This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Polonnaruwa Period (1017-1235 AD)
Polonnaruwa new center of administration located about 101 km from Anuradhapura no Sinhalese style monuments under Cholas Polonnaruwa did not have large population but center of monumental architecture destruction of palaces and shrines at Anuradhapura
remain in power more than six decades
Cholas conquered Ceylon end of 10th century
military garrison stationed here during Anuradhapura period Topa Veva tank built by king Upatissa ll (AD 522) weak kings came to power o name means “city of Pulasti” who was a famous sage
Mahawamsa records Anuradhapura period and Chulavamsa records Polonnaruwa
became place of importance by 6th century AD under name of Pulatthinagara o This will later be incorporated into Parakrama Samudra
Aggabodhi lV (AD 667-685) first Sri Lankan King to live in Polonnaruwa Mahinda V forced to flee from unpaid Malaysian troops authority of king had collapsed Royal province of Rajarata in north given over to mercenaries and central Ruhuna never pacified and continued to be trouble for Chola
Cholas captured Mahinda V in Ruhuna 24 years later
Mr.W. Karu Peiris Former Programme Officer –National Heritage Commission
and was exile to South India and he died there later. A Viceroy was appointed to Sri Lanka by the Chola Emperor and ruled the country from South India. The capital was shifted from Anuradhapura to Polonnaruwa and named it as Jananathapuram or Jananathamandalam. Sri Lanka was named as Mummudi Chola Mandalam. They plundered Anuradhapura city and damaged the Buddhist monuments also. South Indians ruled this country for about 62 years. Only the exploitation took place, but any developments happened during this period. International trade became government monopoly and taxes collected by contractors. These tax collectors abused system and taxes sometimes reached up to 50%. Buddhist institutions no longer benefitted from national taxes. Areas like Anuradhapura with its many monastic institutions fell into disarray. The Sinhala Kings who came to power after defeating of the Chola also continued to have Polonnaruwa as the capital. Polonnaruwa had a strategic value in security. Route to the South of the island could be controlled from there. It was farther away from the Western coast where invaders from South India landed. With the early constructions of large tanks in this area such as
Anuradhapura last king Mahinda V was defeated by South Indian Emperor Rajaraja in 993 AD
restored Buddhism. A young prince by the name of Kirthi who came from Down South liberated Rajarata from the Cholas and became King as Vijayabahu I (1055-1110 AD). Kantale tank etc. Mr. There were 3 kings before King Parakramabahu came to power. Unfortunately most of his good works lost during 30 years of civil war following his death. spices. porcelains trade with Muslims to west to Aden. Kaudulla. and rebuilt the dilapidated tanks and canals to uplift the irrigation system. Giritale tank. united south part of island in opposition to Cholas restored Sinhalese sovereignty continued Chola policy of using Polonnaruwa as administrative center restoration of Buddhism chief concern brought new life to literature and arts restoration of ancient edifices at same time Vijayabahu started building his base there started trading with Buddhist kingdoms to east (Burma and Sri Vijaya) Sri Vijaya had powerful navy that Cholas could not contain by this time Chalukyan dynasty had become serious threat to Cholas finally Vijabahu took Polonnaruwa and liberated the island (same year as Norman Invasions) devoted energies to rebuilding his country beginning with water works hundreds of tanks and canals repaired after years of neglect new areas of land became productive once more religious links with Burma. spinal rubies..perfumes.Minneriya. The Panakaduwa copper plate inscription of King Vijayabahu praised for Lord ‘Sithnarubim Budalna’ for giving help to hide in Deniyaya as a concealing place from enemies. tanks and luxury cars of day) sent to Burma for proper monk in order to ordain local ones Polonnaruwa Period . bull-dozers. Cambodia and Malaysia all of these areas where Theravada Buddhism prospered trade with Malaysia and Sumathra led to markets of China and silks. especially with Pandians. amethysts and garnets Sri Lankan elephants prized throughout Asia (tractors. Topa Wewa. Karu Peiris Former Programme Officer –National Heritage Commission 2 History: His 1st queen was the daughter of Jagathipala who came from Ayodhya in India and ruled in Ruhuna. the center of agriculture shifted eastward from Anuradhapura. His second queen was Thilokasundari from Kalinga in India. Thailand.W. Further he arranged the marriage of his younger sister Mithra to the Pandian king against the Cholas. For the security of country King Vijayabahu had these relations with foreign countries. Ormuz and Arabian Gulf Sri Lanka already famous for its spices found in markets of Arab world famous for blue sapphires. He brought the country about a period of stability.
Kalahala vewa.W. Karu Peiris Former Programme Officer –National Heritage Commission 3 History: built triple circuit of walls around the city and strong Citadel within joined 5 earlier tanks and created second “sea of Parakramabahu” (Topa vewa. but they were not much important. step by step he defeated the other provincial kings and brought the whole country under his rule and continued his capital as Polonnaruwa Period surpassed former leaders with magnificence in architectural achievements became master of Ceylon invaded South India several times and Burma as well Chulawamsa recorded series of victories but result was Pandian invasion of island exhibited great vision and ambition at early age came to throne as teenager and set about developing irrigation 1st territory between modern Kurunegala and southwest coast (northeast of Colombo) built new capital at Panduwas Nuwara reorganized government administration nationalized gem and pearl industry exported to Arab world through his ports at Kalpitiya. His mother was Ratnawali who was a daughter of King Vijayabahu I and his father was Manabharana the exruler of Dakkinadesha. Abayagiri and Jethavana monks united into Nikaya Sangaha or “Supreme Order” inscription at Gal Vihara records attempt to settle these issues this unification of different orders insured preservation of Buddhism on island created seat of learning at Alahana Pirivena about time Padua and Oxford established . When Parakramabahu came to power. Mr. Eramudu vewa. The King Parakramabahu was the king of Dakkinadisa earlier and ruled from Parakramapura which is today known as Panduwasdevnuwara. Dumbuthulu Vewa and Boo Vewa) Between the King Vijayabahu and the King Parakramabahu there were three kings.The next great king was Parakramabahu I (1153-1186 AD). Colombo and Chilaw conquered Polonnaruwa in 1161AD and took control of entire island developed Dakkhina Desa along southwest coast drained its swamps and planted coconut palms now famous “Coconut Triangle” the highest number of village tanks in the island is found around Yapahuwa-Panduwas Nuwara area according to Chulawamsa he constructed or restored 38 tanks in Dakkhina Desa turned ancient of Anuradhapura into wildlife sanctuary restored many monuments in Anuradhapura restored Mihintale home of Buddhism on island perhaps greatest task to unite three orders of monks o before king Parakramabahu’s period wealth of monasteries had been squandered o surviving monks hopelessly divided Mahavihara.
‘Raja Vaishya Bhujanga Mandapa’. India • series of weak rulers followed and disruptive factions appeared at court • new series of invasions. 4 History: . His reign was a period of peace. A large number of buildings both religious and secular were built during his time. his council chamber. built by earlier kings. The country could not afford such ambitious schemes so it declined after his reign. He repaired edifices such as the Lova Maha Paya. • death of king led to administrative collapse of country • last powerful ruler of island • no major irrigation works for another 700 years • only two kings after him able to rule entire island (Parakramabahu ll and Parakramabahu Vl) • indications of high taxes and discontent in later years of his reign • overreached (fell by trying to achieve more than is possible) himself by sending fleet against Burma & S. purity and unity. In this period Sri Lanka was known as ‘the granary of the East’ because of the abundance and prosperity. his palace.W. Karu Peiris Former Programme Officer –National Heritage Commission Polonnaruwa. He did much but with a great cost. Alahana Pirivena (which is a world heritage site). This King engaged himself in foreign wars in Burma and South India. appearance of malaria and perhaps even climate change • sent Gen. the Kumara pokuna. Galvihara or Uttararama. Deepa Uyana and Vatada ge.Vaijayantha prasada.He arranged a consecration with the help of chief monk Dimbulagala Kashyapa Thera and rid the sanga of indiscipline monks. Buddhism was restored to its pristine glory. He believed that not a single drop of rain water allow to flow into the sea without being used. He built great irrigation works such as Parakrama Samudra and other canal systems. Baddhasima Prasada and Kirivehera are some of them. Lankapura to Pandian territory in 1169 • took city of Madhura but became embroiled (අවුලක පටලවනව) in Indian politics for years after him • drain on his resources and ended in defeat his death in 1186 Polonnaruwa Period Mr. Thivanka Image house.
Nissanka Malla (1186-1196 AD) born in allied Buddhist kingdom of Sri Vijaya (Sumathra).000 soldiers and conquered the island.W. Within the nine years of his reign he did much. He visited many places in Sri Lanka including Sri Paada Kanda (Adam’s Peak). but historians believe this was built the great King Parakramabahu and Nissanka Malla did some renovations only. Rankoth Vehera. South Indians invaded three times and in 1210 said to have destroyed entire social structure of religious organization. Each pillar represented the position of the officer. tortured and harassed opponents • “Blood and Iron” policy implemented throughout the country to protect his power • he was contemporary to Genghis Khan • Polonnaruwa capital survived until 1236 under 19 kings. Sri Lanka went through the worst period of its history. when city finally abandoned • drift to southwest of kingdoms begins in the 13th century (1236 AD onwards) Polonnaruwa Period Mr. Country was defenseless and he devastated the whole island. Today we can see the megalithic pillars and the throne in the shape of a lion. Karu Peiris Former Programme Officer –National Heritage Commission 5 History: . insulted Buddhist monks. This was a period of problems and a period of Dark Ages with few sources to describe events. Nissanka Latha Mandapaya etc. • Barbaric tyrant who ruled for 25 years • depleted islands remaining resources • Ceylon never recovered from Magha • destroyed the temples and plundered them • seized lands. His inscriptions are found almost all over the country. There is an inscription saying that the Vata Daage was built by King Nissanka Malla. the Tooth Relic Temple. Pirate admiral Magha from Sumatra or Malaysia or Kalinga was worst of all. He built a palace by the side of Parakrama Samudra and also his council chamber. He built Hatadage. but some making impossible claims. Magha’s invasion of Ceylon in 1214 credited with downfall of civilization. He died in 1196 and son Veerabahu was assassinated the next day. After him there were 12 kings and queens within a period of 17 years. Polonnaruwa continued alliance with Pandyas until end of 12th century. He was able to stop the decline for a short period. He attacked Sri Lanka in 1214 with 24.
Karu Peiris Former Programme Officer –National Heritage Commission 6 History: Polonnaruwa was buried under the earth and encroached by the dense forest until 19th century for 700 years. Lankatilaka. Vijabahu I and Parakramabahu the Great The significance of this historical city was that the unanimous attitude of Sinhala and Tamil nations as well the harmony of Buddhism and Hinduism which amalgamated very well during this period. brick and stucco statues of Thuparama. Sanskrit was used in inscriptions too. According to Dr. Stuart photographed the ruins. During the prominent kings period’s country was centrally controlled than other periods. Early periods. or falsehood practices) recorded a growth. Ama watura and Dharmapradeepika were written in this period. Kings came to be regarded as aspirants to Buddha hood. Buddhism had a set back during Cholas occupation and during the reigns of the lesser kings. Another 50 years later an army officer Berch and Lt. Galpotha of Nissankamalla and a pillar inscription at Padaviya. Velaikkara Tamil inscription. Paranavithana started the excavations. intricately carved stone Buddha statues at Gal Vihara. Fargon in 1820 AD. The revenue was derived mainly from agriculture. Burrows. Later H. Buddhist and Hindu monuments could be seen within same locations in this ancient city. The council of chambers built by King Parakramabahu and the King Nissanka Malla etc. Polonnaruwa period was the prime days of Sanskrit learning in Sri Lanka. (off the Nawalapitiya-Ginigathhena Road) Polonnaruwa slab inscriptions. The king was assisted by a Council of Ministers. M.P. the King Parakramabahu’s rock inscription at Gal Vihara. The first person who revealed the information about Polonnaruwa was Lt. The King Parakramabahu unified the three Buddhist sects to one. The King Parakramabahu appointed governors to the provinces. Hindu influence crept in. Mr. Thivanka Image house. H. The British did the excavations. The highly appreciated books. The most well known inscriptions of Polonnaruwa period are the Panakaduwa copper plate.C. Rituals and ceremonies (According to the real Buddhism these activities are known as Seelabbathaparamasa. Even today also these two religions mingled together. Bell and Dr. Pali and Sanskrit languages influenced Sinhala Literature. the Kings were treated as gods. Vilgam Vihara was a Tamil Buddhist Temple. The country was divided into certain parts and ruled under ‘Epas’ and ‘Yapas’ (provincial leaders). Some foreign trades also prevailed. Polonnaruwa Period .W. Hindu shrines were built. Shiran Deraniyagala this could be proved through the archaeological evidences.Polonnaruwa – General medieval capital of Sri Lanka and one of most beautiful historical sites home of two most important kings in Sri Lankan history. Sculpture and Inscriptions: Examples for sculptures are the so called statue of the King Parakramabahu at Pothgulvehera. Ambagamuwa.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.