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com/wiki/African_Writing_Systems Nsibidi Script below
African Writing Systems
Mandombe script Writing is a means by which people record, objectify, and organize their activities and thoughts through images and graphs . Writing is a means to inscribe meanings that are expressed through sounds. urther, writing provides an aspect of historicality. !"# This means that writing facilitates the proper recording and transmissions of events and deeds from one generation to another. Most of the worlds written script originated from the Semitic script. The $ree%s converted the Semitic script into what was to become the &'nglish script& of the western world. (rabic and )ebrew retained the basic format of the Semitic script, employing vowel characters and not letters. *hinese script developed uni+uely. It is rather interesting to note that no alphabet is known to have ever been formed by Europeans. We are very familiar with the (frican 'gyptian hieroglyphic script and the (frican 'thiopian $eez script, which date as old as ,--.* and /-- .* years respectively.
Sudan Script : (fan .7/ths a human in the &three8fifths clause& !. 1t appears that one of the main reasons why these great (frican script were lost in the sands of )istorical time.assa Script 3 <ai Script = Mende Script 2 0sibidi Script > 'do7. it would be impossible to maintain his being less than human. who was portrayed as an animal 5still written in the 6S constitution as .)owever forgotten by no coincidence are many other ancient (frican scripts that are uni+ue and expressive in their own ways. !4# To this goal. boo%s destroyed and higher s%ills silenced. *olonialism was internationally justified on a premise that the (frican was less than a human. is the direct mechanism of the colonial operation. Scripts created and used for hundreds of years from Sudan to 0igeria.enin Script . all evidence of (frican advanced s%ills would have been suppressed. )ere we loo% at some of the great forgotten scripts of the (frican continent. Contents • • • • • • • • • " 'thiopic Script 4 'gyptian Script . if a slave. this stamped by the infamous "23/ &*ode 0oir&.#9 could read and write in his native language with advanced s%ill. 1n a time when only the 0obles of the West could read and write.romo script / .
• • • • • • • ". 0&%o Script ": Mandombe Script "/ Shumom Script and @rint @ress "3 *ontroversy Ethiopic Script .amun Script "4 ?u%a%ui Script ".Tifinagh Script "" .
such as ideography. mnumonics.'thiopic is an (frican Writing System designed as a meaningful and graphic representation of %nowledge. 1t is a component of the (frican ?nowledge Systems and one of the signal contributions made by (fricans to the world history and cultures. which are arranged in seven columns. and grammatology. astronomy. each column containing 43 syllographs. has a total of "24 syllographs. 'thiopic is a %nowledge system because it is brilliantly organized to represent philosophical features. !:# . in its classic state. 1t is created to holistically symbolize and locate the cultural and historical parameters of the Ethiopian people. The System. syllography.
Egyptian Script .
Sudan Script . !/# .*. the Meroitic. or a time. used to write the Meroitic language of the ?ingdom of MeroA7?ush.. The system is written from right to left. 1t was developed sometime during the 0apatan @eriod 5about =-. The Meroitic script is very similar to the 'gyptian Writing System. 1t was used by the Meroe people. replaced Egyptian script. The Meroitic script is an alphabetic script originally derived from 'gyptian hieroglyphs. unli%e the 'gyptian system which can be written right to left. it was also possibly used to write the 0ubian language of the successor 0ubian %ingdoms. left to right. consisting of twenty8three letters.y the third century . and first appears in the 4nd century .* a new indigenous alphabet. a civilization of the Sudan. and vertically.-.*9.8 .
Afan Oromo script .
a term that is resented by .romo and neighboring peoples in Ethiopia and language as B$allaB. enya. .romo people and no longer used.1t is the language by more than 4/ million .lder publications refer to the !assa Script .
he would have witnessed the ."IS#O$% of the !assa Script& '(() !C 5*iberia. The script is called <ah by the .. he established an institution for learning <ah. Through his travels. sabotage and colonial thin%ing Ciberians would lead to Er. Morgan. 'ventually this evolved into a complex written language. 0ot to be confused with the <ai ethnic group. Cewis attended Syracuse 6niversity and earned a doctorate in *hemistry. $ola.assas. a decline in the usage of <ah script caused by external cultural forces. Er. Euring the era of the Trans8(tlantic slave trade. <ai and ?issi also are %nown to have their own written language. 1n Ciberia the . almost brought this written portion of the . lo Earvin Cewis in the ">--s would re8discover the script in South (merica. mis8 trust. Teeth mar%s would be left on leaves and placed in a discrete location for the intended reader. . being a . Cewis on a determined path to learn. passing it from generation to generation.assa script in use. as a result of abandonment. West (frica9 Many people today are unaware of the genius of the (frican.assa Script9.. and on through to the neo8colonial period in (frica.assa alphabet. Cewis was astonished to find out that he.assas avoided slave traders by utilizing <ah5. )ad )anibal visited Ciberia in /-. Euring the colonial. $ermany where a company manufactured the first printing press for the .assa people have a written script. former Senator 'dwin (.assas that were sold into slavery now living in .*. Most of these scripts have diminished over time. 1n Ciberia.assa language to extinction. Messages where also carved in the bar%s of trees. particularly ?powin5Tradetown9 and . teach and revive the script in Ciberia. This discovery put Er. The ?pelle.assa *ove. it may come as +uite a surprise to many that (frican people have a multitude of written languages. where he was %nown as the (frican @rince. <ah was initially the throwing of sign or signals utilizing the natural environment..assa himself. which is translated to the phraseD To throw sign. Cewis returned to Ciberia by way of Eresden. !3# !=# +ai Script . (mong his students were. Er. *ounselors Gacharia Hoberts and Iacob Cogan. ear. Corma. many . $rebo. (lthough they might admit to a complex verbal language structure. who also have their own written script as mentioned above. CewisJ untimely deathF leaving an open legacy yet to be completed. %new nothing of any such writing amongst his people bac% in Ciberia.razil and the West 1ndiesF %ept the tradition of writing alive. Er.
West (frica "2"> .
The actual origins of this script are enmeshed in mythology. Some suggest that he developed this script from coming into contact with the .assa Ciberian script in his sojourns. !2# . This script said to be invented by inspiration by Momolu Euwalu .u%ele at about "2">.ende Script .
Sierra *eone -sibidi Script .
The -igerian 0sibidi is an indigenous adaptable and fluid writing system of two dimensional signs. 1t originated as an esoteric form of %nowledge understood by a select group of . three dimensional forms of pictographs and ideographs and pantomimed gestures.
anyang spea%ing areas. Edo.razil during the slave trade.!enin Script . 1gbo. 'fut. (nnang and . 1bibio. Some of the signs of the 0sibidi spread to the *aribbean and .people mostly members of a secret society in Southeastern 0igeria which some sources lin% to the 'jagham and later spread to 'fi%.
That is a writing based on different color combination&s and graphs.:bb. (bhuluime.::MpL4 . SourceD httpD77afri%afriend. This system of color writing and tradition needs to be further investigated. (ccording to Mr.enin and 'do people of southern 0igeria have developed a chromatographic system of writing.ru7viewtopic. We hope to provide additional information on color writing in the future.phpKidL".ta in ">>>.. The system is also called +uantography or pictography. there is a published wor% entitled B(frican ScienceD The (rt of *olour WritingB by (ba . (ba (bhuluime of 0igeria brought the chromatographic writing system to our attention.
#ifinagh Script .
*ibya !amun Script .
Cameroon. West (frica ukakui Script .
Sierra *eone -/ko Script 0uinea .
.andombe Script .
$epublic of Congo Shumom Script and 1rint 1ress .
including the histories.. Sultan 1brahim 0joya.razzaville in the South and *had and *entral (frican Hepublic in the 0orth.Shumom Script and 1rint 1ress of Cameroon The Shumom people are the people of *ameroon in West (frica. -ot only they killed or e5iled their leaders6 they also violently banned the use of Shumom& thereby condemning the people to colonial dark age. 1n so doing not only he succeeded in ensuring a wide range of ideographic ideas to choose from. the writing system was in use in conjunction with the . ordered his constituency to contribute symbols for the writing system.y the time of the $ermans arrival. laws and customs of the people and their neighbors. oumban is the administrative capital of the district. ?ing 0joya. . whose father was %illed resisting the $erman invaders. Several manuscripts and documents were produced. the land of the Shumom people is located in the northern part. but he also paved the way for eventual acceptance of the system by the whole nation.useums. ?ing 0joya opened a school in umban where many are trained to become literate and promote leaming in their own language. led the invention. which means the meanings of a word will vary depending upon the tone with which the sound of the word is uttered.:--./ syllographs. $abon and *ongo . the people of *ameroon were able to accomplish one of the most remar%able (frican achievements of the centuryD the invention of a self2sustaining and self governing writing system and a !ron3e cast printing set device to document the histories of the people. 1t is a land of massif plateau and mountains. the able and visionary leader. #he 0ermans and later the 4rench did not want to see the flourishing of a literary tradition among the !amums.. valleys and vast forested land. The invention that started in the late nineteenth century 5"2>/ or "2>39 was completed by the beginning of the 4-& century in ">-. graphs designed to represent all the phonetic and tone sounds in the . The remar%able accomplishments of the *ameroonians is in line with the long and glorious traditions of the inventions and use of writing systems. '+uatorial $uinea. The system went through seven stages of development.amum language of the Shumom people. Their country is located between 0igeria in the West. This process combined with mythology would place the system as permanent cultural asset and legacy of the people. Two systems of writing were taught at the schoolD the Hoyal and the popular scripts. 1n the beginning of the 4-th century or perhaps earlier. which is a tonal language. The first stage had over five hundred pictographs and the last stage has had only . #ragically the most important documents are taken away by colonial masters out of Cameroon and they are housed in the 4rench and !ritish . Within *ameroon.amum language. .*. a part of the great e+uatorial forest of West and *entral (frica. perhaps beginning with the hieroglyphics of the (ncient 'gyptians whose earliest pictographic writing now dated to be . The Shumom writing system was invented and used in such a participatory democracy where all the members of the society are as%ed by the %ing to participate in the project.
They all made mar%s thereon and passed on what they mar%ed to their neighbors.& The %ing too% a plan% and made a mar% as the man directed. and to bring them to him.& BThe next day he summoned all his courtiers again and as%ed them. )e also made many signs. 1n this way man&s speech could be inaudibly recorded. B0joya as%ed whether the populace would be able to understand this silent speech. ive times he consulted with these two and by then he understood enough. ?ing 0joya had also successfully surveyed and produced a map of his nation.under the titleD C&'criture des . )is courtiers repliedD &0o. Then wash the board and drin% the water. The published text regarding the writing system was the combined wor%s of MEW Ieffreys and Madam Eugast of rance in ">/. ( man came and before him sayingD &. )e then washed the plan% with water and dran% it. 0joya said he agreed with them. ta%e a wide. this boo% businessK& They replied that if he did as he suggested no one would be able to interpret the mar%s. as the man in the dream directed.& 0joya as%ed whether it would not be as well to carry out his suggestions. no one will understand the meaning of these mar%s. if things are done as you wish.?ing 0joya mythologized the invention of the Shumom writing system as followsD BWhen ?ing 0joya was asleep one night he had a dream. The ?ing now summoned many of his courtiers and told them to mar% out many things and to give names to all these things so that the result would be a boo%. Iust imagine the natural and progressive development of the people of *ameroon without the rude and violent and destructive intervention of 'uropean colonialismN . and if the problem were too much for him he would abandon it. 0evertheless his courtiers were to ma%e many signs. Then he called together many of his courtiers and taught them the signs. all different. BWhen it was daylight the ?ing too% a wide plan% and mar%ed thereon a man&s hand. Many people learned and ?ing 0joya was very pleased. sayingD &What now do you thin% about this matter. and handed it to that man who also made a mar% thereon and returned the plan% to the ?ing.useum of O5ford. and called in Moma and 1siah 5two Mohammedan Mallams9 to help him plan.amum and it was published in rance. sleep and ponder over the matter till it become clear. no one will be able to interpret these mar%s. flat piece of wood and mar% on it a man&s hand. and told them to leave the matter with him and he would try.h ?ing. all schoolboys. BThe ?ing now collected all these signs.B4 ing -7oya/s magnum opus in the royal script ran to 8&8(( pages and its replica is now with the 1itt2$ivers . When 0joya consulted with them again the problem was solved. and they repliedD &1t is no use.& 0joya said to themD &$o. and they had paper in their hands. This is also a remar%able feat by itself. 1n the dream there were many people sitting around.
$x. This bemusing fallacy has been debun%ed as evidence of ancient use of these scripts have been found in all cases.edu7africana7WritingOSystems7Shumom. and in all cases they were &coincidentally& described to have meditated or been aided by visions to carry out this daunting tas%. httpD77www. httpD77boo%s. the (frican historian discoverers were again by no coincidence +uic%ly labeled to have been the formulators of these ancient scripts.Tfy"4 a.QMsaLRMoiLboo%OresultMctLresultMresnumL"SvLonepageM+LbamunT4-printingT4-pressMfLfalse Controversy When many of these scripts were re8discovered.MsigL8 +otof2af.Sv$? :y8 l(e2zMn1.library.HefD • • ".cornell.com7boo%sK idLH)fE1:aM/T1*MpgL@(2MlpgL@(2Md+LbamunPprintingPpressMsourceLblMotsL/j>%>>Q23. and a propaganda tale was spread in all cases that these scripts were invented recently by each discovering researcher in an amusingly identical fashion of them setting out to create these written languages Ee 0ovo just to prove that (fricans too could create written language.google.wsnMhgMhlLenMeiL+rb.html 4. .
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