= and
,
( ) ( )
n n n
G z G z = with ( ) lim ( )
n
n
G z G z
= , when
that limit exists. The Zeno contour is a graph of this iteration. The word Zeno denotes the
infinite number of actions required in a finite time period if
, k n
describes a partition of the time
interval [0,1]. Normally, ( ) ( ) z f z z = for a vector field, f = F . The alternative notation
( )
,
1
( )
n
n k n
k
G z g z
=
=
L LL L
is also available.
l. Begin with
,
1
=
k n
n
and
,
1
( ) ( ) +
k n
g z z z
n
with ( ) z continuous on a domain S , and
,
( )
k n
z S g z S . Then we have
, 1, 2, 1,
1 1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( ( )) ( ( )) ( ( ))
= + + + + +
n n n n n n
G z z z G z G z G z
n n n n
.
Now, imagine a function
( ) [ ] ( ) ( )
1
1,
0
, , 0,1 and , lim ( ) , with , defined
 

\
mk mn
m
k
z t t z G z z t dt
n
:
1
0
1 1 1 2 1 3 1
( ) , , , , ( , )
       
= + + + +
   
\ \ \ \
n
n
G z z z z z z z t dt
n n n n n n n n
And for t irrational, ( , ) lim ( , )
=
r
r
t t
z t z t for rational
r
t .
The existence of this function (and the integral) is equivalent to the convergence of the Zeno
contour. ( )
1
0
, z t dt
is more a virtual integral since its analytical form can be murky at times.
~ 2 ~
(i) Zeno Contour to Parametric Form: Write the recurrence sequence as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0
1
, ,( 1) ,( 1) Z z k n Z z k n Z z k n
n
= +
Assuming ( )
0
, Z Z z t = , one concludes
( ) ( ) ( )
,
0 0
( , 1 ,
k n
n
Z dZ
Z z k n Z z t
t dt
= =
, [0,1] t .
Example:
2
( ) z z = produces
2
dz
z
dt
= which gives ( )
0
0
1
,
1
Z Z z t
z t
= =
. Here
2 2 2
0 0 0
( , ) (1 ) z t Z z z t = =
Example: ( )
z
z e = . Here
0
0 0
( , ) (1 )
z
Z z t z Ln e t = and
0 0
0
( , ) (1 )
z z
z t e e t = .
Example: ( )
z
z
z
. However,
0
0
( )
Z
Z z t Ln
z
  +
= +

+
\
allows no closed
formulation of
0
( , ) z t , although
1
0
0
0 0
( ,1)
( , ) 1 ( )
Z z
z t dt Ln
z
  +
= +

+
\
.
Example: ( ) ( ) ( ) z x y i x y = + + . We have ,
dx dy
x y x y
dt dt
= + = , which can be solved
2 2
1 2
( )
t t
x t C e C e
= + and
2 2
3 4
( )
t t
y t C e C e
= + , with
0 0
( , )
k k
C C x y =
~ 3 ~
Example:
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) z xCos y i ySin x = + giving
2 2
( ) , ( )
dx dy
xCos y ySin x
dt dt
= = , a system not
solvable in closed form, if at all. The two contours use
1 1
,
n n
n n
= = , the latter terminating
at one of many attractors on the real axis.
(ii) Parametric Form to Zeno Contour: Given ( ), 0 1 z z t t = , describe ( ) z or
( , ) z t . We must have
0
(0) z z = .
Example:
0
( )
t
z t z e
= , ( )
dz
z z
dt
= = .
Example:
0
( )
t
z t z e t
= + ,
0
(1 ) ( , )
t
dz
z e z t z t
dt
= + = + = . Therefore the
generating functions are ( )
,
1
( ) (1 )
k n
g z z z k n
n
= + + , and the contour is a pathline,
rather than a streamline, given by
( )
0 , 1, 1, 0
( ) lim ( )
n n n n n
n
G z g g g z
 

(
 
(

(
   

= (
 
  
\ \
(
 
(
\ \
(
If
n
C C n = = then the last expression approximates
(1 )
1
0
n
e
 

\
and convergence occurs.
~ 5 ~
Thus
,
1
k n
n
= forces the contour to terminate at an attractor, while
, k n
C
n
= seems to
cause the contour to terminate early. When the differential equations described previously can
be solved early termination follows easily. Zeno contours follow streamlines of course.
Writing ( )
1
( ) ( )
n
g z z f z z
n
= + and then ( )
1 1
( ) 1 ( ) ( )
n
g z z f z
n n
 
= +

\
,
for ( ) f z z < , a simple vector analysis shows that, in an approximate sense,
1 1
1 1
( )
n
z G z z
e e
+
   
 
\ \
For large values of n. Thus the leading tip of the contour is trapped in an annulus that is
quite small if z is close to .
A little more can be deduced about the speed of convergence:
(1) ( ) z R < and (2)
1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) z z z z < for all relevant values of the variables.
Note that
1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) f z f z r z z f z r z < < and
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (1 ) f z f z r z z z z r z z z z < < + =
Then write
1 1
, , 1 , , 1
0 0
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ( )) ( ( ))
1
n n
n n n n k n k n
k k
G z G z G z G z
n n
+ +
= =
=
+
.
After some algebraic manipulations,
[ ]
1
, , 1
0
( ) ( ) 1 (1 ) (1 (1 )) ( )
( 1) ( 1)
n
k
n n n n n n n n
k
R R R
G z G z n k
n n n n n
+
=
< + + + + + + = <
+ +
where
1
n
n
=
+
. Then
1 , , 1 , 1
1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( )
1
n n n n n n n n
R
G z G z G z G z G z
n n
+ + +
+ <
+
.
Thus successive approximations are bounded somewhat:
1
2
( ) ( )
n n
R
G z G z
n
+
< .
The previous result shows the contour is bound away from the attractor,
~ 6 ~
Example:
2
( ) f z z z = + ,
0
.7 .3 z i = + , 100,000 n = ,
1
n
n
= vs
1
n
n
= .
( )
0
0
1
,
1
Z Z z t
z t
= =
0
0
0
( ,1)
1
z
Z z
z
=
.
III. Consider the function defined by
1
0
( ) ( , ) z z t dt =
= =
+
.
A nonanalytic example: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z x iy xCos y ixSin y = + = +
And another: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z x iy xCos x y iySin y x = + = + +
~ 8 ~
Also,
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z x iy yCos x ixSin y = + = + for
( )
3 z =
And finally,
.8
( )
z
e
z
z
= on the circle 1 .8 z =
V. The Zeno integral is loosely associated with Ergodic theory in the following way:
( )
1
1
, ,
0
0
1
( , ) ( ) ( )
n
n n k n
k
z t dt G z z G z
n
=
=
an average value of
( ) { }
1
,
1
( )
n
k n
k
G z
=
where the
sequence
{ }
,
1
( )
n
k n
k
G z
=
are points distributed along the emerging Zeno contour.
~ 9 ~
Example: Set
2
( ) z z z = for 1 z i = + and 200 n = :
The (approximate) Zeno contour is in purple, while the distribution
( ) { }
,
1
( )
n
k n
k
G z
=
is in green.
The point ( ) z lies in quadrant III within the arc of the distribution: (1 ) 1.187 ( .312) i i + +
Another integral worthy of mention and easily obtained [1] is
( ) ( )
1
2
,
0
1
( ) lim ( ( ))
n
k n
n
k
z
z dz G z
n
=
=
so that the integral, where the integrand is basic for generating the Zeno contour upon which it
is evaluated, provides the average value of the sequence
( ) { }
1
2
,
0
( )
n
k n
k
G z
=
. Note that the
sequence
{ }
1
,
0
( )
n
k n
k
G z
=
is generated using the function , not
2
.
Example: ( ) ( ) ( ) x iy xSin x y iyCos x y + = + + ,
0
1 z i = + . Then
( )
1
2
,
0
1
1.594 .515 ( )
n
k n
k
i G z
n
=
+
~ 10 ~
Pathlines coincide with streamlines if the underlying force field remains constant. When it
does not pathlines may or may not lie close to streamlines. In the language of Zeno contours,
pathlines are computable in the following format:
( )
, , ,
( ) ( ) ( )
k n k n k n
C C
g z z z z f z z
n n
= + = + ,
, , 1, 1,
( ) ( )
n n n n n n n
G z g g g z
, then when
, , , ,
( )
k n k n k n k n
f z z < ,
, k n
and
,
0 1
k n
< ,
,
( )
n n
G z as before:
( )
, ,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
k n k n
C
g z z f z f z f z z
n
= + + ,
, ,
( ) 1
k n k n
C C C
g z z z
n n n
 
+ +

\
,
, ,
( )
k n n k n
C
g z z
n
+ ,
1 (1 )
n
C
n
 
=

\
. Thus
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
, ,
1
1
( )
C
n
C
n C
n n n k n n
k
C
G z z
n e
=
 
( + +

\
And C n = provides convergence as before.
Example:
1 1 2
x y dZ
i
t t dt
= + =
+ +
leading to
0
0
0
y
y x x
x
= .
~ 11 ~
Example: ( , ) ( ) ( ) z t xCos x y t iySin x y t = + + + . With vector fields
( ) ( ) ( , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (1 ( )) (1 ( )) f z t xCos x y t x i ySin x y t y f z x Cos x y iy Sin x y = + + + + + = + + + + +
Reference:
[1] J. Gill, Zeno Contours in the Complex Plane, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac. XIX (2012), www.johngill.net