Francis (Latin: Franciscus Italian: France sco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio;[b] 17 December 1936) is the 266th and
current Pope of the Catholic Church having been elected Bishop of Rome and absolute Sovereign of Vatican City. Born in Buenos Aires as the son of Italian parents, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technician and nightclub bouncer before entering seminary. He was ordained a priest in 1969. From 1973 to 1979 he was Argentina's Provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998, and a cardinal in 2001. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI in February 2013, on 13 March 2013 the papal conclave elected Bergoglio, who chose the papal name Francis in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first pope from the
and faiths. the first from the Southern Hemisphere and the first non-European Pope since Pope Gregory III. Bergoglio has been noted for his humility. beliefs. He is known for having a simpler and less formal approach to the papacy. his concern for the poor. he is known for favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation. most notably by choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace formerly used by his predecessors. both as an individual and as a religious leader.Americas. 1272 years earlier.
. In addition. and his commitment to dialogue as a way to build bridges between people of all backgrounds. by starting to refuse the traditional papal mozzetta cape upon his election and choosing silver instead of gold for both his piscatory ring and pectoral cross.  Throughout his life.
the usage ofcontraception and homosexual acts. mercy and compassion.1 Pre-religious life 2. while neglecting the greater need for tenderness. upholding the orthodox teachings of the Catholic faith.1 Dirty War
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. while affirming the present Church teachings has stated that Catholics have concentrated officiously on condemning abortion. Contents [hide]
1 Early life 2 Pre-papal career 2.Pope Francis. and maintaining ties with the Islamic world. Furthermore.3 Bishop 2. the Pontiff emphasized the Christian obligation to assist the poor.2 Jesuit 2.4 Cardinal 3 Relations with Argentine governments 3.
3 Kirchners 4 Relations with religious communities and others 4.5 Curia 220.127.116.11 Name 5.6 Early issues 5.2 Nonbelievers 5 Papacy 5.2 Fernando de la Rúa 3.
3.7 Vatican Bank 6 Teachings 6.1.2 Morality as response to God's mercy
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.4 Residence 5.3 Judaism 4.2 Protestantism 4.1.1 Election 5.3 Inauguration 5.4 Islam 4.1 Interfaith dialogue 4.1 Rejecting worldliness 6.1 Eastern Orthodox Church 4.
6 Impoverished migrants 6.
6.2 Labour 6.1 Unwed mothers 6.13.1 Priestly celibacy 6.13.4 Capitalism 6.16 Organized crime 7 Titles and styles 8 Arms 9 Writings
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.12 Clergy 6.9 Lobbies 6.7 Abortion 6.8 Food waste and starvation 6.1 Abuse 6.11.13 Children 6.14 Contraception 6.11 Position of women 6.10 Liberation theology 6.12.5 Poverty and economic inequality 6.3 Creative transformation in evangelization 6.15 Homosexuality 6.
 a barrio of Buenos Aires. and his wife Regina María Sívori. He was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio. Bergoglio's sister María Elena told reporters decades later that their father often said that "the advent of fascism was the reason that really
.1 Books 10 Other 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links Early life
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born in Flores. a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian (Piedmontese-Genoese) origin. an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro (Province of Asti) in Italy's Piedmont region.
She is the pope's only living sibling. Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of Tita Merello. In the only known health crisis of his youth. Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles. Buenos Aires. Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of the San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. in Ramos Mejía. neorealism and tango dancing. a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco. In the sixth grade.
.pushed him to leave" Italy. He attended the technical secondary school Escuela Nacional de Educación Técnica N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen and graduated with a chemical technician's diploma. with an "intense fondness" for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory. His brother Alberto died in June 2010.
Buenos Aires City. Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer. in Villa Devoto. and also ran tests in a chemical laboratory. he "was dazzled by a girl I met at an uncle's
. and. Bergoglio has said that as a young seminarian. after three years. Jesuit [show]Ordination history of Pope Francis Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary. Inmaculada Concepción Seminary. entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. as a janitor sweeping floors. Pre-papal career Pre-religious life Before joining the Jesuits.at the age of 21 he suffered from lifethreatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards.
temporary vows of a member of the order. As a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Santiago. in 1964 and 1965. when he made the religious profession of the initial. he taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada.wedding". Chile. and in 1966 he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires City. Argentina. Bergoglio officially became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960.
. a high school in the Province of Santa Fe. At the conclusion of his novitiate in the Society of Jesus. Buenos Aires Province. Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo San José in San Miguel. In 1960. so much so that he "could not pray for over a week" because he could not help thinking of her. and so he "had to rethink what I was doing".
He served as the master of novices for the province there and became a professor of theology. After the completion of his term of office. Spain. Before taking up this new
. by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano. at Alcalá de Henares. He was namedProvincial Superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina on 31 July 1973 and served until 1979. tertianship. Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual formation as a Jesuit. in 1980 he was named the rector of the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel in San Miguel.In 1967. and took his perpetual vows in the Society of Jesus on 22 April 1973. He attended the Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel (Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel). a seminary in San Miguel. Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969.
 before returning to Argentina to serve as a confessor and spiritual director to the Jesuit community in Córdoba. Father Bergoglio served in that capacity until 1986. staying at the Jesuit Centre in the Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy. Dublin. while considering possible dissertation topics. Germany.[c] As a student at the Salesian school. he spent the first three months of 1980 in Ireland to learn English.
. He spent several months at the Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt.appointment. After returning to Argentina to take up his new post at San Miguel. In Germany he saw the painting Mary Untier of Knots in Augsburg and brought a copy of the painting to Argentina where it has become an important Marian devotion. Bergoglio was mentored by Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest Stefan Czmil.
Bergoglio became Metropolitan Archbishop of Buenos Aires. Bergoglio created new parishes and
. serving as principal consecrator.Bergoglio often rose hours before his classmates to concelebrate Divine Liturgy with Czmil. He chose as his episcopal motto Miserando atque eligendo. with Cardinal Antonio Quarracino. Bishop Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and was ordained on 27 June 1992 as Titular Bishop of Auca. Archbishop of Buenos Aires. It is drawn from Bede's homily on Matthew 9:9–13: "because he saw him through the eyes of mercy and chose him". On 3 June 1997. Upon Quarracino's death on 28 February 1998. In that role. Bergoglio was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Buenos Aires with right of automatic succession.
led pro-life initiatives. Archbishop Shevchuk has said that Bergoglio understands the liturgy.restructured the archdiocese administrative offices. Early in his time as Archbishop of Buenos Aires. and created a commission on divorces.[clarification needed] On 6 November 1998. One of Bergoglio's major initiatives as archbishop was to increase the Church's presence in the slums of Buenos Aires. rites. the number of priests assigned to work in the slums doubled. he was named ordinary for those Eastern Catholics in Argentina who lacked a prelate of their own rite. Under his leadership. and spirituality of his Greek Catholic Church and always "took care of our Church in
. Bergoglio sold off the Archdiocese's shares in multiple banks and transferred its accounts to those of a normal customer in international banks. while remaining Archbishop of Buenos Aires.
 In 2000. a home for the elderly or with poor people". In his first Holy Thursday as
. a former bishop who had been defrocked as a priest after opposing the military dictatorship in 1972. Bergoglio was the only church official to reconcile with Jerónimo Podestá. Bergoglio said the Argentine Catholic Church needed "to put on garments of public penance for the sins committed during the years of the dictatorship" in the 1970s. a hospital. and he defended Podestá's wife from Vatican attacks on their marriage. Bergoglio made it his custom to celebrate the Holy Thursday ritual washing of feet in "a jail.Argentina" as ordinary for Eastern Catholics during his time as Archbishop of Buenos Aires. the years known as the Dirty War. That same year. One year he washed the feet of newborn children and pregnant women.
Cardinal Bergoglio was one of the first bishops in the world to respond by instituting a Tridentine Mass in Buenos Aires.pope. the first woman was a Serbian Muslim. He was reelected to another three-year term on 11 November 2008. Bergoglio was elected president of the Argentine Episcopal Conference for a three-year term (2005–08). He remained a member of that Commission's permanent governing body. In 2007. visiting a jail in Rome where he washed the feet of twelve inmates aged 14 to 21. just two days after Benedict XVI issued new rules for using the liturgical forms that preceded the Second Vatican Council. the second was an Italian Catholic. president of its committee for the Pontifical Catholic University of
. On 8 November 2005. among them two women. Francis continued this custom. It was celebrated weekly.
Bergoglio submitted his resignation as Archbishop of Buenos Aires to Pope Benedict XVI as required by Canon Law.Argentina. When he traveled to Rome for the ceremony. he and his sister María Elena visited the village in northern Italy where their father was born. Cardinal At the consistory of 21 February 2001. Archbishop Bergoglio was created a cardinal by Pope John Paul II with the title of cardinal-priest of San Roberto Bellarmino.
. When he turned 75 in December 2011. Bergoglio issued a collective apology for his church's failure to protect people from the Junta during the Dirty War. and a member of its liturgy committee for the care of shrines. a church served by Jesuits and named for one. While head of the Argentine Catholic bishops' conference.
As cardinal. He was member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. when Cardinal Edward Egan returned to New York following the September 11 attacks. the Congregation for the Clergy. Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording
Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio in 2008 Later that year. the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. Bergoglio was appointed to five administrative positions in the Roman Curia. the Pontifical Council for the Family and the Commission for Latin America.
Therese of Lisieux. calling her "a great missionary saint. A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. rather than in the elegant bishop's residence in the suburb of Olivos.secretary) in the Synod of Bishops. and he enclosed a small picture of her in the letters he wrote. Bergoglio attended his funeral and was considered one of the papabile for succession to the papacy. according to the Catholic Herald. He lived in a small apartment. Cardinal Bergoglio became known for personal humility. and." On the death of Pope John Paul II. He
. created "a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue". He limited his time in Rome to "lightning visits". doctrinal conservatism and a commitment to social justice. He took public transportation and cooked his own meals. He was known to have a unique devotion to St.
. this number of votes had no precedents for a Latin American papabile. In the National Catholic Reporter John L. Allen. La Stampa reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with Ratzinger during the election. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner in the 2005 Conclave. but fell back to 26 at the fourth and decisive ballot. The claims were based on a diary purportedly belonging to an anonymous cardinal who had been present at the conclave. According to Italian journalist Andrea Tornielli. In September 2005. Jr.participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. the Italian magazine Limes published claims that Bergoglio had been the runner-up and main challenger to Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave and that he had received 40 votes in the third ballot.