it less attractive than elevated systems. However, in some cases, visibility of the flame, depending upon local regulatio~ls, I could be the determining factor. There are situations when a ground flare is used in conjunction with a second conventional flare, which may be an elevated system. The ground flare is designed to handle the normal flaring requirement. In the event of major failure, excess flow is automatically diverted by a seal to a second flare. Since, the possibility of a major failure is rather remote, it may not conflict with pollution or local site regulations. i

Prcprcd b : : M. G.Mamc
Rcv : 00

1 Rc\ic!vcd
-__ !&- .

. ?,),,>l;<,Q

b?. : A. M. Hattangadi
. _ ,

I Approvcd b\. : Dr. H. V. Doclor r a l c : 5 sf 5 . 5 L - .-

C:ncgon - A I FI:lrc Svstclils


Rcli;~ilccI~ldt~s~rics Lill~ilcd

Module No.


TES-TS - ~ - O l 4


As wc know by now, that in a t1;irc systc~n,rclicving gases are sent t h r o i ~ ~ lan l clcvatcd stack from a closcd holiccliotl systcnl and burned ofiat the top. ; Thus, a typ~calflare systcm is conlpriscd of tlic following con1ponct:ts .


Relief, safety and dcpressurising valves ('wldchrelieve the fluid to bc flarcd)


Pressure - relieving headers that convey discharges from safety valvcs and pressure control valves in the process unit to the flare. Knock out ( KO ) drum located before the flare stack in order to separate any condensate or liquid from the relieving vapors (it is hazardous to bum liquid droplets)

Flare stack consisting of riser structure, Molecular seal and burner tip

The relieving gases from safety relief valves and pressure control valvts are collected in a horizontal or vertical hock-out drum through a flare main teader. A n y condensate canied out alongwith the gases is knocked down here. A constant liquid level is maint'ained in the boot'drum. The liquid is pumped to a slop tank or is reused in oil recovery facilities. Jf required, steam is used for winterizing to prevent freezing. The gas from the KO drum is then sent t o an elevated flare stack. At the bottom of the 'stack, normally a liquid seal is maintained. Alternately another seal may be located between the KO drum and the flare stack. A positive water seal is maintained by controlling the le\rel. In cold countries, the water seal is also provided with steam for winterizing.

The stack is comprised of a riser section, molecular seal and burner tip.


R~ser structure

This normally consists of two o r more sections. The flare header enters at the bottom section, which can also serve as a flare stack knock cut drum where any condensate carried over from the main knock out drum is colle(:ted.

This is welded to the riser section. It provides a seal against entrance of air into the flare stack and minimizes the possibility of a explosive mixture forming in the
Prcpclrcd bv : M. G. M3n.c RCV : OO


I Dare : 30/01198 -~ .-. .


I Rcvic\\rd b\,: A. M. Hattan@& I Approved b~ :Dr. H. V. Doctor I Pagc :e: 6 or 66 .. . .~ .-~. . .I

t ,*

C : I I C ~-O A1 ~

Ilcli;tncc I~tduscncs Liltlitcd i

P~I:II~:IIIEL 7r~111ing SvsIc~n

l'larc Svncrtts

Modllle No. : TES-TS-P-OII'

flare system More infornlatcon on a niolccular steal is givcn in one of tile cbming chapters Uriclly, it rescmblcs a bubble cap and creates a seal by usidg the buoyancy of tile pursc gas to create a Lone where tlle pressure is greatek than a!niosplienc pressure

Tlic t u r ~ c tip r 15 sealed to the molecular seal outlet .r\cccssories on the burner tip include about three or fo~crgas pilots, a similar number of pilot gaslair mixture asseniblies, and steam supply nozzles for steam injection

At the top of the burner tip, pilot burners, whichare autoniatically lighted from a remote place through the igniter line, are positioned The steam connection is also provided for smokeless flares and a purge gas connection is provided for maintaining an air free system and to prevent flash back by maintaining pressire at the molecular seal higher than the atmospheric pressure. This arrangement prevents air from re-entering the stack from ambient surroundings

Fi~re-1 shows a schematic diagram of the entire Flare System.


In the next few chapters, we shall go through the flare system design guidelines,


Prcprcd h : M. G.h43ne
, -Kc* :OC

I Retlcned bv : A. M. h t b n g a d i ( Approved by : Dr. H. V. ~ocldr I rJr.-. .> ,r: * 91,, * ," . . -.,! !'stw.7. ui 66

Cnrcgory - A l I;l:~rc Svslcnls

Rclinncc Industries Limited Pntalpnga Tnining Systcm

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014


I<stintatinp rclief rates


Each prcssurc rclief valve shohd bc individually analyzed for any probable causes of over pressure due to operational failures and plant fire. Tlie valvc should be sized for the case that will require the maximum relieving rate. If a fire condition is controllins, two separate safety valves, one for fire condition and tlic other for operationai failure, may be provided since the fire situation'is less likely to occur.


Guidelines for determining individual relieving rates are illustrated with an eiample of a column 1
Consider a fractionating column where different causes of overpressure day be I analyzed as follows :

blocked olrtlet condrtiotr of the overl~ead vapor 11neby inadvertct~t closure :

In this case, it may be assumed that heat input to the reboiler is normal, and the reflux will still be maintained since the overhead receiver has the holding capacity for about 10 minutes. Hence. the relieving capacity of the pressure relief,vdve may be assumed as the normal vapor load to the overhead condenser. 1 The relieving pressare \rill be the set pressure of the PRV and the temperature wilI be the boiling point corresponding to that pressure. V2poriuition rate may have to be corrected as the latent heat changes with change in boiling temperature which in tun1 changes because of change in column pressure. Also the reboiler duty may get affected due to process side changes in pressure and temperature.

cooling waterfailure
The cooling water typically, used as the cold utility in the overhead condenser may stop because of power failure or some other operational problem. Under this situation, overhead vapor will not condense in the condenser and because of the vapor accumulation, the pressure will rise. The reflux can still be maintained for about 10 minutes because of the holding capacity of the accumulator. The relieving capacity of the pressure relief valve will also be the normal vapor rate to the conienser. Vaporization rates may need correction here also.

,, . .

refl~x f~iltrre


This may be ass:ciz:e~ with rhe rnalhnction of rkflux control valve, pump failure, or any other operational problem. In this case, the overhead condenser becomes a of this, overhead vapor can not condense and flooded with condensate. ~ s result pressure starts buildingup. Once the pressure reaChes to the set pressure of PRV, Prepared bv : M. G.Manc I Rexiewcd by : A. M. Haltangadi ( Approved by : Dr. H. V. Ddctor Rev : 00 I ! Pzqe: 9 of 66 -I Datc :30101198



Piarc Svsrc~lls

- Al

Rcliancc lnduarics Liniilcd hlalpng3 Tnining Systcm


Module No


tlic relief occurs The vaporization rate, here as well, can get affected by rise in pressure I

If the reboiler controller n1alfu"ctions for any reason, the rate of vaporization nlay incrcasc If the vaporization rate exceeds the rate of condensation, the pressure will build up in this case, the relieving rate should be the difference between the ~iiasimunirate of overhcad vapor and the maximum rate of condensation of the condenser. In thc absence of data, the relieving ratc may be assumed to be the nomial vapor load to the condenser. I The column can also get subjedted to high pressuk, if the reboiler is an exchanger. carrying the hot utility ( like steam ) at higher pressure than the column bottoms pressure and the exchanger tube leaks
For relief load.^ drrc to fire


The surface area of a vessel exposed to fire, and which is effective in generating vapor, is that area wetted by its internal liquid level up to a maximum height limitation of 25 B above giade, which is the normal practice based upon the flame length. "GRADE"is defined as any horizontal solid surface on which liquid could accun~ulatei.e. roofs, solid piatform etc. I h e contents under variable level conditions would ordinarily be taken at the average inventory,uid f i l l vessels, horizontal or vertical (such as clay treaters), operate with no vapor space, and the wetted surface in such cases would be the total vessel area within a height of 25 feet above grade. It should be noted tha:, in such a vessel, at the start of a fire the opening of the pressure relief may be due to thermal expansion of the liquid. However, the PRV should be sized based upon the vapor generated at the relief pressure and the boiling point corresponding to that pressure.

The surface area of typical vessels used in process loperations are


surge and rejlux drums

The wetted surface should be calculated using the high liquid level or 50% of the total vessel surface, whichever greater, since 50% is the normal liquid level in these vcssels.

KO Drums usuaily cperec nith only a small amou"t of liquid at the bottom of :lie drum. If the normal liquid level is not known, the level at the high level alarm should be used to estimate the wetted surface. Prclwrcd by : M. G. Manc I Rc\ic\red bv : A. h!. Harlnngad! _( Date : 30/OI/9X I --. . -

Rev : 00

1 Approvcd bv : Dr. H. V. Doctor 1 Page: 10 of 66


Carcgory Al Flare SVS~CIIIS

Rcliancc Indusrrics Linlircd Parnlfiinga Tninittg Systcnl

hlodulc No. TES-TS-P-014

/racliorialirtg coltmrrn


Usually fractionation columns operate with a nbrma~liquid level in the bottom of the column plus level on each tray liowever, the entire wall of a fractionating column within a fine height limitation of 25 fi. should be considered as wetted

Here the liquid level is independent of oper&ion, and therefore the rnaxinium liquid level should bc used for determining the wettcd surface. The wetted surfaces of spheres and spheroids are calculated as the area of the bottom half of the vessel or up to a height of 25 ft. which ever $ives the greater surface area. Ifeat absorbed bv v e & v Where suitable drainage is provided to preclude an accumulation of flammable liquids directly under vessel, the total heat input rate to the vessel may be computed as follows :

Where, Q = Total heat absorbed in B T U h A = Wetted surface in sq.A. F = Environment factor This equation is recommended by the API, RP-520 Using the appropriate value of the wetted surface and the value of factor F tabulated for different thickness of insulation, the heat input may be calculated :

F = 1.0 for bare surface F = 0.3 for 1" thickness of insulation F = 0.15 for 2" thickness of insulation F= 0.075 for 4" thickness of insulation


If insulation exists but the thickness is not known, an F- value of 0.3 is recomrrended. If drainage is not provided for the area under the vessel ( i.e. diked or curbed area around a tank), then vapor relief for fire exposure should be cmiipi~ted using the fo~lowng hear input criteria I

20,000 BTUhIft2 for an uninsulated vessel 10,000 BTUhrlA2 for 1" insulation I 6.000 BTUhrfft2 for 2" insulation Preparcd by : M. C. M3n.c ( Rc\ic\\rdby :A. M. Haltanpdi (
Rev : 00
... . . ~ . ; Da!r

: .?0/01!98

Appro\.cd b\. :Dr. H. V. Docror 2 : . !1 of 5:.

. (

Cnlcgon A1 I-'l:~rc S\.S!CIIIS

Rcli;~nccI~~dustrics Li1111rcd I % t : ~ l p n gI ' c ~ i ~ ~ S\\tcn~ ing

hlcxlulc No.

TES-TS P-014

3,000 DTUn1rlfl2for 4" insular~ori


These values are based on the wcttcd surfitcc iipto tl~enornial liquid level. provided tlic insulation is fire proofed. Ifinsirlatiol~is not fire proofed, the vesscl i should be assumed as bare. i Vapor generated for it fluid below critical point (i e at relieving rempera!\lre and pressure) tlic rate of vapor released 1s -


W = Vapor release rate in lbs/Hr

Total heat input BTUIhr

1 = Latent heat of fluid in vessel evaluated



the relief valve inlet pressure,

No credit is normally taken for the sensible heat capacity of the fluid in the tank For 2 fluid zbove the critical point, i.e wlien pressure relief conditions are near or above the critical point, the rate of vapor discharge depends upon the rate at which the fluid will expand as a result of the heat input. The latent heat & vaporization at or near the critical point is almost zero in this case.



More information on the relief rate calculation is available in API 520 and in the training module on the relief valves

Maximum vapor load to be flared


. -

After relieving loads of individual PRVs have been calculated, a detailed study is required to determine how these relieving situations are related to each other. The simultaneous occurrence of two or more contingencies (known as double jeopardy) is so unlikely that this situation is not usually considered as a basis for determining the maximum system loads. In determining the maximum load ri.nrn a, . single contingency, all directly related continsenhies that influence the load must be conjitlered. For example, in a plant where a single boiler or source of steam is generation, a failure of steam used for both, process drives i n d electric source (a sinzle contingency) 'can cause simult'ancous loss of power (directly


. '


.,. .


Prcprcd bv : M. G. Mawc

I Rc~ic\vcd bv : A. M. Hatlangdi 1 Approvcd bv : Dr. H. V. Doctor

1 .

/Pare: -- - -.-- 17 of



Catcgory - A1
Flnrc S ~ s t c t ~ ~ s

Rcliai~cc Industries Linrilcd P;~mlg:~n~g Training ~!s'icnl

Xlodulc No. TES-TS-P-014

related contingency). If the electrical system had an alternate sorlrcc of supply then only the loss of steamwould be considered, provided t11c elapsed time for power supply source switching was not too long to be i~~clTcctive. In this situation power failure would not be a contingency directly related to thc loss 01' steam. I Since, double jeopardy is not usually considered, the niasirnun~load can be based up on any one of the following continsencies.


Electrical Power Failure Cooling Water failure' Steam failure Instrument Air failure I

For the fire case, a cause of fire is normally lochized. The who!e plant is divided into different fire zones. The flare load is generally calculated based up on one or two related zones. However, it is not unusual to consider the total load

Another consideration is that the time delay relative to the discharge of individual valves caused by the same and related contingencies should be properly studied while determining the maximum load. A similar line of reasoning will in some cases apply to a tire affecting several vessels where product composition and p:es:urc vaii iyideiy.

The method of calculating the time element relaid to each pressure relief valve is refereed to as 'TRANSIENT L O N ANALYSIS'. This is based upon the non steady state condition in the flare system of a plant during emergency situations. This calculation is tedious but with simplified assumptions, it provides an estimate of the relative time delays of the individual valves:

Prepared b?. : M. G.Mawe

Rcv : 00

( Revic\\.cd bv : A. M. Halbn~adi ) Approved by : Dr. H.V. Doctor 1 Dale : 30/01/9X - - l I P a ~ 1 3 o f 6 6 .



Rclt:~t~cc It~dr~slr~cs Li~~iilCd

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014

Tlie relievin~val~ors fro111difl'erent I'IIVs and deprcssurising valves must first be collected in individual il;~re sul)licuders locited near each process arca. Sub leads to a knock out headers must be intcrcorir~ectedto a main flare header \\~l~icli drurii. Condens:ttes carried ' over by vapors are scpnrated in this vessel. Vapors leaving the KO drulii from !c,p iliovc up the flare stack where they are subsequently burneil a! t l ~ e tip. The no. of main flare headers and the individual sub headers connected to them depends up on tile type of vapors handled, temperature and the back pressure I limitation of PRVs.

The pressure level of the flare header depends on the type of pressure relief valves used to protect the equipment and the pressure levels of the equipment connected to the flare system. In the conventional type of PRV, the performance depends on the back pressure. A maximum back pressure of 10% of the maximum allowable working pressure is a limit f o r the conventional type of PRV. For the nonconventional valves like balanced bellow type, piston type or pilot operated type, the maximum allowable back pressure may be taken as high as 40-50% of thc valve set pressure.


Determining the no. of flare headers The no. of flare headers required depends up on an econonGc evaluation of system combination & that will result in the minimum piping cost. The following steps outline the procedure for comparative estimations -

Plot plan layout study - From the plot plan layout. the no. of safety valves in different process areas, the set pressures of safety valves, individual relieving loads of safety valves, relieving temperature of vapors, the nature of vapors (i.e. whether corrosive, condensable or dry etc.) are recorded. I A single subheader in each process area is drawn up, connecting area PRVs or depressurising valves. The sub headers are then connected to give a single main flare header based upon shortest routing

The equivalent length of the main flare header is then calculated from the flare stack to the last safety valve, taking in to consideration the straight length of the pipe and approximat Prcp~rcd b\. : M. G.M a n c

Calcgon - A l F1:lrc Svs!cnis


Rclinncc Induslna Linr~lcd Trninil~g Svstcm

Modulc No.


the flare stack is [lot known by that time, it may be assunled to be 500 R. from t l ~ c last piece of equiptilent. 1

A trial estimate is nladc for determining the dianlctcr of the flare header bascd up

on tile m u , rclievin!: flare load and considerins thc back pressurc limitation of 10% for couventional valves and 40% for balarlccd type valves. Note, however, a single main header in many cases, may be too large to be economically fcasiblc.

The second trial is rcquircd for two main flare headers, one collecting thc Low Pressure (LP) flares (usually 5 to I0 psig) and ttiL other collecting relatively High Pressure (HP) flares (usually 15 to 20 Psig) Th? two hcadcrs are connected to their individual KO drums Thc vapor lines koin the KO drums are combined into single header connected to the flare stack. Maximum simultaneous load in each header must be calculated separately and the pressure drop must also be computed for the entire length of the pipe including combined len!:th from the KO drum to the stack 1 The load in a subheader used for the line sizing: need not be same as the load whicn is utilized for designing the main header or the flare stack. The next consideration is the cost of constructio" materisls This determines the final no. of flare headers. Vapors that normally require expensive materials may be listed as a b Corrosive vapors e.g. H2S, SO2 Very high temperature vapors e.g. high temp. gases used for regeneration I of catalyst in reactors. I Very low temperature vapors e.g. the relief load from cryogenic system.

Of the thrce, corrosive vapors are usually piped up in a separate header quite up to the flare stack since such lines are very small and if combined with other streams may run the risk of corroding the much larger and more expensive pipelines. For a high temperature system, separate sub header may be run up to the point where the temperature drops down to the allowable limit of a less expensive material. It may then be connected to the main flare header. A heat loss calculation is needed in order to properly evaluate this. As a rule of thumb, a heat loss of 10 BTUlhrtfI2 may be assumed for a quicic estimate for bare pipe. Consideration should also be given to the need for expansion joints. Main flare headers may be as large as 36 t o 42" in diameter for a largc capacity plant.

.A flare sub header carrying very low temperature vapors (temperature ranglng from 50 deg.F and below) may similarly be combined into a single low temperature flare header and pipe all the way up to the flare stack. Again, since the atmosphere

C:~tcgon A l Flare Systc~iis

Rcliancc lndustrics Limitcd P a m l m Training Svslc'n~

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-OIJ

alier running a certain distance by themselves may be safely conibined either. with the low pressure mail{ flare header or the HP main flare header depending upon this @rating pressure.

\Yet flare and Dry llarc : Some tinies, relatively hot vapors carrying condensates may be separated from the d j cold vapors. They do not run as separate headers but either L,P or HP flare headers tnay be associated with any one of them. Thus a wet flare header inay be in fact the LP header and !he dry flare header may bc thc 1 I-IP flare or vice versa.

After thc total no of flare headers has been estabhshed, it may be necessary to recheck the vapor load in individual headers since introduction of a separate header may allow subtraction of the flow quantity from earlier header to which it was added initially.

For Example : A typical coal gasification plant usually has -


I HP wet flare header HP dry flare header An H2S header containing vapor which has more than 5% H2S


Line sizing for flare headers


Once the relief load is established and the maximum allowable back pressure has been defined, line sizing is reduced t o standard flow calculations.

The flare lines ca11-y the vapors which are comp$sible in nature. The flare lines are also normally long and not fully insulated. Hence, the flow can not be adiabatic flow. Hence, the flare headers are typically sized based upon isothermal compressible flow. This also gives more conservative design. The criterion used for flare line sizing are 1.

The back pn ssure developed at the downstreamof any PRV connected to the same header thould not exceed the allowable limit for that type of PRV

To avoid the sonic velccity and related noisi proklem, the velocity in the header is limited t o 0 6 Mach 1

Prcparcd bv : M.G.M;?M Rev : 00


1 Revin\.cdbv : A. M. Hattangadi ! I Approvcd by :Dr. H. V. Doctor

I Date : 30101i.i;
. .~ ~

I )

h g r : 16 or L . ;

- .-

.- 1

I .-

Cnlcgoty - A l Fhrc S?slcnis

Rcliancc lndustrics Limitcd R ~ t n l g a ~Tmininp w SvsIc111

Modulc No.


A quick method for sizing compressible isothermal flow is developed by Lapple. As per this,

For a purc gas -


Gci = Mau mass flow o r critical mass flow, lb Isec R2 Po = absolute upstream pressure, Ibhn2 A4 = molecular weight To = upstream temperature, Rankine Z = Compressibility factor The actual mass flow G ( Ib /sec ft2 ) is a functior. of critical mass flow Gci, line resistance N, & ratio of downstream to upstream pressure. This is represented by figure 2. In the area below the line in the figure 2, the ( G / Gci ) remains constant, which indicates that the sonic flow has been established. Thus, for sizing flare header, the plotted pc;int must be above the line

Line resistance, N =

+ Z Ki D


L = equivalent !ength of line, A. D = line diameter, ft f = fanning friction factor N = line resistance factor, dimensionless Ki = Resistance coefficients for pipe fittings ( see table 1 )
Lapple method is useful when upstream presiure of a header is known 8 : downstream pressure is to be calculated. However, to develop pressure profile of the headers as a function of distance from the stack, it is convenient to calculate pressure drop backward, starting from the flare stack exit where pressure is atmospheric F,g. 3 enables to calculate pressure drnp when downstrean pressure is k~own.The f o l l o w i ~ steps ~ surntilarize sizing flare headers

.approximate pressure at base of flare stack (varies slightly with type of seal used) is taken as 2 psig This is based on 0.5 psi pressure drop at tip, 0.5 psi pressure

Prcpurcd t n .: M.G. Mane Rev : 00 -~


.L --- 1 P y - . Dale : 30/01/98 .

. . ..
u -

I Rcvinvcd by : A. M. Haclan~di I Approvcd by : Dr. H. V.Doc'nr

17 ?f 6 5

0' (

Cnrcgon. - A t Flnrc Svsccnis

Rcli:ll~ccIndustries Lin~itcd

Modulc No.

P~I~I&II~&I Training S!.slcn~


drop dt niolecular seal and I psi pressure drop due to flow through the stack height I

Compute pressure in KO drum (2 psig + Delta P in header from stack to KO drum and 0 5 psi Delta P as in KO drum) I As a tirst trial, inside pipe diameter is calculated based on 0 6 Mach ( 60% of the sonic velocity ) corresponding to pressurc & temperature a! ~ S af PI ! : sack, i e 2 psis and temp = To ( as it is assumed to be isothermal flow ) sonic velocity, Vs = 223 where, Vs = Sonic velocity, Wsec

* (I<T/M) O '


K = CplCv of gas, norn~ally between I to 1.8

T = temperature, Rankine M = molecular weight

The vapor density, p ( Iblft3 ), at pressure P (corresponding flare base i e 2+14 7 = 16.7 psia ) and temp T ( Rankine ) with a molecular weight ofM, is given as


Knowing all other values, the pipe inside diameter ( di ) is calculated. Knowing di, the Reyno!ds no. and friction factor can be calculated. Assuming a straight length 'of pipe for L = 500, line resistance N is calculated. G is calculated based on the di. Gci is calculated based on downstream pressure & is called Gc2 GIGc2 evaluated & P 2 P 1 determined from Fig.3 since P2 is known, PI can be calculated Pressure at inlet o f K O drum is taken as P l i 0 . 5 psi

From the KO drum, indicated flare headers can b'e sized similarly. Based on a Mach no. of 0.6 & density corresponding to (PI + 0.5) psia, trial diameter can be estimated. The pressure at every intersection between sub header & main header to be calculated with downstream pressure being (PI + 0.5) psia Knowing the pressure at the icterscc:;oo of the sub header & main header, the pressure at the intersection of sub header & dischargepipe of the safety vaive is computed. The process continues till discharge pipes and subheaders of all PRVs are sized. i



Category Al

Flan: Svstcn~s

Rclint~cc l~ldustrics Lin~ilcd htalgnnga Training Svslcnl


Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014

Tlie sum of all pressure losses starting from flare stack up to the safety valve yields the total back pressure This back pressure niust be lower than the ninu back pressure allowed in the system & . corresponding to the lowest set pressure of the safety valve

Tlie rnmimum flare load of a system is 1,000.000 Soiiir of vapor Tlie prcssurc z: !iie base of the flare stack is 2 psig, the average MW of vapor is 50 and temp is 200 F. The distance from the dnrm to stack is 500 ft The line has two 90 degree weldins elbows and an orifice with Ki factor of 0 2 The total pressure drop at thc knock out drum is 0.5 psi. Determine pressure at inlet of the knockout drum. Also, given are

Solution :

= SO* (2+14.7)1( 10.73 * (200+460)) = 0.12 1bIit3


Hence, d = 2.35 A = 28.2" This is approximated to 29" corresponding to standard pipe of 30': 20 schedule. Now, we shall calculate pipe resistance factor, N From table 1, Ki for 90 degree welding elbow is 0.32 Thus, C Ki = (2' 0.32) + 0.2



I ( orifice Ki is 0.2 )
, , . . :

A tflkal Fanning friction factor, f = 0.004 ( It ca; be also &mated t ~ i t h help cf



Line resistance, N
Prepared b?. : M. G . M a n ~ Rev : 00

= -----


+ ZKi


I bv : A. M. Hattangadi 1 Approvcd by : Dr. H. V. Doctor 1 Date : 30/01/9S .~-. .- . - ' ] Pa g e : lq of 66 !




Now, G = Wl( rrd214)

Po will be replaced by downstream pressure, i.e. 2 + 14.7 = 16.7 psia and figure 3 will be used Gci = Gc2
= 12 6

* 16.7 * ( 501 (2-1)*660) ** 0.5

= 57.9 lblsecft2

At this ratio, and N = 4.15, figure 3 gives P2@1 = 0.56 Hence, PI = 16.710.56= 29.8 psis Pressure drop = PI-P2 = 29.8-16.7 = 13.1 psi

This is a very high pressure drop. Typically, it should not exceed 3 psi Hence, a larger pipe diameter is required I The above procedure is repeated for higher diameter pipes. It can be seen that, when pipe ID is 41.25" (corresponding to standard OD of 42"), N=3.1 G lGc2 = 0.49 . . I, P2/P1 = 0.87 I PI = 19.2 and the pressure drop ( PI - P2 ) is 2.5 psi, which is acceptable.

Prclwrcd bv : M. G. M a n e Rev : 00

1 Rcilc~scdbv :A. M. Haltrnydi ( Approved h : Dr. H. I Date : 30101198 ~ n e .. r cf ! 66 -- 1 .





~. .

Cntcgon - A l Flare Svstcms

Rcli:iricc Indos~rics L~riiitcd I ' : I ~ ~ ~ : 'Tr:~i~ii~ig I I ~ ~ ; I S\SICIII


hlodulc No. TES-TS-P-014

f lcnce, total pressure drop

= 1,inc AI' i KO dnlm AP = 2.5 4 0 5 = 3 psi


Tllus, the pressure at inlet of the KO drum is 16 7 4- 3 ,i e I9 7 psia or 5 psis

Prcparcd br : M. G. Manpc Rev : 00

1 Rctic!rcd by : A. M. Hattang~di I Approvcd bv : Dr. H.V. Doctor

d - - -

1 Date : 30I0119Y --

LP.-~ G O ~ - -66

(.:~fcgon A I

Fl:trc S~srcnis

Rclt:ll~ccI~lduslncs Li~iiilcd I ? ~ f n l $ i t ~ gTrmning S\.sfcm

hlodulc No.




The hydrocarbon relief streams are ~rln~nly vapors, but they niay carry son]? liqu~dthat condcr!sr i n tile collectins lines A panicle that is 150 micron or less, can be burnt in the flare ~wthoc~t hazard Larzer particles arc removed in the KO drum

KO drums are either florizontal or venical They are also available in a variety of contiprations and arrangements which include I

Horizontal drum with vapor enterins at one end of the vessel & exiting at the top of the opposite end (no internal baming) Horizontal drum with vapor entering at each end on the horizontal axis & a central outlet.

Horizontal drum with vapor entering in the center & exiiing at the two ends on the horizontal axis. Vertical drum with vapor entering at the top on a certain diameter & provided with a baffle so that the flow is directed downward. Out!et noule is located at the top of the vertical axis. Vertical drum with a tangential n o u l e




Selection of the drum arrang;ment depends o" economics. When large liquid volume storage is required & the vapor flow is high, normally a horizontal drum is more economical. Split entrylexit reduces size of the drum for large flows. As a rule of thumb, when drum diameter exceeds 12 feet, split flow arrangement is normally economical.

. !


KO drums are usually sized by a trial & error mahod Liquid particles can drop out when the vapor velocity traveling through the drum is sufficiently low In other words, the drum must be of sufficient diameter tc, effect the desired liquid - vapor separation.

The factors considered while designing the knockout drums are -


TES-TS-P-014 P:I~~~J$IIIGI Tr3111ing Svstc111 I .!.llc residence time 01. [he vapor shollld be eci"al to or Sreater than the time required for a liquid droplet t o travel the available ve~iicalheight at dropout velocity of the liquid particle. Sulticient volume should be provided for the liquid accurnulatio~~ in the knockout drr11>1. !

C:ltc~on - Al I:l:~rc Sisccl~ls

Ilcli:~nccIndttstncs Lir~~ifcd


Modulc No.

Tan propos-d (I:? tollw+btng tornlula to deternri!e for particle size of400 micron

sire of horizontal drum, valid


p~ =
p, =

M= T= P=


vapor flow, lblhr liquid density, lblA3 gas density, lblfi3 molecular weight Vapor temperature, R KO drum pressure, psia KO drum diameter, ft


If the calculdted KO drum diameter for 400 micron pzticle ( Daoo ) is t o be converted to liquid particle size of say, X microns, then the Eew KO drum I diameter ( Dx ) is given as :

The min. L.4) ratio recommended for a split flow horizontal drum is 2.5 for proper separation of liquid particles From vapors.

A practical formula for the vapor velocity in vertical KO drums is,


' 1

vapor velocity, Blsec liquid density, Iblfi3 gas density, 1blft3

C:~tcgon- A l Fl:~rcS~srctiis

Rcli~ttcclndusrrics Lin~itcd P i ~ ~ a I g aTr;iiliing ~ i g ~ Syslcm

Modnlc No.


I t is also a k!,eneral practice to assunlc a liquid holdup time between 10 and 3 2 ruinutes In absence of data. volume of 2000 gals of.tiquid can be a good


Sral svqtcnl

Seals arc provided in the flare system to flash back . If seal is not provided, a continuous quantum of gas may be bled to the flare to inaintain a positive flow. The scals can be of two main types !liquid seal and gas scal.

1,iquid seals are further classified as seal drums and seal pipes In the former, a liquid seal is used in a seal drum located between the KO drum & flare stack Seal drums can be horizontal or vertical. the selection mainly depends on the availability of space F~gure 4 shows a horizontal and a vertical seal drum Instead of a drum, sometimes, a piping seal is used as a seal leg located at the bottom of the stack. I This is often an integral part of the stack.
A seal drum maintains a seal of several inches on the inlet flare header, preferably ~ i o exceeding t 6 inches. More is the height of the seal, more is the back pressure

Sealing liquid is usually water with a continuous flow, the ovefflow goins to the I sewer. I

In cold regions, a submerged steam header is provided to avoid freezing of sealant water or water may be replaced by liquid such as alcohol, kerosene etc. which do not require continuous flow. The capacity of the seal drum is usually the volume corresponding to 8-10 ft. of the vapor inlet line. In a vertical drum, the ratio of the inlet pipe cross-sectional area to the vessel free area for gas flow above the liquid should be at least 1:3 to prevent upsetting surges of gas flow to the flare. For this, area for the gas above the liquid surface should be atleast equal to that of a circle having diameter, D= 2 d, where d is inlet gas pipe diameter. I

The height of the vapor space above the liquid ~kvelin a vertical drum should be app.2-3 times the diameter (d) to provide disengaging space for entrained seal liquid I
If 2 horizontal iiquid xi! vessel is used, a minimum dimension of 5 A between Itquid level & top ofthe drum is recommended

PrclxlrcC by : M. G.hlanc Rev : 00 . -.--- -

1 Dare : 30/01/0X .. -

1 Revicwcd by : A. M. H3llanf;ldi I Approved by : Dr. H. V. Doctor I Page : 21 of66 -~

I -.

C31cgory A l

Flnrc S!stcols

Rcliaricc l~lduslrics Litaitcd Pnl3lp:lngn T n i ~ i i Systcn~ ~~g

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014

Seal pipes (Fig 5) located at the base of stack are cheaper than drums. llowever they can cxpericnce pulsation of the gas flow to the flare under very low flow condit~ons Also during a large gas release, the water seal may be blown out of the I top to the flare stack I

G1rrdc.1it1c.s for s r z i scal ~ ~ legs


Slope of the inlet line 1s designed to provide a volume of water below the normal sealing water level equivalent to inlet pipe volume of 10 A. Depth of water seal should not exceed 12" to &event gas pulsation Seal water level is maintained by a continuous flow ofwater at about 20 gpm Normal overflow is taken off the bottom of the seal through a seal leg height of which is equivalent to about 175% of the pressure at the base of the stack durins maximum vapor release so that gas release at the base of flare is prevented.


Gas seals
A more recent gas seal type of device that has been developed to prevent flash backs in the flare system is 'Molecular' type seal. It uses a purge gas of molecular weight of 28 or less ( like N2, CH4 or natural gas ). Because or" the buoyancy of the purge gas, it creates a zone having pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure. The molecular Seal is located at the top of the flare stack immediately below the burner tip, the ambient air can not enter the stack because of this high pressure. (Figure-6). The recommended purge velocity through the molecular seal is about 0.1 Wsec. If a molecular seal is not used, the recommended velocity is 1 Wsec, thereby increasing the purge gas requirement.

5 . 3

Flare burners
The flare burner is located at the tip of the flare stack. The top secticn is normally about 12 A long & is called the flare burner tip. The burner diameter is sized on a velocity basis. The flame blowout can occur when the exit velocity of the vapor exceeds 20-30% of the sonic velocity. I

Mass ilow is given as W=360O*p~*&*V

a' a'

Prcparcd by : M. G. Man.c
Rcv : 00


I Date : 30/01/98 -

! . I Rc\~c~vcd by : A. M. Hatlangadi I Approved b


! Pap::

: Dr. H. V.


: 25 nf 66

Cntcgo:01? A1 Flnrc S~slcms

Rcliancc I~idus~r~cs Lit~~ilcd k131gnt?p~ Tr.ltaitlg S?.slc111

Modulc KO TES-TS-P-014


C \ ' =

p,, =

V = Ac =

mass flow rate, Ibl sr gas density, lb/R7 exit velocity, 111s CISarea, 11'

Vapor dcnsity p , ;

---------10 73 T

Exit velocity correspondins to 20% of sonic velocity

v = I 15

(g K R T / ~ ~ ) " d2 144

Flare tip cross-sectional area, Ac = where,


M = molecular weight P = absolute pressure ofvapor = 14.7 psia T temperature, . P

g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.17 ft/sec2 R gas constant = 1546 A ib f o r c a . mol 1.2(assumed)

CV d = diameter of flare tip, inches

Col~lbining the above equations and substituting values for g, K, R & P; we obtain,

If based on the maximum rate, the diameter map be too large. In such case, the normal flow is used to anive at value of d and velocity for the maximum flow is 1 kept at maximum 40% of the sonic velocity.





The flare normal load is 800,000 I b h whereas hax load is 1,000,000 Ibhr. The vapor temperature is 300 degree F and molecular wt. i s 50. What should be ! diameter of the burner tip ? ) Revic~vcd bv : A. XI. H:ittangadi I Appro~cd t?\. : Dr. 14. V. Doctor Prcprcd b?. : M. G.Mane
Re\. : (xi
:>...+&30/01/9?- -.

- -.--.. -.

C;llcgon A l Flare S!.slcms

Rclinncc Ind~~strics Li~iiitcd

P;~tnl&lngT r ~ i n i n Svstc111 ~

Modulc No.



* ( 760/5O)"*i).5

Hence, d

1370 47.7 i.c. 4S inch.

Vapor density, p~ -;

---------1073 T

= 50*14.7/(10.73*760) = 0.09 Iblft3

Max Velocity

= W/( 3600* n

* p~ *d214 )
.. based on max flow

= 1C00,000*4/(3600*0.09*3.14*(48/12)*(48/12)) = 246 ftlsec

Sonic velocity, V,

= (g KRT/M)O.*

Thus, the maximum velocity is 25.8 % of the sonic velocity, which is less than the max limit of 40%. Hence, the diameter of br~mer tip should be 48".


Flare stack- statutory reauirement

The location of flare, is a safety related issue. The flare stack is generally located on the downwind of normally prevailing winds & remote from operating & traffic zones. In India, as per Petroleum Rules, 1976 ( page 49, point 169 ), no flare shall be situated nearer than 90 meters to any tank, still, pump-house o r any faeiiily for the refining, cracking, r c f r i blending, storage for handling of petroleum o r liquefied pctrolel~m gases o t l ~ e rthan knock-oot drum and condensate recovery pump attnchcd to such flare.
Prcp~rcd : M.G.M3n.c Rcs : 00 .. . ~..

Rcsie\\.cd by : A. M. H~1t:lng~di ] Approvcd by : Dr. H. V. Doctor r....*.-.. 30/01/9X P a g e d (.I. ---.---

. -.



Calcgoq A 1 I;I:lrc Svsrcrns

Hcliancc Industries 1.1111ilcrl

I?t~:tlgang:~ 'I.~:IIIII% Svs~c~ii

.\lodulc No. TES-TS-r-014

i:l:lrr stark drsign


IIci~Iitof the flare stack depend%upon I

> .

' !

I Icnt rclcascd by the flarc sas in Dl'lJAl: Clia:acfc~is!ics ofthe fianic & flame Icng 11 Emissivity of the flame Radiation intensity of the flame in R'TUIhr R2 Ground level concentration of toxic sases present in tlic flare stream in the event of a ilarne blow out. I

Flame burning characteristics and flame lcngth are of considerable importance in sizing the flare stack. Flame burning characteristics are shown in Fig.7 A which identifies zones of the flame spectrum in terms of dimensionless numbers. Figure-7B enables estimations of tlie critical flame points in each combustion zone. Figure-8 helps to visualize how a flame profilc may be superimposed on the loci of Figure-7B. Note that the flame height increases appreciably when combustible gas flow is sufficiently reduced so as to cmse a shift back into laminar zone. By designing flare tip which induces premixing of gas and air or selecting a smokeless design which indsces partial premixing by agitation with steam, the increased peaking of the flare in the laminar zone may be avoided or materially reduced. This type of flare tip design a!so reduces the noise level. Figure-8 should be used alongwith following criteria Peak at Reynolds number = 3,000 Valley at Reynolds number = 5,000 Blow off at Mach number = 0.2 Note that the Reynolds number is based on stack diameter. Each of these criteria refers to the gas state before combustion at the exit from the stack tip. The Reynolds number of 3,000 applies to the Peak Loci Curve, the Reynolds number of 5,000 applies to the Valley Loci Curve, and the Blow off Mach number applies to the limit of Valley Loci Curve. The blow off point is reached when the velocity of gas leaving the stack causes the flame to separate from tip, at which point the flzne becomes unstable. I . __ -. . .. I For max. stack discharge, a mach number of 0.2 is recommended. From Fig.8 then, corresponding LID ratio is 118.' From the stack diameter D, the flame length L can be determined. Thus. ~,
Picprcd h : M. G.M3n.c Rc\. : 00

1 Rc\ bv : A. M. Hallangadi I Approvcd b!. : Dr. H. V. Doctor 1 Dnlc : 3010119X -I Pagc : 28 of 66 - ~ - . . ~ .- I

. .

~- -.

Cnlcgor\.- A 1 I.'l;~rc S\SICI~IS

Rcil:l~rrc I11du5trics1.i11iilcd

h l d o l c No.

I';II;I~~:IIIC:I 'Tr:r~tri~ig SVSICIII


l'lle tliernial radiation and escape timc car1 bc cstinrated from tlic data in table-'. Valucs arc based on cspcrir~~cn:al data on tlic tllrcsllold limit of pzirl to the human body as a functiori of the radiatior~illtctisity in ~TUll~lrIR2, generated by a flame.
A silfe level of heat radiatiot~intensity for unlimitcti time esposurc has been found ta bc 440 BTUnlrlttZ. I t is apparent that a time interval with varying radiation intensity must be allowed, to per~ilita I1unia1l to escape fro111a sl~ddcrllyreleased irltense heat source. The varyins radiation intensity results from an irldividual increasilig his distance from tlie source of heat.

Assume a person is at the base of a flare stack when heat is suddenly relea'sed. The average individual reaction time is between 3 and 5 seconds. Hence, during this short reaction time interval, the full radiated heat intensity will be absorbed Then follows another short interval (20 IUsec is normally assumed to be the average escape velocity of a man) during which continually decreasing amounts of heat will be absorbed until safe distance is reached (heat intensity for a safe location is 440 BTU/Hr/sq.fl.)

Where, t,

= t,

+ t.

t, = total time exposed t, = reaction time t, = escape time t~ (Ia = total heat flawfarea for the exposure time

a = maximum radiation intensity

= minimum radiation intensity

Figure 9 is a solution to this equation The escape time depends on the stack height, H. The following st+ outline the ,approach to detemining th&flarestark: l?eigh! based spot; :he radizion intensi!;..

Calculate the radiation intensity using the following equation -

Prcrwrcd Sr : M. G . Marvc
Rcv : 00

1\\.cd @ : A. M. Haltnngndi I Approvcd bv : Dr. H. V. Doctor

( D3tc : 30101/98

I Page : 29 of 66

C:;lcgon - A i FI:irc SYSICIIIS

I?cli;ll~cc Ind~~strics Li~~lifcd P:I~~~~:IIII$J ?'r:~il~i~ Svgcnl ~fi

Modulc No.


( I f

'- radiation intensity, h ~ ~ ~ l ~ r l s ~ . l t


ernissivity ofthe flame 11~31 generated by the flame, BTUIllr distar~cc from center ofllanle, Mnl feet above ~ r a d to e point P ( F i s r c - l o )

Flatllc criiissivity valves for colnlllon gases are as follows


Gas I-iydrocarbons Propane Methane

04 0 33 0.2

A relationship between f and the net calorific value of a gas can be used in tlle absence of data -


Where hc = net heat value of a gas (LHV) in BTUIscf (60 deg.F, 14.7 psia)

Calculate the heat flow Q, B T U h



i 3

W = Ibhr of vapors released. hc = Net heating value of gas in aTU/Scf (60 deg.F, 14.7 Psia) M = Moiecular weight of the gas.

The formula for the stack height is first derived. Refening to Fig.10, we have x ~ = x , ~ a+ n d~ Xm ~= [H(H+L)]"


Where, X , = distance (ft) of the punt of maximum intensity from grade H =-stack l!eigh:, ft L = flame length in 2 = i 18 L, as per equation 1 Hence,


x2= H ( H + L) + y2
( Date : 3OIOll9X

---------------- ( 111

Prepared b~ : M.G.M3mc
Rcv : 09


1 Raicn-cd b?. : A. M. Haltangndi I Approved by : Dr. H. V. Doctor

Pzgc : 3 0 ci 66


Cntcgo:or?. - Al


Rcli:~ticcIndustries Limited Palal~lngn Tmi~~inl: S\stc~n

Modi~lc NO. TES-TS.P-014

I Icnce. from cqilations I1 and L i l . and ror tnau radiation density (qtl ) at flare basc ~vllerc5-0,


I let~ce, !t is derived as -

( 1 ,


0 s { [ ~ ' + ( ~ I r ; q \ l ) ] ~ -------(IV) '-~~

a' ct 9

The shortest stack is obtained when q \ l = 3,300 BTU/hr/sq R ( or from figure 9, at te = 0 ) I The lim~ting safe radial distance from the flame is -

X = (---------)IR 4 n 440




* I

and we note that y = radial distance from the base oithe stack = [ x~-H(H+L)]" Allowing for the speed of escapc ( 20 ftfsec) we have y = 20 te = [ x2- H(H+L)]

----- ( V )

This defines the safety boundary, corresponding to quiescent ambient air. Thus, the stack height H ,the limiting heat radiation q ~and , the radial distance, y can be evaluated with a trial and error procedure, by assuming a value of te. The above analysis must be extended to accountfor the more prevalent case of wind circulation in the vicinity of the flare. For those sections where wind intensity is unknown, it is suggested that an average 20 mph wind be assumed in all directions, which results in increasing the safe circular boundary by the resulting tilt of the flame (Figure 11). he flame tilt and its effect on the safety boundary I increase may be determined as follows :



Uw = wind velocity C = flare exit vcloci~

Uw = [ Xm - H ] sin 0 and Ut = (Xm-H) cos 0
Prcprcd h : M. G. Mawc Rev : 00

I Revicwcd by :A. M. Haltnnpdi I Approvcd bv : Dr. H. V. Doctor 1 ( Datc : 30101198 -~ ' 1 P:lgc,e~31of 66 1

C:ltcgon. - A l

Rcliancc Industries LimiiCd

Modolc No

Palalg;111g:1 Trniliilig Sysic~n


* * *
0 0

i l l

y = [ x2-(I 1 + (Xm-H)cos 0)2 ] In + (Xm-13) sin O

------ ( V! )

This fbrniula establishes the liinitina - houtida'ry for wind circulation Wlien evaluating wind erects on flame tilt, an average wind intensity should be used in the calculations. I



For high flaring rates, ilie stack height calculation previously described leads to a very tall stack. Part of the reason for this conservative estimate is that calculations arc based up on tile thermal effect on bare skin. If proper cloth in^ is provided to personnel before entering the flare stack area and proper sllielding is installed at the stack or at the equipment to reduce the radiation effects, the required stack height can be gieatly reduced. However, there is a tradeoff in that the safe boundary limit must be increased. I Since heat load of the flare, the flame length, an; the safe radiation intensity (440 BTU/hr/sq A) remain the same, decreasing the stack height leads to an increase in the safety radius Another important consideration is the type of support provided for the stack In general, the higher the stack the greater the structural support costs An alternative method of stack sizing is based on the allowable limit for radiation intensity. For operating personnel the allowable intensity is 1500 BTU/hr/ , and for equipment it is 3000 BTUihr/sq.ft. The 1500 UTU/hr/ criterion is established From the following basis. In emergency releases, an operation time of 3 to 5 sec. may be assumed. Perhaps 5 to 10 sec. more would elapse before an individual could escape the area via an average velocity of 20 Wsec. This would result in a total exposure period ranging from 8 to 15 sec. only. The time to pain threshold corresponding to 1500 BTU1hrtsq.A. is 16 sec. before the individual cduld escape to a safe place. The effect of radiation on equipment is shown in figure-12. The temperature of metal equipment increases with exposure time and higher the radiation heat intensity, the greater the temp. Curve 1 in 'fiSure 13 shows the theoretical equilibrium temps. for metal equipment, based on view factor of 0.5 . The actual temp. on surfaces 2 2. facing the flame the flame will be between curves 1 6


The teapiraiure or'the vebscls Lontniriing iicjxid br flowing vapors iilay be lower becausc of cooling effcz:~. Curve-2 applies to materials having a low heat conduciivity coefficient e.g. wood. In this cask, equilibrium temperatures are reached within a shorter time as compared with metal objects. Dehydration of

Cntcgory A l ~13rc S!.SICIIIS

Rcliancc lndunrics Limiccd Palal&~nga Tninil~g Syacn~

Modutc No. ES-TS-P-014

a:ound SO0 deg .F, corresponding to heat intensities of 1300, 3000 and 4000 BTUAlrIsq A respectively This meanc that wooden structures and vegetation exposed to heat intensities of 3000 to 4000 BTUltirlsq tt. and higher may catch fire and bum Paint on equipment also may also be damaged Therefore, it is recommended that equipment located in this area be protected by proper heat shielding or emergency water sprays. The following steps outline caiculations by the alternate method :


From equation 11, the radial distance from the flame at Q = 1500 RTUlhrlsq.ft. is calculated. The safe radial distance at Q equation

440 BTUhr1sq.A. is calculated from the same

A suitable value for Q is assumed at the base of the stack Q = 3000 BTU/hr/sq.ft. is a good start since protective shielding will be provided in this case at the stack.

From equation IV, H i s calculated. rigtlle-14 illustrates the different heat intensity loci that should be examined

The flare normal load is 800,000 lbhr whereas max load is 1,000,000 I b h . The vapor temperature is 300 degree F and molecular wt. is 50 Stack diameter is 48" Average wind velocity is 20 mph and net heating value is 1500 BTUlscf ) Calculate the stack height and the safe boundary.
Sollrtiot, :

Total heat released, Q = W * hc * 3 7 9 M ----- equation as given earlier = 1,000,000 * 1500 * 3791 50 ---- max flow considered = 11370X10~3~~/hr. II Flame emmisivity, f = 0.2 (hd900)'" = 0.2 ( 15001900 ) = 0.258 I


----- equation as given earlier

Radiation intensity,


4 nx2
Prcplrcd bv : M.


1 Rcvicwcd by : A. M. Haltangadi I I
( Datc : 30/01/98
--.- -.-

---------as per equation ( 11 )

Rcv : 00

.; .p..--. ,..33ofl-5

Approvcd by :Dr. H. \I. Doctor


= 0.258

* 1 1370 S 10"/ (3

: : X' )

-- 410

is s n k intensity \salus

Nencc, safe radial distance, ? ; 728 6 R. --------as per equation ( I = 1 1 S D Tl~c flamc icngh, L, = 1 IS *4 ---- as the stack diamctcr is 4S" i e. 4 tt. = 471 fi

The stack height, II

0 5 ( [ I.'

( 1Q/ rt ']\I

1 "'- L

} --as per equailon ( IV )

For sl~ortcst stack, escape t ~ ~ nte c ,=: 0 Figure 9 s ~ v e corresponding s value of q 3300 BTU/llr/sq ft


Hence, H = 1 19 6 li = 120 R This is the shortest possible stack hc~ght, but is not a practical height as it assumes te = 0 If a reasonable escape time i e te = 30 sec. is assumed, then figure 9 gives q,,= 1330 BTUhrlsq A. Then, H = 245 fl ( as per equation IV ) Now 20 te = [ x2- H(H+L)]

a( oi a( (

-----ix per equation ( V )


We have: X = safe radial distance = 728.6 A. H=245ft L= 472 A Hence, te = 29.8 sec. This is almost same as the assumption of te = 30 sec Hence, the selected flare height is 245 ft

@ (


Now, let us calculate the wind effect on the safe bcundary around the flare stack

Wind velocity, Uw = 20 mph = 29.3 fdsec


Gas density = Mole. Wt * abs. Pressure in psia '/ ( 10.73 * temp in R ) I = 50*14.7/(10.73*760) = 0.09 1bIfi3 I The gas exit velocity, U = 1,000,000 * 4 / ( n * 4 *4 * 0.09 * 3600) = 245 Wsec Vow, tan O Crw I U .. = 29.3!245 = 0.1196 Hence, 0 = 6.82, sin 0 = 0.1187, cos 6 = 099 I

Prcprcd h-: M. G.M3n.c Rev : 00

] Rniccvcd b\. : A. M. H311311jpdi ! Approved b\. : Dr. H. V. k q o r ! narc : 301011~s / PL-2 . I : O; . : 5 - - - -


Now, y = [ XZ-(H + (Sm-H)cos 0)2 ] 1- + + (Sm-t I) sin 0 Substituting the values, wc get y 618 fi.

safe radial dictance from thc bnse ofs:nc!,

ARer the stack height has been established from radiation intens~ty\,slues, thc maximum permissible ground level concentration of toxic gases in the event of a flame blow out should be evaluated Table 3 represents toxicological threshold limit as allowed by the environmental protection agency (EPA) Estimated ground level concentrations should be based on the emergency condition of flame blowout. The calculation is normally done for a range of c!imatological conditions at the plant site. For a rough estimate, the following empirical formula may be used Cmax =


3697 VM Dz

Where, Cmax = Concentration at grade in ppm (volume) V = Specific volume of toxic gas, cu ft per lb M = Weight discharge of pollutant component in tons per day Dz = Vertical difision coefficient I I p= Air velocity at grade, mph H = Stack height, A. Dy- Horizontal diffusion Coefficient Xmax = Distance from stack to the point of maximum concentration, fl N = Environmental factor
The following values are taken from API manual

PrcprcC b\. : M. G.M a n z

1 Rcvicwcd by : A. M . tlntlang3di I Approvcd b\. : Dr.!j&.

IX .- ..

J. . papc : 35 ..- . - -..



1 ; ~



.l'herc arc generally thrcc typcs of'llarc stack supports . Guyed type, i>crricb ant1 sclr supporttng
A s a rousli y i d c to thc cco~~omics of'tl~csc rl~rcctypcs of flare structures, the comparative costs for material al?d lal;cr 's fi~:>c!i~n: zf s:;i:k hcight are tnbul;~tcd

as r o l l o ~ s -

Least expensive ivfost expensive Installation Labor Least expensive Most expensive

Derrick type Self supporting Guyed

Derrick type Guyed Self supporting

Guyed Derrick Self supporting Gv-rrerl -, . . " Derrick Self Supporting

Self supporting Guyed Derrick

Derrick (Self supporting Guyed)*


* denotes that both options of around the same cost.

5 .

Pilot burners
To ensure ignition of flare gases, continuous pilots with a means of remote ignition are reconunended for all flares. Generally the pilot system consists of three components - a continuous pilot, an ONJOFF pilot and an igniter. The most commonly used type of igniter is the flame front propagation type which utilizes a spark from a remote location to ignite a flammable mixture. The ONIOFF type is used only to ensure ignition of the continuous pilot. Pilot igniter controls are located near the base of elevated flares and atleast 100 ft. awa: from ground flares. The number uf piiot systems required per flare is largely a function of the wind conditions. A minimum of tivo pilot systems is recommended while nonnally three pilot systems are used. They are uniformly placed around the top of the flare.

PrcpareC by : M. G. M a n c
RCV : 00

] Rcvicrvcd by : A. M.H;ltwngadi 1 Approvcd by : Dr. H. V. Doctor I D;IIC: 3010 1/98 - 1 Pngc : 36 -of 66

Calcgon - A1 Flnrc S~sfcms Rcliann: l~rdusrrics Li~~lited P;~I:~lglog:~ Trilling Svslcnl Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014

Typical narc pilot systclns f ~ an i elcvated flarr: stack is sllown same type of assenibly insralled horizontally may be used for

figu~c-15. Tile flares.

Tile pilo! is piped to the top of the flare stack via a 2" venturi burner. Nozzles are pr-ovidcd at the end of tllc pipe. In some designs, nozzles are hooded and shbuld the flatnc blow out, the heat ofthe nozzle will ilnmediately rei~nite it.

In tlie pilot igniter system, tlie gas pipe is connected to a 3" venturi type burner-, ~vhicli is located at the bot:om of the stack. The fuel gas flows througi~ a nozzle to inspiratc air to for111 a combustible mixture. The isniter with spark gap is located approx. 3 f above the burncr. When the igniter button is pushed, tlie resulting spark ignites the gas air niisture. The flame front generated travels up the pipe at the top of the flare and ignites the gas from the pilot nozzles.

by : M. G. Marvc

1 Rmie~vcd by : A. M. Hatiangadi I Approvcd b\. : Dr. H. V. Donor

1 Dale :30/0119X
+ Pagc

: 37 of 66

Catcgoq A1 FIarc Svstcms

Rc1i:incc Iriduarics Liiiiited P:~lalgniigaTraining Svscc~ii Mod~ilc No. TES-TS-P-014



Rlatrrinls Of Constrllrt ion Followinl: table outlines nlaterials of colisttuctlon for different components o f t l ~ e flare system I Component hlaterial of construction

Up to - 20 deg.F Up to - 50 deg.F

Conventional carbon steel Special low temp. carbon stecl


-150 deg.F & below


18-S stainless steel


Above 750 deg.F

& l &

High temp. resistant alloy

Bottom section Burner tips (about 10 A)

Gunite line (cemented for corrosion resistance) Stainless steel !ined with refractories High temp resistant refractories Special ION temp. carbon steel

Section upto 20 ft. bc!ow burner tips Other sections of the stack Structural members, hardware and bolting

ealvanized after fabrication

Should bihot dip


Steam requirement for smokeless oneration


A flame is referred to as hein2 .- !-mincx when incandescent carbon particles are present in it. When these pdrticles cool, they form smoke. Smoke formation mainly occurs in fuel rich systems where a low hydrogen atom conccntration suppresses the smoke. Prepred bv : M. G . M3n.c
Rcv : 00

( Rcvieacd bv : A. 51. H n t b n g d i ( Approved by : Dr. H. V. Doctor


! Dnrc : 3011111OX

?.s J : .:h _ A'. .


. !


Catcgory - A I Flnrc Syslcms




Rcliancc Industria Limiccd Pala1g:lng Tnining S!.stctn

Mod~tlc No TES-TS-P-014


*( I a'

Prevention ofsmoke in flares in normally accomplislied I in three different ways :


Bv the addition o f steam



By making a premix of &el and air before combustioti so as to provide sufiicicnt oxygen for efficient combustion
I -

By distribution ofthe flow of raw gases through number of small burners


Among these methods, the addition of stearn isimost commonly used to produce a smokeless flare for economy and superior perfohance. In steam addition, the raw gas is preheated before it enters the combustion zone of the flare. If the temperature is high enough, cracking of the hydrocarbons may occur. This produces free hydrogen and carbon. When the cracked hydrocarbons travel to the combustion zone, hydrogen reacts much faster than carbon. Unless the carbon particles are burned away, they cool down and form smoke. Consequently, in order to prevent smoke, either the hydrogen atom concentration must be decreased to ensure uniform burning of both hydrogen and carbon or enough oxygen must be provided for complete combustion. There arc several theories which try to explain the chemistry of smokeless flares, using steam. One of them assumes that the steam separates the hydrocarbon mo!ecules, thereby ~ilinimizing polymerization reactions and forms oxygen compounds that bum at reduced rate and temperature, so as to prevent cracking.


Another theory, claims that steam reacts with carbon particles forming CO, C02 and H2,thereby removing the carbon which forms smoke after cooling. Following reactions are expected to take place as per this theory,

The latter reaction is also known as water gas shift reaction Following empirical formula is recommended for evaluating the requirement of steam for producing a smokeless flame as a function of the flow rate of hydrocarbon and their molecular weight.


Ws = Steam rate, lbsihr Wh Hydrocarbon rate, lbshr Prcparcd by : M. G.Manjc 1 Re\ic\vcd by : A. M. Hatmngndi 1 Appro\.ed . ! h : Dr. H.V. Doctor Re\- : 00 I Pnec!. ?'I ?f <,; Date : 30/01/95 -- ., 1 --------. . -

Catcgor).- A l Flan: Svstctns

Rcli~ncc lndustrics Lir~~ilcd

Modulc No.

Patnlgtng:~ Tninitlg S! stctil



M = hfo!ecular weight of hydrocarbon

It may be observed From this that the highertlie mol. wt., the hi~Jrcr the rcquired steam. This may be associated with the tlicory tl~atthe liiglicr t l ~ c r~iol.wt, rllc lower the ratio of steam to C02 after combt;stion, resulting in a greater tendcncy I to smoke. Since, steam consumption is rather high ( about 0.464 ib/lb of hydrocarbons with mol. wt.50 ), it is too expensive io provide for s~nokelessburning for tile mas. flare load. Normally, 20% of tile mas. flare load is designed ibr smokeless burning. This is well supported by the fact that massive failure is very larc and in 90% of occurrences, smokeless flares are produced.

Fuel requirement

Fuel gas supply to the pilots and igniters must have high reliability. Since, normal plant fuel sources may be upset or lost in the plant upsets, it is desirable to provide a backup system connected to the most reliable aiternate he1 source with provision for automatic cut in on low pressure. The flare he1 system should be carefully checked to ensure that hydrates are not present to cause problems. Because of small iines, long exposed runs and large vertical rises up the stack, use of liquid b o c k out poi is frequently warranted to remove condensates that may have collected in the fuel line especially during winter. It is a good practice to provide a !ow pressure alarm on fuel supply after the last regulator, which will warn the operator.


Purrnine of flare line?

Any gas or mixture of gases that can not reach dew point at any condition of ambient temperature can be used as a purge for flare system Nitrogen, Methane or Natural gas are normally used as purge gases.

Purging is normally of two types : Normal purging and emergency purging


Normal purging is used continuously and admitted to the flare system at the end of each sub header and at the bottom of the molecular seal at the flare stack. When the molecular seal is used, it is that purge volume which will create a velocity of 0.1 ft Isec. at thi flare tip. When a molecular seal is not provided, the exit velocity is 1 A fsec. The purge co!un:e Lzpend~upon the wind velocity ai thc flare elevation. These velocity criteri- s!r i w e d on a wind velocity of i5 mph and vary as the square of the wind velocity. PTCP~ h, E :~ M. G.Mamc Rm:W

( Resicwed by : A. M. H a t u n p d i

] Dale : 30/01/98

1 Approved

: Dr. H. V.


Emergency purging is used to compensate Sbr thcr~~inl slirinkasc, .Allcr ccssntioli

of 1101 vent gas flow. the systcnl residual %aswill shrink as it cools to the ambient temperature. It nornlally takes about 15 niinu~cs to reach ecluilihriuni. U111css thc purge is admitted,to the systen~.the shrink will draw air back i n to the flare hc3dcr The shrink problem can be overcome by sensin: thc systc~il tcnlpcrnturc and addins makeup gas at a rate commensurate wit11 the system voltrmc ;ind lllc niax. anticipated gas temperature. :

Noise poll~ltion Noise pollution from flares has for too Ion? been a n inconvcnicnce, acceltted in pctrocllemical plants as an inevitable byproduct of flarin~process. I t has been established that major individual source of noise from tlare is usually at the flare tip itself. This is especially true when the flare tip is of the type used for sn~okclcss flaring of hydrocarbon gases utilizing steam injection. Basically noise is created because of two reascns, steam energy losses at the high pressure steam injectors and unsteadiness in the combustion process. Ground flares are normally quieter than elevated flares. This is probably due to the fact that the flame contained inside a box is protected from wind effects and the st~bi!iring effect of the hzat re-radiated from the refractory walls reduces the random characteristics of combustion. The walls themselves will absorb some of the sound energy. Sophisticated design of flare tips have greatly reduced the noise pollution. In some designs, combustion efficiency has been greatly increased by renixing of air with gas before they are combusted. Steam is also premixed with air and gas before gases leave the flare tip. Some of the turbulent noise energy is thus shielded by the tip itself.


Stress reliefand winterizing

The major stress to which the discharge piping of a relief system is subjected, are results of thermal strains from entry of cold or hot gases. Temperature fluctuations are normally very wide. In majority of situations, it is usually possible to maintain stress levels within allowable limits over the full temperature range by providing an expansion joint or expansion with a cc!d G r hot spiing. Special afterition :o stresses is rccommended where pipins constructed of carbon steel is used for metal temps. as low as -50 deg. F. I

Prcp:~rcdh : M. G. M3n.e
, Rcv : O;!

I Revic~vedbv : A. M. H31tangadi 1 Approved b\. : Dr. H. V. Doctor . - :-ZLIC :? t ! : 0 : ! 1 5 i . : : -4 - .-- -- -- 1 p: I ,,f

, ; j



Rclinocc Induslrlc 1.irtiilsd


0 0

I)csi;11 of' disch;lr;c pipin: requires careli~lanal!.sis of the possible thermal and 111ccl1;1nic;11 scrcsscs i~~iposcd on the pressure relief' \.alvcs. I'roper anchors, s u i ~ l ~ l rand t s l)~o\.ision fi~r llevibility of (lischnryc pipins can prevent these stresses.


l\'iri~cri/.in: of 111cfl;~rc systan depends upon tile severity ofanlbient temperatures. I I is norln;~!pr;lclicc to slope ihc tlare hcadcrs lowards knock out drum 114 in per 0 1 S I . Ihis cllables condensate to tlow ir.10 KO drum, thereby reducing the possil,ility of';,ipc li.cczc up due lo l e n ~ t l ~ exposure y to lo:,, ambient temperature. I<O d~ulus ;we usur\lly providcd wilh a a ~ b m c r ~ e steam d healer in order to prevent li-cczing \\'here ; I \ \ ~ n t a seal is used. 4 sil!lil;lr rlrrar~~cn~ec~t is warranted. In some cold clirna!c areas, t h e headers cbntaini11: water are steal11 traced and insulated.

I~i~tc~~rnrnta nr~cl tion colitrols Typical flarc system in?trurnentation and controls are as follo\\s -


TO ensure smokeless burning, a suitable control systeni is provided to regulate steam injection into flare tip. Normally, a flow sensor is provided on the main flare header. The flow sensor is in ratio control uith the steam. Alternatively, the lurninosity of flame is aeasured by a flame nonitoiing device, ~viiicil sets the steam flow in order to maintain the sniokeless operation of the flare. Thermocouples are provided for the pilots with an alarm in the control room



An oxygen analyzer with an alarm is normally provided to indicate the pressure of the air or oxygen in the flare system
The KO drum is level controlled in order t o maintain a constant level for providing a seal and to prevent the pump from running dry. The KO drum pump, many a times can cut in automatically at high level of KC drum. It also typically, has a AUTO standby pump. I



A flare video monitor is provided in the control room which helps to observe smokeless operation as well as to identify the abnormal releases in the flare headers

Prcparcd 6 : M. C. M;IW
, Rrv : 00 C - - -

bv : Dr. H. V. Doclor


-- I

R C I I ~ ~ I I IC IC I ~ L I S I ~ I Li~~iitcd CS P : I I ~ ! ~ ; ITr:~i~ii~ig I ~ ~ I Svstcrii

Modulc No. IT.S-TS-P-014

.l.l ~ cilarr

st;t~tupand s~iutdbwriprocedures &ay differ from a plant to plant dcl>cr~ding cti rhc flare systenl' it has. [{ere arc some general guidelines, which are follo\vcd wllen starting up or slluttilig down a flare system.

ltrilicrl c l ~ ~ ~ c k o r r ~

After cornplction of construction, the system should be thoroughly flushed with water to remove scale and debris. Pressure testing should be conducted where required. Special attention should be given to all flanged joints, valves and connections. All leaks found should be repaired and re-tested. The flare KO drum pump should be checked for ease of operation and correct rotation. All instruments sbou!d be checked fcr proper connections and performance Eqvipment such as flare tip, molecular seal, flare front generator, water seal, flow sensor and all associated piping should be given final check.



The flare system must be purged of air before the pilots are ignited, otherwise there is danger of a severe explosion. After the flare system has been purged of air (less than 2% 02), the pilots are lighted as follows :

All valves in the flare front generator are closed. Plant air and fiel gas lines up to flare front generator should be blown down to remove any line condensate before gas or air is admitted. Push the ignition button and check for a spark at the slght port Open valves for the flare front generator to pilot No.] and fiel gas to all pilots.
n upen the gas supply to approx. I0 psig by observing the pressure gauges


Rcv : OO

Purge for 3 minutes. Then push igniter button to light the d o t . Then light pilot - . ~ 0 .& 2 3 in the same manne;. Prcplrcd b~ : M. G.Mamc I Rc\ic\\rd by : A. M. Halranfi?di ( Approwd by :Dr. H. V. Doctor
, . ~ . ,

Pa= - I--.

of 66 ---

Tltc tot;ll flare svsrc~ii cnri olily bc shutdown and isolated after all tlie process units al-c shut dowri, drained of liydrocarbons, dcprcssuriscd and purged as necessary. l'hcri llarc systcrl~is pirrgcd wit11 nitrogen before opcning up the KO drum, rnolccular scal ctc. l i ~ r any rnaintenalicc. Individual proccss units or pipes of equiprrtent cat) be isolated from operating flzlre syslc~ii altcr tltcy arc shutdo\r,~i by closins block valvcs and installirig blinds, when niaintenancc is rcquircd.

The flare inspection is carried out generally in the plant turnaround. In the inspection, the flare tip and tlie pilot burners, the steam nozzles etc are checked and replaced if required UT testing is done for the flare shell welds. The flare shell thickness is measured at different locations. General visual inspection is a!so carried out. The guy ropes are checked for prciper tension and are re-tensioned if required. The guy anchor points are also checked. The guy ropes are greased. The straightness of the flere stack is also checked. In the PX plant of RIL -PG, it was found that the guy ropes were not adequate for flare stack support. Hence, the stack support is being modified to a Derrick type.


Normal operation

During the normal operation, the shift crew monitors the flare and ensures that it is smokeless The flame length is monitored to identify abnormal releases in the flare system In the normal operation, the amount of vapors flared can be monitored As his is the material wasted, efforts are to be taken to minimize the normal load I .\liicli is flared. I The KO drum level and the flare header p u r s e a s minimum flow is ensured d u r i n ~ rhe normal operation. The operations crew also ensures that the seal liquid rate 1 and hence, the scal ) is maintained for the liquid seal system It is also checked that thc pumpout pump ofthe KO dmrn is always available

. Ilcv : VO --

Prcwrcd kw : M. G.M m e
. -

I Rc~icrvcdtn : A. M. H311angdi I Approrrd b\ : Dr. H. V. Doclor

I .htc
: 301!l I!')!

p,,~ .: ! c : ; , ; 9: :


Cnlcgo? - A l Tl:lrc S~stcms

Rclinncc 111dustrics Lili~ilcd Ptllal@ng Tni~iinp, Svslcnl

hlodulc No.


1 ,


1:LARES : \ I ' RIL - I'G


I ,

I n P a t a l ~ a ~complcs l ~ ; ~ of IIIL, there arc t\vo flares - one each in PX and LAB plants. Thc detailed information of both the flare systems is available with rcspective plants. Hcre is a brief introduction to both flare systems.

The flare i n the PX plant is designed to llandle maximum flow rate o r 500,000 kgllr of hydrocarbons. This load can arise whell there is plant wide elcctricity failure. The normal operating flow in the flare design is 640 k ~ r The . flare has a molecu!ar scal, with height of 15 f l and diameter of 80". Minimum purge gas required is 7.21: nm3Ihr. The riAer height is 305 A and the riser diameter is 42". The flare tip is From 'John Zink' and is of 31OSS. There are 3 pilot burners and 21 steam jets. It uses LP ( 6 bar g ) steam for smokeless operation.

The system had a ZOOM control ( Zink Optically Operated Monitor ) for ensuring the smokeless operation in the original design. This was supposed to monitor the luminosity of flame by a remotely located detector and adjust the steam for smokeless operation Rut i: i z not conaissicned 2s some of :h: critical components of the control system are not available. Currently, the steam control to the fiare is on 'manual'.


The stack has guyed rope type of support, but it has been found inadequate Hence, the support is being changed t o Derrick type.

Flare System in LAB

The flare in the LAB plant has maximum design load of 265,600 kghr of hydrocarbons. The flare has a molecular seal as well as a water seal. The molecular seal has a diameter of 1.37 m. The water seal drum has a diameter of 1.8 m and the height of 5 m. Minimum purge gas required is 9 nm3hr. The riser height is 80 m and the diameter is 24". The flare tip is from 'John Zink' and is of SUS 310s. There are 3 pilot burners. The steam used for smokeless flame is at 28 bar g. The steam rate is controlled manually. The suppori is ofguyed rope type.


Prcparcd h : M. G. Many


Re;. : 29

4.~31~ : 32!Oli?J

1 Rcvicwcd by : A. M. Ilattangadi I Appro\.cd by : Dr. H. V. Doctor

: _ I T 1 - 4 2 -

I Pa<.* . . I ! 6.C5




. :

Caccgor) AI

Rclr~ncc lrlduslncs L~rn~lcd Pnt:11p111pn Tmlnlng Svslcm hlodulc No

Flnrc Srslcrns

Tnble - I

- Resist:~llcecoeflicirnt K for varior~spipe fittittgs


Catcgory A1 Flnrc S\stcrns

Rcltancc Industrtcs L~nitlcd Pnln1gnn.c.. Tnining S~stcnl


htodulc No TES-TS-1'-01.1

Tnble 2

Ilcrt radintion and escnpe time

Radiation intensity

Time to pain threshold (Seconds)




Prcplrcd Rc\. : 00

h . : M. G. M3n.c



I Rcvicr\.cd b\. :A. M. H311nng:tdi 1 Approvcd b\. : Dr. H V. Doctor I D x e : I9iOlI9S I F-.~ r-:c 47 -~ 01 66


C:ilcpry - A1 Flilrc S ~ s ~ c n l s

Rcli~ncc Indos~ncs Litlitlcd

~IJ!E~II~ Tr3i111112 I S~.,s\stctll

h l d o l c No TI:S-TS-P-o14

Trrl~lc 3

- l'ltrrsl~old

lir~lits iorson~c toxic

s t ~ b s t n ~ ~ c g:~scs r s :III~ vnpors

- -.. . . --

Acrnlcin Arvlani#tre Ammonia h y l lcculr h y l dcohul hdmc Arrinlc


. PPAf 203 10 5 I.m 0J 20

I.,~ I.)


Elbyl bmmidc Elhyl chloride Ethyl r t h r i Elhylrnc rhlomhydtin Eth~lcncdtivninc I 1.000 la, 5 5 . m :

trrbon m u & tvbar utnchl3tide

Gdarinc aombrwcnc Cs!cx!am C d (all uorrm) Cycloheunc cyclokunol cyc1ahewohcrme C%~opmpur Dianionc doh4 c-Dicblombcnrmc 1.1-Dichlomcr)luu Dicthylunine Dikoburyl ketone Dlmcti,).Lnili~c

&TIchlatidc Bmmdc Bulrdlrne B u v l dcoh0I Buvlunirr G r w o 4'0,id~ G r b n &sulfide

la, 25 1


Hydnune Hydrogen vicnidc Hvdmecn rdlidc I~ph0rm~ lropm~ylunine M c t i v I oxidc Methyl cam. hbthyl r q l m c Methyl dcohol Methyl bmmidc 2-Melhonlethual Mcthyl chloride McthylqdohcMethylcyclaheuml Mcthylryclohemns Mcthyl fomu~e Mcthyl m y 1 drohal

la, 5

i' ,.
! J


la, ux, 403

53 JO

r.. i'


Prepared h : hl. G.b1nn.c Rev : 00

I R c v i c \ v c d bv :A. M. H i t 1 1 3 a ~ r d i I Approved bv : Dr. H. \'. I D;IC :-1 1 Pa~c : 48 or 66 -910 11'98 - .


. ~.

Catcgoy - A l Flnrc Smlcn~s I<cl~nncc Ind!~slncs I.ln11tcd P:~lnl,mnr~ Tninirig Svsccrn hlodulc No. TES-TS-P-014


P~p3rcd bv :M. G. Mnnrc Re\. : 00

1 Rclicn-cd by : A. M. Hallmgadi ( Approved b\. : Dr. H. V. Doctor I Dncc : 19/01/98 I Pagc : 49 of GG


Cnlcgon A l 1-inrc S!.s!cna

I~cllilllcc Itld~~strics L~n~~tcd P:I~&:III?~ T r a i t ~ i S~SI ~ ~C c II


Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014

1.1g11rc 2

- I'rrssl~rrdrop c!r:trt

( li!~o\r n t i p s t r r s l n conditions

- by Lnpple )

Prcrurrd bu : M. G h13n.e RCY :

I Rmic~vcd bv : A. hf. H3113nr~di I Approvcd bv : Dr. H V. Doctor 1 D ~ [ :C1 9 / oI I V X 1 PJ~C : 50 or 66 - .--

Cnlcgon - A l Flnrc S~stcnis

Rcli;~ncc Ind~rslrics Linlrtcd P:~tnlg:~np Tr3111ing S~slcm

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014

I:ig~tre3 - Prrsstlrc drop clt:trt ( knowrt tlownslrcarn cor~ditions by Locb )




f;igt~re4 - (A) Ilorizontal seal d r u n ~

(U) Vertical seal drum

FROM a L o w o o w N DUV


c' E







(A) t.






t . c

e !a


1 Rcvic11cd by : A. hl. H3113npdi 1 Appro\.cd bv : Dr. H.V. DO:LOI 1 Dace ha-C 52 .of 66 -----: 19/11l l%i.-_.

I -

- ..

Calcgory - A l 1'larc Svstcms Rcliaacc Induslr~cs 1.1milcd P n l n l p n p Training Syslcm hlodulc No. ES-TS-P-014

Prcpt~rcd bv : H. G.M;ln.c Rcv : 00

1 D31c: 19/0l/OS

I Rcviovcd bv : A. M. Hattangadi

1 P3sc : 53

( Approved by : Dr. H. V. Doctor of 66 -

blodulc No. TES-TS-P-014



- Al

Flarc S~stcnls r

Rcli:tncc It~dusrncs Lintllcd P:~l:~lg.~n&!a Trainill!: Svstcni

h,lodulc No. TES-TS-P-01.1

c7 crtically

( A ) Ilurr~ingcl~ar;lctcristicsof fl:rnrcs fronr circular ducts dischnrging irrto qrricsccnl a i r ~ i l l ~ o r prclf~ixirig rt 1


(13) Plot oC(IJ1)) versus rrrncl~n~rrrrl~cr


C:!rcgon - A I Fl:~rcS~lsrcn~s

Rclinncc Induscrics Linlilcd ~:ll:ll!::ll~~~ Tr~ining Svsfcm

Mcdulc No. ITS-Ts-P-014

e I


0 .02






I b; : M. C.M2n.e

1 Re\.ictrrd bv : A. M. H311:111y~d;1 Approved h.: Dr. H. V. ~ 1 Dace : 1910 1/93 ----.L-_____ ?:I?? ? 56 or 66


0 ~ 1 " ~

Carcgory - A! Fhrc Svsrcnls

Rcliancc Induslrics Linlilcd Pmlgnnga Training Sysccm

Modulc No. TES-TSiP-013

I;ig~~re 9 - Plot of m:txirn~ltt~ radi:~tion intensity vcrslrs escape time, nssrt~ning5 sccond rcrction time.



z z a

C 0 b 7 .

c 3 < + s m
< 0 a o

.o r <








Prcwred b~ : M. G.M a n r Rcv : 00

1 D ~ I:C 19/01/98

I Rcvic~vcdbt. : A. hl. H311311pdl

I Rlgc : 57

( Appro\.cd b!. : Dr. H . V. D o ~ l o r

of 66

CJIC~A Ol~ Flnrc Svstcnis

Rc1i:incc I~idustrics Limilcd P:ihl!::~i~!..;i rnillinr svsicm

hlodulc No. TI-S - TS - I' - (114

Figllrc 10 - Flnrc stnck nnd f l r n ~ c in strtgrtallt sttrrot~ndings

Prcpllrcd h : M. G . M:tn.c Rcv : 00

1 Rn.icncd b? : A. hl. H31131ig:ldi I Approwd by : Dr. t i \I. 1 Dalc : I910 1/98 1 ( f?~cc : 58 or 66


C3rcgoq A 1 Fhrc S\.stcnis

Rcliancc lndustrics Liniiccd f'3131pn&l T m i n i n ~ Svstcln

Modt~lc No TES-TS-1'-014

Figure I 1

- Flare stack and flame in k i n d blown stlrroondingt


Prcparcd RCV :00




1 Rc~icwcdby : A. M. H a t f ~ n p d i I Approvcd bs : Dr. H 1 D31c : 19/01/98 1 PXC : 59 of 66

\'. Doctor

c3lcgon. - A l FI:rrc S\~srcn~s


Rclinncc lnd~lstrlcs 1.in11tcd

l ' ; ~ t a l y t ~Tr:t~ni:l: p SYSICIII

M@?:lc No.


Figllrc 12 Plot o T t r n i ~ ~ c r ~ of t~ steel ~rc cqcril,rrrr~ltvcrsrls rxposllre tintr for d i f k r r ~ r t rndiant l ~ e n I intcnsitics. Clln2cs nrc based or1 0.25" [tl:~tetlrirklrcss wirh nn r f i r t i v r cmissivity of 10 nlrd v i e r f:rctor of 0 . 5 . Coolinx r : ~ l ~ s r d l~y co~~vcrtiori rtc. nrc ncglectcd.

Prcp:~rcdh\ I . G . h1an.c Rcv : 00

1 D m : lYlOll98

1 Rcvlcncd bv


A. M. Hallang:~di

( Appro~rd bv : Dr. H



( P3gc : 60 or


C;ltcgon A1 Flxc S~slems

Kcliancc Ind~~slncs Ltnl~lcd

I'nlnl;nri~:~ Tr:~inin~: Svsicrn

hlodtrlc No TES-TS-P-01.1

Figure 13 - Plot or rqitilil>rir~n~ tcn!prr:ttttrc vcrsljs r:~di:lnt l ~ c a ti r ~ t c n s i t ~ .1.11~ Cltrve 1 i s for mctnl c q ~ ~ i [ ) n ~ c while n t cttnrc 2 is for wootl.



I'rcp~rcd h hl. G.M2n.e

1 Dnlc : 1910ll9X

1 Rctiencd bv : A. M. H~ttntlgadi 1 Approved tn.: Dr. H. V.Docror

1 P a y : 61

of 66

C:llegon - A 1 Flitrc SYS~CIIIS


Rclinocc lndustrics Lillliicd P:irnlg:~~~p Tra~nin!:Svstcm

Modulc No.


-- - ..

-.-- ................ ........ .....


.................. - '...:.u SAFE B O U N D A R Y .. .. .. : . ( 4 4 0 BTU/HR/SQ.FT.)

.............. ..


: :

................\ ,... WARNING S I G N A L P R O T E C T I O N ...... ...... REQUIRED FOR \ .........-',\PROTECTION ........1.......... REQUIRED EQUIPMENT
a .....
a .

... ) . /-.. ..


/ ". ...........






: '





a a

I Rc\ by :A. M. Ji3113ngadi I Approved b\. : Dr. H. V. ~ 1 Date : 1~~/01/9R-I RS -C - :. (12 - _ or _( 6

0 ~ 1 0 ~ I

Ca!cgon A l Flnrc SIS~CIITS

I<ctinllccIrldustrics Linr~tcd Tt~!lri~ig SVSICIII

Modulc No. TES-TS-P-014

I:i:t~rc 15 - 'Typical flnrc pilot and igttilcr

Prcporcd h- : M G.~ 3 n r Rev : 00

I Rcvicacd bv : A. M. H x w n p d i I Approved bv : Dr. H. V. Docfor 1 1 Datc : l 9 ~ 0 1 1 9 ~ '1 Pagc : 63 ol' 66 !

follo\\~r?g rcli'rcnccs havc bccn u\cd ~vl~ilc i ~ r c p , ~ r tllis i ~ ~module g I


Flnrc Gas Systcn~s Pocket Ifandbook by K. ~ancrjcc, N. P. Chct-cmisinotTct. al

> .

~Imcrican I'etroleun~ Institute, lielirit~y P~dctices, 520 and 521

lnfonnation regarding statutory requirerncnt and LAB flare system has been obtained from Mr. A. E. I'atil ( TS ) and Mr. U. D. Deshpande ( TS ).

---1 D:!;c

rcprcd % : M. G.hlnnr

1 Rcvicncd by : A. hl. Ha1Iane::;;i

:A : : [ ; ; 138

. . .


Approvcd bv : Dr. H V Doctor I -I I P:tgc : 64 of 66

Calcgory A l

Rcli:~t~cc Industrin Liniilcd P:~lnl&?ng.nTnini~ifi Svslcnl


Modulc No.




I'ollowin~ is a list of some of the questions which can be useful for validation of training on this module. I

3 .

\Vhat is fl;!ring ? Why is it required ? Wliat are direrent types of flares? Wliat are tlie advantages and disadvanta~es I associated with then1 ? What are the components of a typical flare system 7 what arc the causes which lead to overpressurization of a process system ?




How is the relieving lotd calculated in case of a external fire ?


How is the maximum load to be flared is arrived ai ? Describe the guidelines to estimate no. of flare headers in a plant. Outline briefly the method of sizing the lines in a flare system.

7. 8.


How are the ho~izontal and vertical flare KO drums designed ? What are the types of seals used in the flare system ? What are the guidelines for seal leg sizing? Describe the molecular seal which is utilized in the flare system. How is the flare burner tip diameter is anived at ? What are the parameters which determine the flare stack height? Explain briefly how the flare stack height and safe boundary is arrived at How are the ground level concentrations determined in case of flame blow out ? \!'hat are different types of the stack s ~ p p o r t? s

10. 11. 12. 13.




How is srnolieless flame achieved in a flare system 7

how is the steam requirement for smokeless flare operation calculated ? Prcprcd bv : M. G. Marvc - 1.-Rcvic\\cd . . bv : A. M. H~tlangadi I Approvcd b?. : Dr. H. V. Doctor L H ~ :~ 6 1 ; r i ate :30/Oi!W t -. . 1-5 oi 61: - -1

I A .

I Y . T-.


What are the types of flare purging ? Why is pursing rcqi~ircd \\'hat is typical instrunlentationand control associated with a flare system ? '


Wliat are the steps in startup and shutdown of a Ohrc system ? Wliat are the inspection checks carried out on the flare stack

\\Illat are the things, operations crew shol~ld monitor 111 tllc normal operation of the flare 7

---. I Re\?c\vcd - --- b\. : A M H;:Bnglfi . . .! c;=: . ,<.,,.-,,>" .,..,-., ,.,

I P~;;c : 66

I.pp:o;.cC b\. : Dr :1 o i 65


1 Doc::: F


&Iodule No :TES-TS-P-O I 4


Flare Systems

Cateenry t \ l

: .IMC

&!ion Learning Mclllod Sclf s t ~ ~ d y Hrs # Validation ?.lctl~od Qtriz Quiz Quiz Quidproblem solvinz Quidproblem solvins Quiz Quiz Quiz (Total)
~ ~ ~ ~


Sr. N.J.

Rcquirclncnt orfl:~ring 11)pcs of narcs Co~llpncnts of tltc flare system Detcrn~ini~lg vzpour loads to be flare6 Dcsign of collection








Chap[cr I .O Chapter 2.0 Chapter 3.0 Chapicr 4.0 Chaptcr 5.0






Y .

Self Study




~~ ~


Sclf study
Sclf study Sclf stndy

2 2

-. I



-~ -~


dcsigt~ MGM considentions Flarc opcralio~~s MGM Flares at RIL PC MGM

Chspter 6.0 Chaplcr 7.0 Cliaptcr 8.0

Scll study Sclf study Self stud!. (Total)

2 2