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Chapter 11

The Public Sector

Global overview
Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
The Public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the Government, whether national, regional or local/municipal. The conditions of globalisation, including economic integration, scal discipline, introduction of information communication technologies and democratic governance, have increasingly forced economies to redene their role in public management and to reform the public administration system. The Public sector has a great variety of functions and operates in a large array of domains, from the collection of taxes to the production and delivery of energy to private households and enterprises, to the delivery of compulsory education to children in a given age group. Also, the relative size and political, economic and social weight of the Public sector vary immensely from region to region and country to country. In 2000, the resolution of the 24th Special Session of UN assembly mentioned the importance of stronger public institutions to provide an effective framework to ensure an equitable provision of basic social services for all and recognises that an effective and accountable Public sector is vital to ensuring the provision of social services. However, the Public sector throughout the world has undergone changes, in some cases radical, in the last decade. Apart from a few exceptions, unions have been unable to stop the ideological thrust to reduce the role of the state and many jobs have disappeared in those countries where changes occurred.

Traditional Public Administration


Traditional public administration was associated with the emergence of Civil Service systems in countries undergoing industrialisation in the second half of the nineteenth century. These systems embodied a set of rules about merit-based recruitment and promotion, for example, the use of competitive examinations. Two major aspects were job security and the payment of a decent, xed salary, usually determined by job-related criteria rather than by market value. The important principle was also established that the Civil Service was an impartial but obedient instrument of the State. Its relation to the public was also that of a detached, impartial interpreter and implementer of the laws and the policies of the day. Thus, the Civil Service came to enjoy the status of an impartial protector of the public interest and became a symbol of stability and continuity. Traditional Civil Service systems were rule and procedure-based. The tendency was to rely on seniority rather than appraisal of relative efciency in decisions on staff promotion. Most countries adopted traditional Civil Service systems. The past two decades have called for policy shift in the Public sector especially in its role and size. During the 1980s and the 1990s, the view prevailed that the smaller the government the better. Although all countries aspire to improve the effectiveness of Public Service delivery, the challenges they face in pursuing this objective vary greatly according to the prevailing social and economic conditions. In developed market economies the focus tends to be on delivering existing services more efciently, while developing countries are often preoccupied with nding the means to expand the scale and scope of coverage and the economies in transition are confronted with the difcult task of remaking their social sectors in a changed political and economic environment. However, there is growing realisation amongst decision makers that policy and institutional reform will not be sufcient to revitalise the Public sector. Major strengthening of the knowledge, skills, values, attitudes and leadership abilities of human capital are also needed to transform the Public sector, particularly in developing countries and countries with economies in transition.
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In fact, there are also heartening signs in some countries that the people are now more aware of the dire implications of what has been happening to their Public Services. Public sector unions in many countries are learning to develop new strategies to deal more effectively with a world that has changed dramatically. Public Services can only be defended successfully when the public themselves identify strongly with those services.

New Public Management


From the late nineteenth century, the example of business management has had a strong hold on the minds of Public sector reformers. This continued to be the case in the development of the modern Civil Service. The traditional public administration paradigm was quite distinct in important respects from that which prevailed in the private sector. For example, it was much less common for private sector management to offer security of tenure although some large companies did have a career planning system (e.g., in Japan). Practices that developed in the private sector were the main source of the public management model. The public management paradigm has no rigid rules, formal procedures and uniform systems such as those that prevail in the traditional Civil Service. It emphasises the hands-on skills of the manager and the need for managers at all levels to exercise initiative.The new public management paradigm is best characterised not by any particular doctrine or set of practices but by its non-adherence to the one-size-ts-all approach of the traditional Civil Service.

Responsive Governance
While public management originated in an admiration for businesslike efciency, more recently a new model has evolved that focuses on creating public value. This view counters the bottom-line mentality derived from many business models and emphasises a focus on the management of multiple stakeholders and conicting values in an overtly political or public-interest context. An important objective of governing institutions is to promote constructive interaction between the State, the Private sector and civil society. The governance model emphasises a government that is open and responsive to civil society, more accountable and better regulated by external watchdogs and the law. Governance models thus tend to focus more on incorporating and including citizens in all their stakeholder roles rather than simply satisfying customers, a theme that echoes the notion of creating public value.Traditional public administration focused on hierarchical accountability within the Civil Service and further upward to political leaders. Public management also brought into play professional accountability of the kind that the manager in the Public sector acquires through training and experience. Responsive governance depicts diverse, complex forms of 360-degree accountability in which there are multiple stakeholders in both government and society, all of whom have a claim to be heard and answered. Openness and transparency are thus part of this emerging model. Accountability in the responsive governance model calls for new forms of skills and leadership on the part of civil servants, requiring that they be politically impartial and socially responsible yet also politically aware and sensitive. The responsive governance model is also emerging from a set of developments in thinking and in practice, namely, the potential impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on public administration. Hence, the combination of new governance and the information revolution creates a vision of public policy and administration that requires new combinations of expertise, accountability and responsiveness.

Trends
Many states in East Asia institutionalised most elements of traditional public administration, but they have been somewhat cautious about New Public Management reforms. Some prime examples of relatively high-performing bureaucracies, such as Malaysia and Singapore, have been enthusiastic borrowers of business management concepts such as TQM but less attracted to marketisation of New Public Management-style.

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The seeds of the responsive governance model can be found in the United States, with its long traditions of decentralisation, self-help and grass-roots democracy. Many countries, however, have yet to institutionalise traditional public administration. This is most obviously the case in poor countries, including many in Africa. Often, extreme instability and war has put the process of bureaucratic modernisation into reverse, the most striking contemporary example being Somalia. More generally, economic and political strains associated with dependency and under-development has resulted in the decline of many Civil Service systems.

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Old age, new challengesChina


China is facing new challenges as the result of an ageing workforce. This situation is triggered by two fundamental demographics: a declining fertility rate and increasing longevity. Furthermore, considering that state employees are generally both older and ageing at a more rapid pace than their private-sector counterparts, this issue is becoming a major HRM challenge. First, the demand for skilled employees continues to grow, and the Public sector faces ercer competition with the private sector for talent. Second, the increased number of retirees in the Public sector will deprive the Government of valuable institutional memory. Recognising the potential implications of an ageing workforce for the Civil Service, the Government has initiated specic strategies to address this emerging situation. Public reform has persisted for a sufcient length of time in several countries. Australia and New Zealand are both early and long-term reforming countries that display distinctive features as well as being Anglophone countries identied with new public management. The New Zealand model was by far the most clearly articulated reform model in the world. Further, while it did incorporate elements of what came to be known as neoconservative views, the model itself could be applied within a variety of idea sets. The most interesting thing about the New Zealand model was the way in which it drew together so many of the new elements in global thinking. In applying the model all Government ministries and agencies were broken into three groups depending on their customers and market positions. 1. Contestable markets: Agencies supplying good or services to external markets for a market determined price were turned into state owned enterprises and ultimately sold.

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2. External service provision: Agencies supplying services, regulation of aviation for example, remained in Government ownership but became stand-alone entities and charged for their service so as to recover costs plus a return on capital. This was meant to be fully transparent to those being charged. In practice some element of subsidisation might still be required because of externalities. In this event, the subsidy in fact represented a Government purchase from the agency. 3. Government as customer: Where the Government was the sole purchaser, then the ministry or agency became a service provider with a single customer. In theory, this separation allowed Government to consider alternative purchases, introducing a degree of potential competition. For example, New Zealand might choose to outsource defence in whole or part to Australia, paying Australia for the service. Or buy economic advice from sources other than the New Zealand Treasury. There are close links between Australia and New Zealand, and the New Zealand experiment had a signicant Australian impact. In addition, because New Zealand itself was part of a broader global movement, it can be hard to distinguish between New Zealand and broader global impacts. As a simple mechanical example, ministers were meant to agree their performance objectives with the Premier. Then the various departmental CEO's had to agree their performance objectives with the Premier's Department.

Again, as in the New Zealand case, we can see the way the application of the model was driven by the Government's ideological stance.

Pension reform for a sustainable future - Brazil


Brazil is the latest major country in Latin America to reform its pension system. In recent years, the cost of the countrys public pension system had exceeded the nancial capacity of the Government. Given the demographic change with an ageing population, the system became scally unsustainable.

Turning brain drain into brain gain - Philippines


When it comes to labour migration, the experience of the Philippines is undoubtedly unique. Having initially failed to prevent emigration by adopting coercive policies, the Government has instead launched a number of measures to maximise the benets from labour migration. The results of the Philippines experiment have been encouraging, attracting growing attention from other developing countries as a potential model in this area.

Stemming the brain drain - South Africa


The brain drain in the public health sector in South Africa derives from a combination of push-and-pull factors.Push factors include low salaries and benets, unsafe working conditions, degraded health care infrastructure and inadequate opportunities for career development. Pull factors include the high transferability of medical qualications, active foreign recruitment, higher remuneration and the shortages of health professionals in destination countries. The brain drain has undermined the Governments efforts to improve the quality of public health, especially at a time when the HIV/AIDS epidemic is seriously increasing the demands on the health system. It has also wasted substantial public training budgets. To address this growing problem, the Government of South Africa recently introduced a series of measures to retain professionals and to encourage the immigration of foreigners as well as the return of nationals working abroad.

Outsourcing Public Services:


The National Health Service - United Kingdom
Globally, the United Kingdom has been a leader in the application of outsourcing in the Public sector. Initially, the use of outsourcing was limited mainly to administrative and information technology (IT) related back-ofce functions, but more recently, it has been expanded into other front-line services as well. This includes catering and the delivery of health services.

The Public Service Modernisation Act - Canada


The principles of non-partisanship and merit have always been fundamental to the vision of the Canadian Public Service. Merit is the basis for all appointments in the Public Service. However, the term has never been articulated in legislation and has therefore been dened mainly through case law and precedent. This lack of a clear denition of what constitutes merit has resulted in a very cumbersome, process-driven appointment regime, which has inhibited the ability of the Public Service to recruit and promote staff effectively. The Public Service in Canada, as elsewhere, is facing many human resource management (HRM) challenges, including an increasingly competitive labour market; demographic changes in terms of both

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age and representation; the growing need to invest in staff development, to improve labourmanagement relations and to sharpen accountability lines; and the gradual deterioration in the image of Public sector employment, which has made it more difcult for managers to recruit and retain talent.

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Rightsizing the right way - Uruguay


Uruguay is a welfare state whose citizens enjoy one of the highest standards of living outside the industrialised world. The countrys Public sector is faced with numerous challenges, including a disproportionately large Civil Service. Since the Constitution makes it very hard to dismiss a civil servant, downsizing of the Public Service had become a very tenuous proposition. Things were further complicated as public employees were often hired based on political connections, which led to the constant creation of new public agencies and divisions, often with little regard for the cost implications. Owing to the oversized Public Service, the salaries of professionals were also very low, resulting in many qualied employees working only a few hours a day in the public ofce and spending the rest in a private sector job to supplement their income.

Developing a shared vision - Germany


The Federal Ofce for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) in Germany has recently gone through a change process, where its mission was redened from that of an asylum authority to a government migration policy centre. Prior to 2002, the work of the Federal Ofce was limited mainly to dealing with asylum applications, but it has since been expanded to include a more comprehensive set of services relating to migration, integration and return of refugees. To be able to deliver on the new policy, BAMF had to undertake an internal consultative process to redesign its organisational vision and strategy. An important part of this exercise was to discuss its impact on HRM policies, systems and practices in the organisation. The process of developing the vision was guided by the following principles:
K K K K

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Opportunity for all employees to participate; Voluntary participation; Transparency and comprehensibility of the process; and Support by management and the staff council.

Public Service

A career in the Public Service is more attractive in low income countries. For non-African countries, the attractiveness of a career in the Public Service suffers from bribes, yet for African countries bribes are not a deterrent. Entrance examinations combined with university credentials enhance the prestige of a career in the Public Service.1

Characteristics of Public sector employment - UK


The proportion of men in employment who are employed in the Public sector has decreased slightly since 1995, while the proportion of women has increased slightly more than the decrease in men. The vast majority of Public sector workers were in the 35 to 50 and 50 and over age groups. The Public sector historically has employed a larger percentage of its staff on a part-time basis compared with the private sector. The workers in the Public sector are more likely to work 16 to 30 hours per week than their private sector counterparts. Public sector workers are also less likely to work long hours than workers in the private sector. The proportion of Public sector workers who have stayed with the same employer for ve years or more has been higher than that for the private
1 World Public sector Report (2005) Unlocking the Human Potential for Public sector Performance

sector since 1995. However, the proportion of workers who have spent ve to nine years with their current employer in the Public sector has decreased in recent years and is now equal to that for the Private sector.

Employment growth - Canada


Public sector employment continues to grow at a steady pace. In 2007, Public sector employment grew 1.9 percent from the previous year to reach an average of 3.2 million. After years of decline throughout the 1990s due to government cutbacks, Public sector employment has been increasing at a similar pace to the overall economy since 2000. This is reected in the proportion of Public sector workers among the total employed in the labour force, which has remained stable at about 18 percent since 2000, well below the peak of 23 percent in 1992.2 Box 1: Fluctuations in employment in the Public sector in UK, 2004 - 2008
Thousands
40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30
2004 Q1 2005 Q1 2004 Q4 2005 Q4 2006 Q3 2007 Q1 2004 Q2 2004 Q3 2005 Q3 2006 Q2 2007 Q2 2005 Q2 2006 Q1 2006 Q4 2007 Q3 2007 Q4 2008 Q1

Quarterly changes in Public Sector Employment, United Kingdom, Seasonally Adjusted Source: Ofce for National Statistics; Defence Analytical Services Agency, Ministry of Defence; Cabinet Ofce; Home Ofce, Local Government Authorities; NHS Health and Social Care Information Centre; Welsh Assembly Government; Scottish Government; Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment.

Public Sector employment decreased by 20 000 (seasonally adjusted) in the rst quarter of 2008 to 5 758 million. Employment by public corporations decreased by 12 000. In local government employment decreased by 8 000 while in central government it was unchanged. The number of employees in the Civil Service decreased by 7 000.
2 The Daily, Canada (May 2008)

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Table 11.1: Total Public employment in OECD countries 1990 2001


1991 199 1994 1 588 300 81 461 2 679 069 527 334 4 801 300 1 732 512 15938 224 020 1926651 241 000 16 309 785 075 288 260 1 983 258 236 000 1 734 314 814 027 3 107 131 1 732 918 16 690 805 040 219 050 2 010 085 232 000 1 951 302 271 505 4 702 300 4 611 700 4 581 700 4 651 970 4 527 600 270 897 822 615 3 107 549 1 725 000 1 7249 817 028 222 560 2 047 645 228 000 3 0741 1 974 260 518 291 531 094 541 386 541 086 239 378 239 131 2 648 908 2 578 503 2 530 832 2518 900 83 511 83 106 82 872 82 996 83 768 2 513 016 256 089 536 632 4 704 087 4 433 600 799 722 3108 803 1 718 244 17 778 828 033 230 090 132 210 2 101 724 227 000 3 1307 2 118 748 1 603 000 1 585 400 1 484 100 1 473 400 1 464 200 1 731 400 2 705 852 577 527 5 275 300 1 680 108 17 157 238 810 1 809 511 35 389 1 816 116 1 863 027 1 891 279 227 240 229 300 2 32 150 17 602 15 401 15 714 1 693 879 1 713 039 1 728 707 5 229 500 5 060 300 4 932 800 557 497 528 728 2 724 780 2 711 895 82 902 81 627 1 697 900 1 675 100 1992 199 1993 199 1995 199 1996 199 1997 199 1998 199 1999 199 2000 200 1 466 000 85 227 2524 790 539 334 4 347 300 79 1436 1 713 665 18 316 846 257 220 170 133 536 2 009 206 222 000 32 353 2 197 152 2001 200 1 485 800 2 552 613 542 078 788 654 1 698 725 18 934 227 220 2 136 788 215 000 33 791 -

1990 199

Austr alia

1 746 100

Belgium

Canada

2 662 563

Czech Rep .

Finland

580 487

Source: Adapted from OECD (2001)

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Italy

Japan

1 670 146

Luxembourg

16 819

Netherlands

New Zealand

Norway

Spain

1 801 006

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

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From the Table 11.1, it is noticed that the number of employees in the Public sector in OECD countries between 1991 and 2001 had a diverse trend in terms of the number of people it employed. Among the 20 countries cited in Table 11.1, in seven countries, the number of employees decreased. These countries included Australia and New Zealand, Finland, Sweden, Germany, Hungary and

USA

17 766 044 17 848 240 18 043 375 18 190 397 1 8433 889 18 586 615 18 693 500 18 875 169 19 101 053 19 424 607 19 869 558

Canada. In nine countries, the number of employment in the Public sector increased for the same period. USA and Spain were among these countries. It was also noticed that in four countries, namely Greece, Japan, Italy and Norway, the number of employees remained relatively stable.

Local Overview
The origin of the Mauritian Civil Service goes back to the period of French Colonial rule (1715 1810), with the establishment of a Provincial Council with the Governor as Head and a few employees of the French East India Company assisting in the administration of the island. The real development of the island, with the creation of the harbour, roads, bridges, hospitals, schools, courts, prisons and forts started at that time. The Mauritian Public sector has been undergoing substantial changes over the years, in an effort to increase its efciency and the quality of its services to the public. Greater emphasis is being placed on training and information technology. The different budgets emphasised the need to keep pace with the new world economic conditions and with greater openness to the outside world. With the growing need for improving the quality of Public Services, the government has put the concept of putting people rst whereby with the empowerment of the people, delivery of services would be better. The Public Service need to re-invent itself to face the new emerging requirements of the modern world. The Public Service will have to move from status quo to a dynamic sector. The Government is focusing increasingly on achieving a better performing Public sector which is less costly and which can offer higher quality of services. The Public Service today must not only cater to meet the fundamental needs of the citizens but must also strive to deliver the highest standards of service to everyone. A paradigm shift in the way of doing business in the Civil Service should be achieved, referring to a fundamental shift from a rule bound by bureaucratic tradition to one that is more mission-oriented, proactive, responsive and market-oriented. International benchmarking awards Mauritius Public sector with comparatively good grades.In recognising the need to set realistic goals, simplify and streamline procedures, nd more efcient ways of achieving social objectives and intervene, where necessary, in a less burdensome way, Mauritius is following in the footsteps of the US, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and many other countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America and elsewhere. Like these countries, Mauritius is moving towards a post-regulatory state, which relies less on direct provision and heavy doses of government authority and more on lighter, more selective instruments, including a preference for self-regulation and partnerships with non-governmental institutions. (UN 2005) In Mauritius, as in most countries, Civil Service reform has featured elements of both these approaches. In 2001, the Ministry of Civil Service Affairs and Administrative Reforms (MCSAAR) put forward a strategy to modernise the Public Service. The action plan for the years 2001-2003 Toward the Modernisation of the Public Service focused on ve major areas:
N N

Introduction of a results-oriented performance management system Modernisation of human resource management aimed at improving conditions of service and building capacity Streamlining administrative and institutional structures, and redening the roles and responsibilities of the public and the private sectors Improving service delivery with a customer-oriented Total Quality Management (TQM) framework and Citizens Charters

Modernisation of public nancial management with improved budget preparation, execution and monitoring utilising results-based management principles centered on introducing modern technology for delivery of Public Services.

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Public Service Commission


One of the remarkable characteristics about the Civil Service in Mauritius was the establishment of an Independent Public Service Commission which guarantees that a fair deal is accorded to persons from all groups in the society, when it comes to matters of recruitment, promotion, disciplinary action and issues of Human Resource Development generally. Section 88 of the Mauritius Constitutional Order, provides for the establishment of a Public Service Commission made up of a Chairman and four other members appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Prime Minister and the Leader of the opposition. The way of appointment of the Public Service Commission is an attempt to ensure that the various groups within the society who align themselves either alongside the Government or the opposition will have cause for satisfaction that their interests will not be disregarded or that no bias will be shown by the Commission. The Public Service Commission with its power rmly entrenched in the constitution has been able to ensure that the philosophy of merit and equity and the principle of independence and fearlessness are scrupulously maintained while achieving a high level of gender and ethnic representation its members have demonstrated an appreciable level of technical competence and an appreciation of the requirements of modern governance. A series of initiatives were taken to improve Public sector management. A number of structures were set up with a view to modernising the service:
N

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

The National Computer Board was established for the development of national policies in informatics. The Central Informatics Bureau was established with responsibility for coordinating the computerisation in the Civil Service. The State Informatics Ltd was established with responsibility for software development for the Public sector. The Central Information Systems Division

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Several Ministries and Departments have computerised their systems to improve administrative efciency. The Setting up of Work Improvement Teams, and measures to enhance the quality of service to customers through ISO 9000 Standards have shown promise of prompt improvement of service in particular sectors. Steps are taken for bringing about changes in the provision of better health for all citizens of Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega through a decentralised management of operational health services. A review of the Police Department, in collaboration with a British Expert was carried out with the aim of making proposals for a more efcient and effective Police Force with greater emphasis on Community Police. A National Information Communication Technology Strategy Plan of Action (NICTSP) is being implemented on a phased basis with the aim of enabling the service sector to grow and develop into a business hub to enhance the competitiveness of Mauritius in the global context.

Public Service

The Modern Civil Service


In the new millennium a complex system of administration has come into existence in order to meet the needs of the people and the objectives of government. Industrial rms, trade unions, societies of various kinds, welfare organisations and other bodies abound and require the efforts of civil servants. The Prime Ministers Ofce is at the heart of the whole system. It is therefore necessary to review occasionally the machinery of government and determine the units in each ministry that could advantageously be transferred to another ministry.

Citizens Charter
In line with government policy of making appropriate Public Services available to the people, the providers of such services like hospitals, schools, town halls and district councils, the police and prisons, the Accountant-Generals Ofce, the Central Electricity Board, the Central Water Authority, the Telecommunications Service and banks are being encouraged to formulate citizens charters with regard to the services they offer. In these Charters the respective service agencies have to commit themselves to providing prompt, efcient, courteous, honest and fair service. The model of a Citizens Charter is found in the White Paper, The Citizens Charter, issued in 1991 by the British Prime Ministers Ofce. It seeks to achieve: published standards of service; consultative arrangements with the public; clear information; courtesy and efciency from named staff; user-friendly complaints procedures and independent validation of performance. The very existence and enforcement of citizens charters is a guarantee that all citizens of the State are placed on the same footing and need to receive the same attention from public authorities.

Pay Reseach Bureau and its recent report


The Pay Research Bureau (PRB) undertakes a general pay review for the Public sector, as per current practice and Government policy, normally once every ve years. A recent PRB Report has been published in May 2008. It is with an approach and philosophy betting the churning economic environment that the 2008 PRB Report has been designed, developed, drafted and delivered. In the 2003 PRB Report, there were atter structures for improved performance and effectiveness. However, the extent to which this could be done was limited by both cost constraints and employee resistance. Hence the 2008 PRB report re-examined all hierarchies thoroughly to do away, as far as possible, with overlapping functions, reduced the number of levels, provided for polyvalent grades, claried role/responsibility and came up with t-for-purpose structures. This exercise has the advantage of trading off multilayers for longer salary scales so that absence of career prospects is compensated through improvement of career earnings.

A survey on the pay structure carried out by PRB in collaboration with the Central Statistics Ofce revealed that at the upper echelon and near the top, the pay of employees in the Private sector leads pay of corresponding or comparable positions in the Public sector manifold. There are also wide gaps in the benets and other perks that are provided. At the middle management levels, though graduates and professionals in the Private sector, at the initial stage of their career, draw lower salaries than their counterparts in the Public sector, after a few years of experience their absolute levels of pay generally catch up with and exceed pay levels in the Public sector. At the lower levels, however, the Public sector has generally a pay leading over the Private sector.

Challenges facing the Civil Service


According to PRB (2008), the challenges facing the Civil Service are:
N N N N N

Organisational Development; Process and Systems Application; Human Resource Strategies; Pay Reforms; Customer Responsiveness; and and E-Government Services.

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Salient features of the PRB 2008 report


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Pension Reforms
In line with Governments policy as announced in the 2006-2007 Budget for the introduction of a single modied Dened Benet (DB) Pension Scheme applicable to all employees in the Public sector as from 1 July 2008, a new contributory pension scheme has been designed. Employees are being required to contribute 6 percent of their pensionable emoluments towards their pensions. The present retiring age i.e. 60 years would be increased by one month every two months starting August 2008 to reach 65 years in 2018.

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Duty-Free Car Scheme


The duty deferred facilities on cars, which form an important component of the total reward package for professionals, senior ofcers and eld ofcers using their cars in the performance of the duties have been reviewed. Eligible ofcers have been given additional options to induce them to defer the renewal of their car. With this measure, it is expected that the number of duty deferred cars would reduce over time, as ofcers opt to postpone their purchases as long as their cars are still in good running condition. This may contribute to diminish the rate of increase in the eet of vehicles.

Part-Time Employment
In keeping with the trend worldwide, appropriate recommendations have been made to favour part-time employment which is currently almost inexistent in the Civil Service. Chief Executives have been empowered, subject to the approval of the relevant authorities, to resort to part-time employment where the work does not demand employment on a full-time basis. Provisions have also been made to facilitate public ofcers aged 50 or more holding substantive appointment to opt for part-time employment in order to balance their professional activities and family responsibilities. Such working arrangement is expected to have a positive impact on the development of a sound and healthy society.

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Home working

Public Service

The concept of home working has been introduced i.e. an arrangement involving people undertaking work primarily from their homes. This arrangement can have a positive impact on productivity as it involves a shift from a controlling to a facilitating management style and more worker self management. Chief Executives of Ministries/Departments/Organisations are being empowered, for assignments that are project-based with veriable performance indicators, to allow certain categories of ofcers to work from home on certain assignments where demand exists and resources permit.
N

Safety, Health and Welfare


Appropriate measures have been recommended for the safety and well-being of employees at work. All Ministries/Departments have been recommended to operate in conformity with Safety and Health Regulations and to carry out a Risk Assessment exercise to identify adverse working environment and place the employees who are exposed to unfavourable conditions under Health Surveillance. Further, where risks are inherent in the job, the provision of appropriate protective devices has been recommended. Additionally, exibility in the grant of leaves will be provided to cater for a range of personal and family commitments and welfare.

New Salary Scale


A new Master Salary Scale has been designed absorbing the quanta of cost of living allowances paid since July 2004.

Recruitment, Training and Development


For the Public Service to be responsive, employees need to be competent and have the required attitude and mindset to serve courteously and effectively in a timely manner. It is, therefore, essential to recruit candidates of the right prole, provide them with the appropriate training and reward them adequately. Schemes of service have to be revisited to incorporate technical and behavioural competencies as well as the desirable mindset and attitude. Recruiting agencies would need to be equipped with the required tools and expertise for selecting the appropriate candidates. Appropriate recommendations have been made in this regard in the PRB 2008 report. It has also laid emphasis on the strategic importance of training in organisational efforts to build the required skills and competencies for employees to excel within their roles in meeting the set objectives and in quality service delivery.

Leadership Capability Prole


Leadership being one of the most important drivers of excellence, it is essential that selection to management or technical management positions be made judiciously. In this context, the report has come up, based on foreign experience, with a Leadership Capability Prole outlining the requirements for potential leaders i.e. they are expected to have the required mindset, attitude and soft skills; have acquired relevant experience through varied pathways; must possess leadership and management skills; and have the capability to deliver outcomes. The Leadership Capability Prole is expected to serve as a guideline for potential leaders, for training of future leaders and for recruiting agencies of the Public Service in the selection of a diverse pool of talents.

Parastatal Bodies
Changes in organisation structures and certain specic conditions of employment to enable them to full their mandate successfully have been recommended. Certain structures have been streamlined and harmonised and a number of additional levels and new posts have been recommended to be lled on needs basis. However, the report has refrained from reviewing organisation structures of certain institutions, which are presently subject to re-engineering under Government policy.

Local Authorities
The process of harmonising and streamlining the organisation structures of all the Local Authorities, both Municipal Councils and District Councils which started in the 2003 PRB Report will continue. However this has not been covered in our survey.

Rodrigues Regional Assembly


In order to establish clear line of accountability, the structures of the Rodrigues Regional Assembly has been strengthened with a new grade of Ofcer-in-Charge to be accountable to the Executive Head of the different Commissions for the delivery of services in certain departments/units e.g. Tourism, Civil Status, Transport, Consumer Protection, Education (Primary) and Library Services. This part has been covered under the chapter on Rodrigues in the plan.3

3 PRB Report (2008)

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Performance Management System


The implementation of the Performance Management System (PMS) is being steered by the Ministry of Civil The introduction of the system in the Service and Administrative Reforms (MCSAR). It is a Public Sector is gaining ground with means to redirect managerial effort from conformance to some 35 organisations already impleperformance and seek value for public money. This is menting it. The indications are that the necessitating several changes in the ways Public sector system will be rolled out across the organisations work. As in several other countries the PMS whole Civil Service by December 2009. is poised to emerge as the driving force for broader Public The challenge, over the coming years, is sector reforms serving the dual purpose of improving to sustain the system and make it deliver efciency and effectiveness and ensuring value for public on its promises for a performance culture money. It should dictate a new organisational structure to take root and to last in the Civil with clear line of responsibility and accountability and can Service. guarantee, if sustained, the emergence of a performance culture. It should reveal competency gaps essential for training and development interventions. It should also become an essential part of normal management ensuring that supportive and constructive relationships are built between managers and the employees with management by control replaced by management by contract or self management. In the medium term, if properly implemented, the PMS is expected to also serve as a basis for recognition, reward and promotion. Improved performances of civil servants coupled with a better understanding of civil society are key elements for success of budget reform and improving the delivery of Public Services. There is need to sensitise Heads of Ministries and Departments as well as other stakeholders including the media about the Public sector Reform Programme being implemented with emphasis on the link between Performance Budgeting and Performance Management for better delivery of Public Service. The Performance Management System (PMS) which is at the heart of the New Public Management is poised to emerge as the driving force for broader Public sector reforms in Africa. The implementation of PMS was started in 2006 and to date some 35 public organisations have embarked on this important reform initiative. There is need to develop strategic objectives in the Public sector institutions that are aligned to national visions and goals and to set performance objectives, measures, targets and initiatives to support attainment of strategic objectives in the Public Service, while using tools such as the Balance Score Card. Performance should be monitored and measured as well as capacity requirements to support and sustain performance planning and measurement. The PRB Report 2008 has laid emphasis on the need to improve performance and productivity at all levels, and highlighted the importance and expediency of introducing Performance Management in all Public sector organisations. At present, two landmark programmes: the Performance Management System (PMS) and the Programme Based Budgeting (PBB) are being implemented under the Public sector Reforms initiatives. One is complementary to the other in the sense that both systems are results oriented and emphasise a performance oriented culture; facilitate national development planning and budgeting processes; and are linked to delivery of national vision goals. These two systems also aim at focusing resources to the results rather than inputs. They are thus moving the Public Service from an input based system and linking expenditure to outputs and outcomes. Synergising both systems and make them work becomes therefore imperative. It has recommended that Performance Management System needs to be mainstreamed together with Programme Based Budgeting so that both reinforce and support each other with their common focus on improving performance, transparency, accountability and the efcient achievement of planned results.

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Public Service

Programme Based Budgeting


The PBB is spearheaded by the Ministry of Finance and Economic Empowerment (MOFEE). It is an innovative approach of budgeting where funds are allocated for strategic programme objectives while the budget document emphasises on information regarding intended outputs and results. The aim is to shift the budget focus among policy makers and managers from inputs to outputs and outcomes. This approach uses statements of mission, goals and objectives to explain why money is being spent and the way resources including Human Resource (HR) are allocated to achieve specic objectives based on programme goals and measurable results. It links expenditure with targets and enhances transparency and accountability. Understandably, the MOFEE is moving cautiously and in a planned manner for implementation. Alongside the traditional line Budget, the MOFEE has presented an indicative PBB for the period 2007-2008 to 2009-2010 and this has set the stage for a full movement to PBB for year 2008-2009. The Budget implementation and monitoring for year 2007-2008 was geared towards facilitating this transition to PBB.4 We recommend the setting up of a Monitoring Committee on PMS and PBB under the co-chairmanship of MCSAR and MOFEE and comprising representatives of the Management Audit Bureau and such staff with expertise in the domain with the following terms of reference: (a)to review twice yearly the status of PMS in Public Sector Organisations: Ministries/Departments, Parastatal Bodies and Local Authorities, and recommend course of action to address shortcomings and deal with impediments; (b)recommend, as from 2010, for approval to the Standing Committee on Remuneration the payment of an annual bonus every year to all concerned staff in an organisation that has successfully implemented the PMS and deliver the targets under PBB for a continuous period of two years; and (c)ensure that organisations utilise performance information for continuous improvement, which can be through, inter alia, updating of goals and measures; re-engineering of process; or reallocation of resources.
PRB Report 2008

Employment
The General Government sector comprises the Central Government, Regional Government and the Local Government. The Central Government covers the Budgetary Central Government (ministries and departments) and Extra Budgetary Units (agencies operating under the authority of the Central Government and responsible for the performance of specialised governmental functions). The Regional Government comprises the Regional Assembly of Rodrigues while the Local Government is made up of Municipalities and District Councils. According to Central Statistical Ofce, employment in the General Government Sector decreased by about 500 from 74 300 (52,100 males, 22,200 females) in March 2006 to about 73 800 (51 200 males, 22 600 females) in March 2007. Decrease in employment was noted in Central Government (-700) and in Regional Government (-100) while an increase was registered in Local Government (+300). Male employment decreased by 900 while female employment increased by 400. Analysis by industrial group showed that the major increase in employment was registered in Health and social work (+300) while a decline was observed in Public administration and defence (-400) and in Agriculture (-200).5 According to census data, nearly one employee in ve worked for the Public sector in 2000, three quarters of these for general government and one quarter for Public sector corporations.
4 PRB Report (2008); Budget speech (2008-2009); MCSAR, Govt of Mtius website. 5 Economic Memorandum (2007) World Bank

712

Three out of four persons employed in General Government were males. Male workers were predominant in all activity groups, except in Real estate, renting and business services where the female employees accounted for 66 percent of the total employment in the activity. It is to be noted that female employment in Public administration and defence; compulsory social security, Education and Health and social work together accounted for around 96 percent of total female employment in General Government.6 Activities of Public administration and defence; compulsory social security registered a low growth of 0.5 percent after the 4.0 percent growth in 2006. Public sector investment decreased by 18.7 percent in nominal terms to Rs 12 909 million in 2007 from Rs 15 871 million in 2006. In real terms, the growth rate worked out to -24.7 percent in 2007 compared to 28.3 percent in 2006. The negative growth in 2007 is explained by lower investment in aircraft in 2007 (Rs 2 515 million) than in 2006 (Rs 5 675 million), partly offset by higher investment in machinery and equipment by some parastatal bodies. Excluding aircraft, the real growth of Public sector investment was -7.4 percent in 2007 compared to -17.5 percent in 2006. Between March 2006 and March 2007, Public administration and defence registered a loss of 400 jobs. Table 11.2: Employment by Ministry/Department and gender in the General Government, March 2007
Government Services
1. Budgetary Central Government Ofce of the President, Judicial and National Assembly Prime Minister's Ofce Deputy Prime Minister's Ofce and Ministry of Finance & Economic Empowerment Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade Audit, Public & Police Service Commissions and Ombudsman's ofce Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Deputy Prime Minister's Ofce, Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport and Shipping Ministry of Education, Culture and Human Resources Ministry of Health & Quality of life Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Housing and Lands Ministry of Social Security & National Solidarity & Senior Citizen Welfare & Reform Institutions Ministry of Youth and Sports Ministry of Public Utilities Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunications Ministry of Industry, Small and Medium Enterprises, Commerce and Co-operatives Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Deputy Prime Minister's Ofce, Ministry of Tourism and External Communications Ministry of Arts And Culture Ministry of Women's Rights, Child Development , Family Welfare and consumer protection Attorney General and Ministry of Justice & Human Rights Ministry of Civil Service Affairs and Administrative Reforms Extra Budgetary Units Local Government Municipalities District Councils

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Male
37 367 503 12 465 1 120 157 220 4 039 1 790 5 765 6 006 1 603 300 568 329 305 99 151 817 276 276 139 101 65 273 5 345 6 188 4 272 1 916 48 900

Female
16 975 245 1,033 1 011 169 242 428 305 5 811 5 197 87 109 608 87 72 170 118 189 233 82 110 120 108 441 3 948 1 122 772 350 22 045

Total
54 342 748 13 498 2 131 326 462 4 467 2 095 11 576 11 203 1 690 409 1 176 416 377 269 269 1 006 509 358 249 221 173 714 9 293 7 310 5 044 2 266 70 945

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Public Service

2. 3.

Total General Government (except Regional Government)

Source: CSO (March 2007) Survey of employment and earnings in large establishments

6 CSO (2002) Census of economic activities

Table 11.3: Employment and wages & salaries* in the Public sector, 2003/2004 - 2006/2007
2003/2004 Public institutions No of employees (Sep 2003) 53 774 3 241 12 1 374 5 223 6 410 18 169 2 011 Wages, salaries (R million) 9 620 413 2 443 1 080 768 4 564 659 2004/2005 No of employees (Sep 2004) 52 601 3 130 13 275 5 782 6 594 19 201 2 390 Wages, salaries (R million) 10 315 450 2 673 1 193 830 4 736 677 2005/2006 No of employees (Sep 2005) 53 274 3 019 13 646 6 050 6 763 19 186 2 514
1

2005/2006 No of employees (Sep 2006) 51 694 3 914 15 329 6 287 6 822 18 425 18 425

Wages, salaries (R million) 10 875 454 2,863 1,285 857 4,933 4 933

Wages, salaries (R million) 10 682 452 3 521 1 355 917 5 109 5 109

Budgetary central government3 Rodrigues regional government Extra budgetary units of which PSSA-Private Schools Local government Non nancial public enterprises Public nancial instutions

TOTAL

95 976

18 467

97 191

19 681

98 402

20 720

97 771

21 456

1 Revised 2 Provisional 3 No of employees for budgetary central government excludes those with nil salaries and those paid on manual paysheets * Basic wages and salaries, overtime, bonuses, salary compensation & allowances paid Source: CSO (March 2007) Survey of employment and earnings in large establishments

N N N

Budgetary Central Government includes all ministries and departments; Rodrigues Regional Government consists of the administration of Rodrigues; Extra Budgetary Units are agencies responsible for the performance of specialised governmental functions in such areas as health, education, social welfare, construction and so on, under the authority of Central Government (e.g. Mahatma Gandhi Institute, Mauritius Examinations Syndicate, Mauritius College of the Air, University of Mauritius, etc.); Local Government consists of municipalities and district councils/village councils exercising an independent competence as government units;

Infact, the Public sector consists of the general Government sector, non-nancial public corporations and public nancial corporations. An institution is considered as public if it is entirely or mainly owned and/or controlled by government itself or by some other public institutions. Own' is meant having all or a majority of the shares or other forms of capital participation. 'Control implies having an effective inuence in the main aspects of management. Non-Financial Public Corporations are government-owned or government-controlled units selling goods and services to the public on a large scale. Public Financial Corporations are government-owned or government-controlled institutions primarily engaged in both incurring liabilities and acquiring nancial assets in the market. However for the purpose of this survey, the following comprise the sample frame:
N N

Budgetary Central Government and Extra Budgetary Units

714

HRDC Manpower Planning Survey 2007-2010 for the Civil Service


Question 5 How far do you agree with the following statements in relation to the developments occurring in the Public sector during the next three years?
Figure 11.1: Our education system will meet the requirements of the labour market
Agree 27% Disagree 33%

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Neither disagree nor agree 40%

Our education system needs to be reviewed in relation to the changing social and economic congurations of the economy. The Government has to ensure that the education provided to the students harmonises with the requirements of the labour market. Our education system is rather academic and based on traditional elds of study and it is worth noting that our education system plays a central role in supplying labour to both the Public sector and the Private Sector. We note that around 27 percent of respondents were condent about the Mauritian Education System while 33 percent disagreed that it would meet the requirements of the labour market. The 2008-2009 budget has provided Rs 1 billion for a Human Resource Development, Knowledge and Arts Fund under the Ministry of Education, Culture and Human Resources to help better the education system. Figure 11.2: Our training system will meet the requirements of the labour market
Not Applicable 2% Disagree 8%

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Public Service

Agree 53%

Neither disagree nor agree 37%

As concerns training of employees, 53 percent of respondents were condent that our training system would meet the requirements of the labour market. Very few disagreed with this statement (8 percent) as shown in Figure 11.2. The percentage of those respondents agreeing showed that employers were satised with the training system. The government was also providing training support in both the formal and informal sector to create an adaptable multiskilled workforce. It is quite alarming to note that 37 percent of respondents neither agreed nor disagreed. However, it is worth noting that the PRB Report 2008 recommended that Head of Organisations should ensure that their staff be provided with a minimum number of hours of relevant work related training annually and ensure that training is based on needs identied and take into account outputs and accomplishments that have to be delivered in line with goals and to meet objectives. To meet the challenges emerging from globalisation, the Public sector would need to modernise for improved delivery of services, strategic thinking and planning, assessment of training needs and implementation of continuous training programmes.

Figure 11.3: The number of employment will increase


Not Applicable 2% Disagree 12%

Neither disagree nor agree 31% Agree 55%

In our survey, we saw that 55 percent of respondents were condent that the number of employment would increase. Only 12 percent disagreed with this statement as depicted in Figure 11.3. The Public sector employs, around 18 percent of the total workforce of the country. The total number of employees as at 30 June 2007 according to our survey was 53 474. The Empowerment Programme has trained 4 000 retrenched workers to improve their chances of a job. It has placed more than 3000 in employment in the private sector according to 2008-2009 budget. However with the recent PRB Report 2008, a number of posts have been abolished and it is a common practice nowadays in the Public Service not to ll certain vacancies. Human resources have always remained at the centre of every development, be it economic or social. Given that Mauritius does not have many natural resources, we have no choice but to rely on our human capital. Figure 11.4: Your own organisation will be recruiting more skilled/educated employees
Not Applicable 6% Disagree 10% Neither disagree nor agree 8%

Agree 76%

In order to be productive and competitive on the national and especially on the international front, we need a pool of human resources with the right skills and competencies. The ability of a nation to pursue and manage its development rests on the capacity of its people and institutions within a prevailing enabling environment. Sustainable development and growth require national capacity with the ability to diagnose problems followed by formulating and implementing relevant solutions. The irony of the Mauritian scenario is that despite the fact that we have a reservoir of skilled unemployed people, their proles do not match the requirements of the labour market. There is a mismatch between those learning in our education system and those required in the world of work. Hence it is a good sign that 76 percent of respondents agreed that the Public sector would be recruiting more skilled/educated employees. In this situation career guidance services have a vital role to play in guiding youngsters in proper elds in both Private and Public sector.

716

Figure 11.5: Your employees will have to be more creative and innovative
Not Applicable 2% Disagree 8% Neither disagree nor agree 2%

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Agree 88%

88 percent of respondents agreed that employees would have to be more creative and innovative in the Public Service. These skills are vital to have an efcient Civil Service focused on the need for provision of high quality services to the public. Encouraging creativity and innovation through Staff Suggestion Scheme and innovative idea bank should be encouraged. The buzzword of the day is to think out of the box, be creative, and have critical analysis skills. Figure 11.6: Your employees will have to be ICT procient
Not Applicable 2% Neither Agree nor Disagree 4%

Agree 94%

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717
When it comes to the ICT skills of employees to perform their jobs (Figure 11.6), more than 94 percent of respondents agreed that their employees would have to be ICT procient. Information and Communication Technologies are becoming key enablers of modern life though they are not accessible to all. The 2008-2009 budget provides for the setting-up of a National e-Inclusion Foundation on a joint Public Private Partnership with an objective to facilitate access to ICT tools and raise awareness on their economic and social benets, train users and trainers, and collaborate with NGOs to reach the poor and those at the margin of the digital society. Some budgetary measures like Development of hotspots for educational institutions and public places and expansion of IT school programme by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources in collaboration with Mauritius Telecom would make new entrants in the labour force more IT procient. The MCSAR has also organised a series of workshops and courses to enable public servants to become more ICT literate. The e-government programme is also a step in this direction.

Public Service

Question 6 How has training been benecial to your Ministry/Department


Table 11.4: Benets of training to your Ministry/Department
Benets of Training
Improved performance More skills have been acquired More efciency It has enhanced knowledge of staff Better services are provided Ofcers are more creative More effectiveness The level of competencies have increased It has helped to modify behaviour and attitude of employees More discipline More expertise have been acquired It has motivated employees to achieve organisational goals It has motivated employees to improve their performance at work Training is helping ofcers to provide better and quality service to the public Helped uplift the standard of work as per required established regulations Has helped to enforce the new policies of the government Training has helped promote capacity building so that the department can look forward and to orient towards new concepts, new development and new projects More knowledge gained by staff in specialised elds New techniques for insect control have been learned and implemented Staff have been equipped with new technologies to perform their work Improvement in performance of employees in terms of quality Enabled staff to enrich their knowledge of how to be more productive Enabled timely delivery of services More awareness about goals and objectives It has fostered a learning organisation Ofcers are more innovative Ofcers are more results oriented It has helped ofcers to update with current trends needed to achieve organisational objectives It has enhanced the capacity of employees It has been benecial for record keeping, quick data access and enhanced presentation skills It has helped the organisation in achieving empowerment of its employees It has helped in maintaining focus on customer in view of serving them better It has helped in developing an atmosphere of problem solving It has helped employees to deliver services according to expected standards Ofcers are more job oriented Enabled employees to use computer properly No training

In Percentage
28.6 26.5 20.4 12.2 8.2 8.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

718

Question 8 Please state the eld(s) in which it is difcult to recruit people for your Ministry/Department
Table 11.5: Field(s) in which it is difcult to recruit people for your Ministry/Department
Field(s)
Agricultural treatment/analysis/reporting Air Trafc Services Analytical Chemist

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Job Title(s)
Information Scientist Aeronautical Informatio n Services Research & Development Ofcer

Qualications required
Phd Agriculture HSC Maths and physics BSc Chemistry with analytical chemistry as specialisation BA History and languages BA Chemistry plus certicate in Conservation BA History and languages BA History and languages plus certicate in records management

Archiving

Director, Deputy Director Conservator

Archivist Bacteriology Bio Medical Engineering BioSecurity Fishing Gear Technology Chemistry Classical Dance Coaching Coaching Marathi Operational Health and Safety Research and Development Ofcer Medical Engineer Research & Development Ofcer Gear Technologist Chemist Education Ofcer Swimming coach Swimming coach Education Ofcer

Certicate in records management MSc Bacteriology BSc Micro Biology MSc Biosecurity BSc Food Technology BSc Chemistry Degree Brevet d'etat de cadre sportif Brevet d'etat de cadre sportif Degree Diploma in Operational Health and Safety

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Registry Driving Engineering

Executive Ofcer Driver HMU Project Ofcer

Diploma in Park Management Driving license Registered Professional Engineer (Civil Engineering)

Public Service

Agricultural Engineer Project Assistant

B Eng(Civil) Diploma in Civil Engineering or Quantity Surveying Diploma in Building & Civil Engineering

Technical Ofcer

Field(s)
Entomology Food Engineering Forestry Health and Safety Industrial Property Matters Inspectorate

Job Title(s)
Entomologist Food Engineer Assistant Conservator of forest Health and Safety Ofcer Industrial Property Ofcers Assistant Inspector

Qualications required
MSc Entomology BSc BSc Forestry or related eld Diploma Health and Safety LLB Ordinary Technician Diploma in Building & Civil Engineering or Technician Diploma in Construction or Brevet de Technician in Civil Engineering or in Building Construction BSc Biology or Nature conservation BSc Library PhD System Analysis/Design with emphasis on database maintenance BSc Mechanical Engineering Diploma BSc Medical Diploma in Mechanical or electrical engineering MSc in Mycology BSc Micro Biology Diploma MSc Virology Degree MSc Nematology CPE CPE

Islet Restoration and Management Library Livestock system analysis/database monitoring Maintenance Engineering Marathi Medical

Agronomist Parliamentary Librarian Livestock System Analyst Maintenance Engineer Education Ofcer Medical Ofcer Medical Specialist Technical Ofcer Research and Development Ofcer Micro biologist Education Ofcer Nematology Education Ofcer Research and Development Ofcer Nurseryman Senior Nurseryman

Metrology Micrology Micro biology Modern Chinese Research and Development Ofcer Music(Western) Nematology Nursery Pilot

720

Field(s)
Planning Plant taxonomy Registry Regulatory Seed Pathology Solid Waste Management Solid Waste Management Sports

Job Title(s)
Planning Ofcer Agronomist Executive Ofcer Condential Secretary Air worthiness inspector Research and Development Ofcer Project Ofcer Project Ofcer Senior Coach(Swimming)

Qualications required
BSc Town and Country Planning BSc Biology or Nature conservation HSC Aeronautical engineering MSc Seed Pathology Registered Civil Engineer Registered Civil Engineer Brevet d'Etat de Cadre Sportif with specialisation in swimming

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Sports Medical Ofcer

Medical Degree and full registration as Medical Practitioner & Certicat D'Etudes Speciales BSc Sugar Engineering BSc Chemical Engineering(Option sugar) Diploma HSC HSC HSC science BSc Maths or Physics + formal course in meteorology Diploma Fellow of the Royal Institute of chartered surveyors BSc Veterinary

Sugar industry Tamil Mandarin in primary school Mandarin in primary school Technical and Scientic

Sugar Engineer Sugar Technologist Education Ofcer Trainee Teacher Trainee Teacher Meteorological Technicians Meteorologists

Telegu Valuation Veterinary services

Education Ofcer Government Valuer Veterinary Ofcer

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Public Service

Question 9 State the eld(s) in which to train your employees for the next three years
Table 11.6: Fields in which you wish to train your employees for the next three years
Field of study (e.g. Public Administration)
Accreditation Administration Agricultural Economics and Trade Agricultural Information Agriculture Air Trafc Services Analytical Chemistry Aquaculture Archives

Course Level (e.g. MSc Public Administration)


Certicate Diploma Public Administration MSc BSc/MSc Diploma Area Control Course Basic Diploma/Degree Certicate in record management Certicate in Archive Administration

Number of employees
32 1 2 4 2 20 10

15

15

Auditing Bio Medical Engineering Bio Technology/Molecular Biology

Basic BSc Engineering BSc and MSc

60 3 3

Communication Skills

Basic Certicate Short course Courses run by International Civil Aviation Organisation Diploma

300 60 200 18 24 6

Conservation

Certicate in care and conservation of manuscript

Counseling Court Administration Crop Protection Customs Farm Waste Management

Short course Basic Diploma Basic MSc or Post Graduate Diploma

62 15 1 13 2

722

Field of study (e.g. Public Administration)


Finance Fisheries Management Fisheries Research Food Processing/Engineering Health and Safety Human Resource Management ICT

Course Level (e.g. MSc Public Administration)


Diploma Public Finance Diploma/Degree Diploma/Degree BSc and MSc BSc Diploma Basic Certicate IC 3 Diploma Diploma IT Diploma in Computer Studies

Number of employees
3

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

3 1 55 104 163 32 50 10 3 3

Industrial Management

MSc Industrial Management with specialisation in sugar

International conventions Law Leadership Legal Studies

MSc LLB Basic Basic MSc or MBA

3 15 100 15 5 12 15

Management

Diploma in Communications Diploma in interpersonal skills

PAGE
Meteorology MSc Meteorology MSc Applied Meteorology in Agriculture, Hydrology, Marine science MSc Climatology 6 6

723

Public Service

Field of study (e.g. Public Administration)


Modern Techniques of Crop Production Molecular Genetics Performance Management Plant Breeding Project Management Public Administration

Course Level (e.g. MSc Public Administration)


MSc

Number of employees
2

Diploma Basic MSc Basic MSc Public Administration Diploma

2 223 2 7 40 6 10 2

Public Sector Financial Management Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Regulatory

Diploma MSc or Post Graduate

Courses run by International Civil Aviation Organisation

Remote Sensing & GIS Research in sugar Security

MSc or Post Graduate MSc Sugar Engineering Courses run by International Civil Aviation Organisation

2 7 5

Social work Specialised Discipline of Psychopathology Taxonomy Transport Treasury Accounting System Word Processing and Computer Application

Diploma Post Graduate Certicate/Diploma Diploma Diploma Certicate Certicate

5 60

2 50 15 55

724

Question 10 Measures to have a critical mass of human resources with the right skills and competencies that can be readily absorbed by our labour market
Table 11.7: Measures taken to have a critical mass of human resources with the right skills and competencies that can be readily absorbed by our labour market
Measures taken to have a critical mass of human resources Make a forecast of the needs of the labour market and formulate training plan accordingly Provide training/courses that match with the demand of the labour market Training Change the mindset of people Use retired professionals and those still in service to train our human resources beyond normal working hours A survey should be carried out to identify the training needs of the different departments or ministries. Training programmes should then be formulated to cater for these needs Adequate training in properly identied elds Training in appropriate eld where there is a lack of human skill Reforms in education system Ready made training Incentive/scheme should change Salary should be attractive A continuous intensive labour market needs analysis survey is to be maintained Courses should be more oriented towards specialised eld Concentrate on IVTB courses Job oriented courses Meritocracy Train professionals with broad range of competencies Respect talent and give it a meritocratic environment Organisations to work in close collaboration with educational institution about the requirements in terms of skilled labour, qualied employees Forecast the requirements of competencies according to development plan and start training the personnel 2 - 3 years before in order to have the right skills at the right time Avoid brain drain Remunerate or reward outstanding ofcers A suitable career guidance programme at the secondary school or tertiary level Education Continuous personal and professional development Need to nd innovative techniques to analyse the labour market requirements like for instance job fairs and business process outsourcing Our education system should be in line with our economic orientation Percentage 18.4 14.3 10.2 8.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

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Measures taken to have a critical mass of human resources


We should lay emphasis on productivity and adopt performance and reward management at work place Seminars and sensitization programmes need to be continuous Universities will have to carry out a yearly survey to determine the demand for human resources and skills required Encourage on the job training Create a culture for research sponsorship of training The workforce should be reshufed and specic training be made available to satisfy the market demand Improve the working environment Organise specialised training related to particular jobs available in the local market Greater interest of the government in the development of its human resources Synchronise our education system with the skills and competencies of our future requirements Review the school curricula so as to integrate the teaching of subjects that are in demand Adequate nancial resources should be made available for training Government should lay much more emphasis on training and empowerment programmes A proper investigation of the requirements of the labour market is imperative Mass production of graduates in a haphazard manner should stop Organise career guidance workshops whereby unemployed are informed of sectors where there are employment opportunities so that they can decide on their eld of specialisation/expertise There should be a close networking between organisations seeking to ll vacant posts and training institutions so as to ensure consistency between demand and supply Training institution should identify facilitators/trainers in the relevant elds to dispense training courses which are tailored to the needs of the country Render access to university easier Having free tertiary education even for those doing part time study or distance learning Implementing distance learning at UTM and UOM Carry out a survey to know the competencies needed on the labour market and provide training in the identied elds

Percentage
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

2.0

2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

726

Question 11 Ways to tackle the present situation of under-employment (not utilising the full potential of the employees)
Table 11.8: Ways to tackle the present situation of under-employment
Ways to tackle the present t situation of under r - employment
More training should be provided Match duties with abilities Encourage employees to work with more competency Motivate people to work Create more areas of development Redene and upgrade scheme of duties of employees so as to take into account the highest qualication and specialised skills of the same Increase incentives Assign job according to employee's capability Empowerment programme Increase pay package More employment should be created Training provided should be work based Encourage people to study other languages. E.g. German, Spanish Human resource plan should be updated Optimum use of available resources Encourage the labour force to become multi-skilled and polyvalent Improve the employability of the under-employed by employers Develop further the understanding approach of the employers regarding the under-employed potential availabilities Core programs for both employer and under-employed to be set up as informative Recruit more ofcers of lower grades Have sincere people at the top of the organisation Select people with proven track records, vision and commitment Through staff appraisal system Should be more strict on professionalism Streamlining of the work processes Proper selection and recruitment Nothing

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Percentage
26.6 8.2 8.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

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Public Service

2.0 2.0 2.0 6.1

Ways to tackle the present situation of underr-employment


By creating opportunities locally so as to make full use of the potential of employees Need to restructure the economy Create an awareness of independency among human resources Access to more opportunities in non traditional sectors Encourage private universities to specialise in specic elds, like management and marketing Encourage private vocational schools to open up Propose new posts Ease mobility within the labour market should be promoted HRDC should play a more predominant role in providing the necessary guidance and support Organisations should take greater interest in the training and development of its employees Organisations should review continuously their human resource management policies Empowerment of employees so that they come up with their own departmental strategies Review of regulatory framework Identify skills and competencies of those who are under-employed and give them opportunities to exercise their competencies Organise career guidance workshops whereby unemployed - are informed of sectors where there are employment opportunities so that they can decide on their eld of specialisation/expertise There should be a close networking between organisations seeking to ll vacant posts and training institutions so as to ensure consistency between demand and supply Training institution should identify facilitators/trainers in the relevant elds to dispense training courses which are tailored to the needs of the country Give new incentive Opportunities should be given to foreigners to invest in Mauritius toopen new industries where there is under employment Use the competencies of the employee towards enhancing the overall organisational effectiveness and efciency There should not be unplanned mass production of graduates Career planning and promotion at organisational level Recruitment in the private sector based on meritocracy rather than ethnicity Improve the growth rate of the economy Small entrepreneur scheme should be more encouraged Allowing an ofcer greater freedom to take leave without pay for the purpose of taking employment elsewhere Create jobs where the full potential of employees can be fully utilised Create awareness programmes on job career plan as from secondary schools Carry out a survey to know how many under employed people there are, to have a database of their skills and competencies, try to know why they are under employed and try to identify corrective measures

Percentage
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

728

Question 12(a) Is there a Performance Appraisal System in your organisation?


Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
Figure 11.7: Performance Appraisal System in your organisation
No 59% Yes 41%

Performance is measured with SMART objectives, that is, specic, measurable, realistic, achievable and timely. The PRB 2008 report also prescribes performance rather that conformance. One major reform being undertaken in the Public Service is the development of a Performance Management System. Its primary aim is to improve performance by focusing on key areas of activity of the Ministry/ Department. It purports to ensure good governance and getting the best results from the Ministry/ Department, teams and individuals through an agreed framework of planned goals, objectives and standards. It would enhance the capacity of Government agencies in results-based policy making, planning, performance management and Public Service delivery. It is quite alarming to note that less than 50 percent of respondents had a performance appraisal system when so much is being done in this direction.

Question 12(b) What methods do you use to appraise your employees?


Table 11.9: Methods used to appraise your employees
Methods used to appraise your employees
Condential Report Performance Appraisal System Assessment every six months Efciency, performance and output to cope and meet the required target By evaluating performance indicators like professional and personal behaviour, responsibility, accountability, responsiveness, honesty, loyalty, attendance, respect for other ofcers, abiding to rules and regulation, integrity, impartiality, professionalism, number of effective hours per day Work objectives are set, agreed upon and measured according to key performance indicators Personalised assessment sheet

Percent
68.2 9.1 4.5 4.5 4.5

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729

4.5

Public Service

4.5

Question 13 Do you have a career plan for all your employees once they are recruited by your organisation?
Figure 11.8: Career Plan for your employees
No 57% Yes 43%

57 percent of respondents said that their organisations did not have a career plan for their employees. This is contrary to the different suggestions made regarding staff development plan for the Public sector. Table 11.10 shows the reasons for implementing career plans which exist in the Public sector.

Table 11.10: Reasons for implementing career plans in your organisation


Reasons for implementing career plans in your r organisation
Promotion Promotion by way of seniority and selection Ofcers can aspire to be promoted with the required years of service Promotion according to qualications prescribed in the Scheme of Service Others (as per scheme of service) None

Percentage
26.5 10.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 57.1

Question 14 What are the Scheme(s)/incentive(s)/support that would motivate you to train your employees?
Table 11.11: Scheme(s)/incentive(s)/support that would motivate you to train your employees
Scheme(s)/incentive(s)/support that would motivate you to train your employees
More budget/funds/Provide nancial support in the form of sponsorship Promotion after training Training in supervision/leadership skills Availability of training courses that can suit the needs of organisations Incremental credit for additional qualication Training of trainers Release facilities to attend courses Allowance for best performance, additional qualication and skills acquired Training for staff in nancial matters Management support /Necessary equipment/Training room Rapid promotion/Good salary Training in new technologies Training in new areas with the enforcement of new legislation such as the New Procurement Act Cash incentive given to ofcers after successful completion of a course Value honesty and integrity Some sort of recognition Promotion to be made by selection rather than on seniority basis Short local and overseas programmes to enhance skills and knowledge Employees should be given leave with pay to enable them to embark on training

Percentage
16 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

730

Retention scheme A training manager qualied in the eld of HRM should be appointed and should be given the adequate resources and administrative support Encourage employees to come with their own personal development plan Training should be in line with particular job responsibilities Any scheme related to human resource development and quality management To satisfy certain requirements that are essential for recognition like satisfying international standards like ISO 17025 A proper, transparent training scheme Political and administrative will Ofcers should be given higher responsibilities after being trained Discourage mobility of trainees Strict compliance to implement/sustain the training knowledge acquired by trainees Performance appraisal leading to promotion or increment Time off for studies Technical assistance from abroad Leave without pay should be allowed to both self nancing as well as sponsored candidate Nothing

1 1

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19

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731

Public Service

HRDC Manpower Planning Survey 2007-2010 for the Parastatal Bodies


Parastatal Bodies form part of Public sector institutions. They are established under local enactments as legal entities, which are autonomous or semi-autonomous and provide services on a full or partial self-nancing basis and in which the Government participates by way of representation in their decisionmaking structure. These Parastatal Bodies are expected to act as instruments of national policy and are called upon to discharge a variety of obligations that may be summarised as follows:
N

To function as instruments and act as implementation arms of government for national development and in steering its social policies and projects; For better and rapid delivery of service away from the bureaucratic processes inherent in the Civil Service; To take over certain essential services from the private sector where massive nancial investment was required for re-invigorating the relevant sectors with a view to providing such services to the whole nation; and also To ensure the supply of essential commodities to the population.

Each parastatal body operates under the aegis of a Ministry and has its own goals and objectives. These parastatal bodies by the nature of their functions and objectives may be classied into various groups such as Utilities, Commercial, Economic, Educational, Welfare, Social and Cultural. 102 organisations were surveyed and 82 responded and the analysis below gives an indication of what parastatal bodies are doing and plan to do in terms of manpower.

732

Question 4 Developments occurring in the Parastatal Bodies during the next three years
Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
Figure 11.9: Contribution to the national economic growth will rise
Not Applicable 22% Disagree 5% Neither disagree nor agree 11%

Agree 62%

Figure 1 depicts that 62 percent of respondents agreed that the contribution to the National Growth would rise. 11 percent were neutral while only 5 percent disagreed with this statement. Clearly, this shows a degree of condence among Parastatal bodies. Figure 11.10: The rate of unemployment will decline
Not Applicable 12% Disagree 6% Neither disagree nor agree 21%

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733

Agree 61%

We note that 61 percent of respondents were condent that the rate of unemployment will be reduced while 6 percent were pessimistic about it. Figure 11.11: Our educational system will meet the requirements of the labour market
Not Applicable 6% Disagree 10% Neither disagree nor agree 23%

Public Service

Agree 61%

Almost two out of every three respondents agreed that our educational system would meet the requirements of the labour market. However, 23 percent neither disagreed nor agreed on this issue.

Figure 11.12: Our training system will meet the requirements of the labour market
Not Applicable 6% Disagree 9% Neither disagree nor agree 22%

Agree 61%

Figure 11.12 clearly indicates that the majority of respondents (63 percent) agreed that our training system would meet the requirements of the labour market. Figure 11.13: The number of employment will increase
Not Applicable 11% Disagree 6% Neither disagree nor agree 16%

Agree 67%

Based on the responses obtained, 67 percent agreed that the number of employment would increase during the next three years. 16 percent of respondents were neutral while only 6 percent disagreed with that statement. This indicates that more people would be needed in the Parastatal bodies. Figure 11.14: Your organisation will be recruiting more skilled/educated employees
Not Applicable 2% Disagree 18%

Neither disagree nor agree Agree 62% 18%

62 percent of respondents agreed to recruit more skilled/educated employees. Only 18 percent did not agree with this statement. This shows that Parastatal organisations would require more skilled people in order to offer better product and services in future.

734

Figure 11.15: Your organisation will be recruiting expatriates to sustain its growth
Not Applicable 18%

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Agree 5%

Disagree 51% Neither disagree nor agree 26%

Over half of the respondents surveyed disagreed with the idea of recruiting expatriates to sustain organisational growth. Only 5 percent agreed to this statement while 26 percent were neutral about it. Thus the need to employ expatriates barely arises in the Parastatal bodies. Figure 11.16: Your organisation will continue to expand in terms of investment and turnover
Not Applicable 29% Disagree 6% Neither disagree nor agree 24%

PAGE
Agree 41%

735

Only 41 percent of respondents were optimistic about their organisations growth in the future while 6 percent disagreed. Based on the responses, it can be observed that some Parastatal organisations have future plans for expansion.

Public Service

Question 5 Level of satisfaction of employers


Figure 11.17: The ability of your employees to create and innovate
80 76

Percentage of respondents

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dissatised Neither satised nor dissatised Satised Not Applicable 4 16 5

Level of satisfaction

From the responses obtained, three out of every four employers were satised with their employees ability to create and innovate while 16 percent were neutral. Only 4 percent were not satised. This shows that most employers could rely on their employees to introduce new ways of doing things and perform their task correctly. Figure 11.18: The ICT skills of your employees to perform their jobs
100

Percentage of respondents

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dissatised Neither satised nor dissatised Level of satisfaction 2 10

87

1 Satised Not Applicable

Nowadays ICT skills are becoming more and more important. 87 percent of respondents were satised with their employees potential to master IT in their job. Only 2 percent were not satised.

736

Figure 11.19: The knowledge of basic science of your employees to perform their jobs
80 70 76

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Percentage of respondents

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 9 1 Dissatised Neither satised nor dissatised Level of satisfaction Satised Not Applicable 15

In most workplaces the knowledge of basic science has become essential. Failure to continuously strengthen employees knowledge base will result in a declining ability to provide for the needs and wants of people. This statement treats the knowledge of basic science of employees to perform their jobs. 76 percent of respondents were satised with this statement while only 1 percent was not satised. This high level of satisfaction was a good sign for the Parastatal bodies. Figure 11.20: Numeracy skills of your employees to perform their jobs
100

Percentage of respondents

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

88

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737

Public Service

10 0

2 Dissatised

6 Neither satised nor dissatised Satised

4 Not Applicable

Level of satisfaction

It is good to note that above 85 percent of respondents were satised with their employees basic skills, both literacy and numeracy as these are vital for employees to increase their chance of getting promotion and also help them become more condent.

Figure 11.21: Literacy skills of your employees to perform their jobs


100 90

Percentage of respondents

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dissatised Neither satised nor dissatised Level of satisfaction Satised Not Applicable 1 7 1

Figure 11.22: The ability of your employees to communicate with customers


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7 1 Dissatised Neither satised nor dissatised Level of satisfaction Satised 91

Figure 11.22 clearly indicates that the majority of the respondents, 91 percent, were satised with their employees ability to communicate with customers. This shows that communication skills of employees towards customers remain equally important in these organisations and are being rightly addressed.

738

Percentage of respondents

Figure 11.23: The ability of your employees to understand the needs of your customers
100
Percentage of respondents

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dissatised 9

88

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

4 Neither satised nor dissatised Level of satisfaction Not Applicable

88 percent of respondents were satised with their employees ability to understand the needs of customers. This high level of satisfaction is good as it is vital to ensure an acceptable level of customer satisfaction. Figure 11.24: The ability of your employees to work in team
100 94

Percentage of respondents

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2 Dissatised 4 Neither satised nor dissatised Level of satisfaction Satised

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739

Public Service

94 percent of respondents were satised with the ability of their employees to work in team. This is a very encouraging sign as in a team-oriented environment, everyone contributes to the overall success of the organisation.

Question 6 Challenges that your organisation is currently facing. Kindly mention what you are doing/planning to do to overcome them.
Most of the challenges in Parastatals were overcome by providing training to workers. On-the-job training has been found to be the most popular form of training among employers. Table 11.12: Challenge:Lack of qualied employees
Currently doing (%)
Give employees training Provide on-the - job training Sending employees to follow courses in established institutions Recruit qualied employees Employ on contract basis No recruitment Continue to advertise Outsource certain services Change scheme of service 30.0 10.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 -

Planning to do (%)
37.5 25.0 12.5 12.5 12.5

Table 11.13: Challenge:Lack of trained employees


Currently doing (%)
Give employees training Recruit already trained people Limit production capacity Encourage employees to follow courses Provide on-the -job training Manage with what we have Ongoing training Sending employees to follow courses in established institutions Design tailor-made training Training needs analysis 33.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 25.0 8.3 8.3 -

Planning to do (%)
33.3 11.1 22.2 11.1 11.1 11.1

740

Table 11.14: Challenge:Technological Change


Currently doing (%)
Give employees training Provide internet facility to employees Improve quality of service Research and development programs to nd new production methods Take advantage of IC3 Invest in new equipment and technologies Improving skills of employees by training them in new areas Recruit staff who are computer literate 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 22.2 11.1 11.1

Planning to do (%)
20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 -

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Table 11.15: Challenge:Competition (local/international)


Currently doing (%)
Provide lower interest rate Improve quality of service Aggressive publicity is made Alternative actually studied Sending employees to follow courses in established institutions 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 -

Planning to do (%)
50.0

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741

To overcome the challenge of local and international competition, Parastatals were providing better facilities and improved the quality of service. They also intended to send employees to follow courses in established institutions.

Public Service

Table 11.16: Challenge:Access to nance


Currently doing (%) Make appeal to public to donate funds Request to Government to subsidise Looking for sponsors Look for nancial assistance from Government Reduce cost of operation Occurring expenses within the budget Request funds from Ministry of Finance Develop cost effective measures Increase fees or charge fees for services Request for additional funds Undertake projects schemes of most importance in order of priority Give employees training 22.2 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 Planning to do (%) 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 100.0

Parastatals made an appeal to the public to donate funds and requested the Government to subsidise and look for sponsors. They also seeked for nancial assistance from the Government to reduce the cost of operation. Table 11.17: Other Challenges
Currently doing (%)
Looking for legal solutions Employees resistance to perform odd hours 100.0 98.8

Planning to do (%)
-

Among other challenges, Parastatal bodies sought for legal solutions.

742

Question 7 The total number of local employees you had in your organisation as at 30 June 2007 as per their occupational group
The table 11.18 shows the number of employees in 82 Parastatal Organisations included in the survey Table 11.18: The total number of local employees you had in your organisation as at 30 June 2007 as per their occupational group
Number of Employees Occupational group No of employees as at 30 June 07 2007/08 Recruitment
Senior ofcials and managers Professionals Associate Professionals Clerk Service Workers and Sales Workers Skilled Agricultural and Fisheries Workers Craft and Related Trade Workers Plant and Machine Operators & Assemblers Elementary Occupations Total 345 934 3 353 1 240 1 583 54 809 1 232 1 999 11 548 14 30 65 20 73 0 18 112 19 351

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

2008/09 Recruitment
1 8 33 10 2 0 5 1 11 71

2009/10 Recruitment
0 5 1 3 5 0 0 0 13 27

Retirement
3 6 9 2 75 0 4 125 2 226

Retirement
0 8 12 5 0 1 11 1 2 40

Retirement
3 2 1 9 0 1 11 1 5 33

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743
Figure 11.25: Distribution of employees by occupational group as at 30 June 2007
Elementary Occupations 17% Senior Ofcials and Managers Professionals 3% 8%

Plant and Machine Operators & Assemblers 11%

Public Service

Craft and Related Trade Workers 7% Skilled Agricultural and Fisheries Workers 0%

Associate Professionals 29%

Clerks 29% Service Workers and Sales Workers 14%

According to the survey, as at June 2007, Associate Professionals represented 29 percent of the working community in Parastatal organisations, the most common category of employees. Employers at Elementary Occupation level represented 17 percent of the group. Summarily, only a one percent rise is projected in employment from June 2007 to 2009/10. Three percent rise in the recruitment of Senior Ofcials & Managers and Professionals is anticipated. However, a reduction of 4 percent is expected in the employment of Skilled Agricultural and Fisheries Workers. The number of Service Workers & Sales Workers and Craft & Related Trade Workers is expected to stagnate.

Question 8 The total number of employees you have in your organisation as at 30 June 2007 as per their educational background
Table 11.19 shows the number of employees in 82 Parastatal Organisations included in the survey. Table 11.19: The total number of employees you have in your organisation as at 30 June 2007 as per their highest educational qualication
No of ees employees as at t 30 une 200 2007 Jun 366 1207 709 1759 1154 62 563 2744 1204 7 1773 1154 11548 No of f employee ees 2007 / 08 200 Loca Lo cal 12 22 7 44 29 10 0 183 4 0 40 35 351 Expatriates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 / 09 200 Loca Lo cal Expatriates 0 16 0 13 13 0 0 0 0 0 29 71 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009/10 200 9/10 Loca Lo cal 0 5 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 19 27 Expatriates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

High ghes est t Edu duca cati tion onal lica cati tion Quali Postgraduate Degree Vocational/HND Higher School Certicate School Certicate Incomplete Secondary Pre -Vocational CPE Passed Incomplete Primary No formal education NAD* Total To

*Not Adequately Dened Figure 11.26: Distribution of employees by highest education qualication as at 30 June 2007
Postgraduatae 4% No formal education 0% Incomplete Primary 12%

Degree 12% Vocational/HND 7%

CPE Passed 28% Higher School Certicate 18% Pre-Vocational 6% School Certicate 12% Incomplete Secondary 1%

CPE passed employees represented 28 percent of the workers followed by 18 percent possessing an HSC. Fewer number of workers possessed an SC (12 percent), 12 percent had degree level. Parastatal Organisations did not recruit expatriates in 2007/08 and did not plan to recruit any in the following two years.

744

Question 9 Reasons for training employees. How important are these reasons for you?
Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
Table 11.20: Reasons for training employees
Neither unimportant nor important (%)
15 5 10 2 4 6

Unimportant (%)
To remain competitive To use new technology or machinery Empower new recruits Improve quality of services/products To comply with new standards and specications To comply with labour and environmental standards 10 5 2 2 4 5

Important (%)
76 90 88 95 93 89

N N N N

76 percent of Parastatal organisations trained their staff to remain competitive. 90 percent provided training to make use of new technology/machinery. 88 percent did so to empower their new recruits. 95 percent looked forward to improve the quality of services/products after providing training to their staff. Others (89 percent) intended to comply with labour and environmental standards.

PAGE

Question 10 State the number of employees trained/to be trained by occupational group.


It is worth noting here that this question attracted very few respondents. It can therefore be deduced that there is a lack of planning in terms of training in the Parastatal Bodies too. In this respect, heads of Parastatal Bodies should be trained in the importance of an HR strategy within an organisation to maintain motivation of staff and thus ensure their retention.

745

Public Service

Table 11.21: Percentage of employees trained/to be trained by occupational group


Senior Ofcials & Managers
07/08 Training Institution (11.0%) 46.6% On -the -Job (0%) 0% Abroad (4.9%) 12.9% 08/09 (2.4%) 68.8% (0%) 0% (2.4%) 38.9% 09/10 (1.2%) 61.5% (0.0%) 0.0% (1.2%) 23.1%

Professionals
Training Institution On -the -Job (12.2%) 29.9% (1.2%) 50 % Abroad (4.9%) 2.5% (1.2%) 10 % (0%) 0% (1.2%) 10% (1.2%)

10%
(0%) 0% (1.2%) 10 %

Technicians & Associate Professionals


Training Institution (14.6%) 46.9% On -the -Job (6.1%) 40.5% Abroad (1.2%) 1.3% (3.7%) 7.0% (0%) 0% (1.2%) 1.3% (2.4%) 4.6% (0%) 0% (0%) 0%

Clerks
Training Institution (8.5%) 35.2% On -the -Job (6.1%) 48.8% Abroad (0%) 0% (3.7%) 6.2% (1.2%) 33.3% (0%) 0% (0%) 0% (1.2%) 33.3% (0%) 0%

From the data available, it has been found that top management level staff, that is Senior Ofcials and Managers have been trained at established training institutions in 2007/08 and this number would grow to around 69 percent in 2008/09. On-the-job training was inexistent among this category of workers. Table 11.21 depicts that on-the-job training were mostly provided to workers at the lower level of the hierarchy, might be more applicable to manual workers. Across all workers, above 80 percent of organisations did not provide any training. A few top management staff went abroad for training in 2007/08 where it is expected that this gure too would rise to around 39 percent in 2008/09. However, the gure decreases gradually down the hierarchy. Table 11.22: Duration of training of Senior Ofcials & Managers
Percent Senior Ofcials and Managers
No training 1-3 hours 4-6 hours 7-12 hours 13 -40 hours 41 -80 hours 81 -160 hours 161 hours onwards

2007/2008
82.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.9 1.5 7.4

2008/2009
95.6 2.9 1.5 -

2009/2010
98.5 1.5 -

Above 80 percent of the Senior Ofcials and Managers did not receive any training in 2007/08 and unfortunately this gure would increase to reach around 99 percent in 2009/10. 7.4 percent of top management staff were provided with training for duration of more than 160 hours.

746

Table 11.23: Duration of training of Professionals


Professionals
No training 1-3 hours 4-6 hours 7-12 hours 13 -40 hours 41 -80 hours 81 -160 hours 161 hours onwards

2007/2008
75.4 1.8 3.5 5.3 14.0

Percent 2008/2009
98.2 1.8

2009/2010
98.2 1.8

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Around 3 out of every 4 Professionals did not receive any training in 2007/08. 14 percent were trained for a duration of more than 160 hours. Table 11.24 : Duration of training of Technicians & Associate Professionals
Technicians & Associate Professionals
No training 1 -3 hours 4 -6 hours 7 -12 hours 13 -40 hours 41 -80 hours 81 -160 hours 161 hours onwards

Percent 2007/2008
82.4 4.1 1.4 5.4 6.8 2.7

2008/2009
94.6 1.4 1.4 -

2009/2010
97.3 1.4 1.4 -

PAGE

Again among technical level workers, above 80 percent of organisations did not provide any training. In 2007/08, 6.8 percent were provided with training for more than 160 hours duration. In 2007/08, 2.6 percent of organisations provided training to Clerks for duration of 13-40 hours and same pattern is expected in 2008/09. 5 percent of organisations provided training to Service Workers and this gure is expected to double in 2008/09. Only 1.4 percent of organisations provided training to workers at Elementary Occupations for more than 160 hours in 2008/09 and same gure is expected to remain in 2009/10.

747

Public Service

Question 11 In case you have to re-skill your employees, which of the following will you use?
Figure 11.27: Re-skilling options
68.3% 59.8%

26.8% 22.0%

6.1%

Training needs analysis

In-house training programmes

Seeking help from the Government

Resort to private training institutions

Other

Re-skilling options

68.3 percent of organisations conducted TNA. Around 60 percent of organisations sought the help of the Government. Only 26.8 percent of organisations resorted to private training institutions and 22 percent chose in-house training programmes.

748

Question 12 How has the training been benecial to your organisation?


Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
Figure 11.28: Benets of Training
Increase effectiveness on the job Better planning of work Quality of products have improved Job is being done better Employees have become more creative
Benets of training

2% 2% 2% 2% 4% 5% 6% 9% 10% 11% 15% 17% 23% Percentage of respondents

Never had any training activity Others Improved performance of employees Employees are well acquainted with new system & technologies Improved productivity Improvement in skill Better service is being provided Employees have acquired more knowledge

A number of benets had been reported by employers after providing training to their employees. 24 percent of organisations had reported an increase in efciency after employees have followed training.23 percent had found that employees had acquired more knowledge.

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749

Public Service

Question 13 What are the difculties you usually encounter when you plan to train your employees?
The difculties encountered when planning training are summarised in Figure 11.29 Figure 11.29: Difculties you usually encounter when you plan to train your employees?
Percentage of respondents
High cost Nothing Cant release due to limited number of staff Lack of trainers 21% 12% 11% 10% 6% 5% 2% 2% 29% 34% 48%

Difculties

Inappropriate and irrelevant training programmes Employees tend to quit after being trained Training too theoritical Employees tend to quit after being trained Teaching not up to your desired level Innappropriate location Language used in training too difcult

Various difculties have been experienced by employers when planning training among which high cost ranks highest. 29 percent reported that they could not release staff due to its limited number.

750

Question 14 What methods do you prefer to train your employees?


Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
Figure 11.30: Preferred methods of training
7

Audiovisuals/Multimedia
1

5 7

87

Mentoring

2 5 2

85 13 4

Prefered methods of training

Sharing of knowledge with more experienced colleagues Formal qualications (Diploma, certicates etc)
1 2 10

84

13 82 18

Apprenticeship

70 22

Case study
10 5 32

68

Practical sessions in workshops


2

63

Lecture
4 1 11

33 61 33

Job rotation

55

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage of respondents
Not Preferred Prefer Most Preferred Not Applicable

PAGE

Above 80 percent of respondents preferred training through


N N N N

751

Audiovisuals/Multimedia Mentoring Sharing of knowledge with more experience colleagues Acquiring formal qualications.

Public Service

Question 15 How would you prefer your future training programmes to be?
Figure 11.31: Training programmes
Content
More hands-on 48% Less theorical 35%

Language

Creole 12% French 17%

Less theorical 17%

English 71%

Location

Central 17%

Evening 13%

Timing
Morning 49%

Accessible 83%

Afternoon 38%

Views of respondents were sought with regard to their preference on


N N N N

content language location timing of training

48 percent of respondents chose more hands-on practice rather than theoretical content. 71 percent preferred English as the medium of training. 83 percent chose an accessible location for training. Around 50 percent preferred classes to conducted in the morning.

752

Question 16 During the last recruitment made, have you been able to employ candidates with the required:
Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
Figure 11.32: Recruitment of candidates with the required skills, qualications and experience
Skills Qualications

No 16% Yes 84%

No 9% Yes 9%

Work experience

No 27%

Yes 73%

Above 70 percent of respondents were able to recruit people with the required
N N N

Skills Qualications Work experience.

PAGE

It might be inferred that the Public Service has been able to obtain the pool of staff with the required skills and competencies to perform.

753

Question 17 Does your organisation have an in-house training centre?


Figure 11.33: Percentage of organisations having an in-house Training Centre
Yes 18% Yes 82%

Public Service

Only 18 percent of the Parastatal Organisations had an in-house training institution. This arrangement might be a formal one with a proper classroom and trainers or mostly on-the-job training might be conducted by higher level staff.

Does your organisation have an in-house training manager?


Figure 11.34: Percentage of organisations having an in-house Training Manager
Yes 27% No 73%

27 percent of Parastatal organisations had an in-house training ofcer/manager. This shows the level of commitment towards training of staff, having dedicated people to look after the training aspect.

Question 18 State the number of employees who resigned from your organisation in the month of July 2007
Table 11. 25: Number of employees who resigned in July 2007

Number of employees yees who ho esign gned in i the mon onth of July res 200 2007 0 1 2 4

Perce cent

87.8 8.5 2.4 1.2

87.8 percent of employers reported that no employees resigned in the month of July 2007. Employees in the Public Service enjoy a higher level of job security than the private sector.

754

Question 19 In the absence of natural resources, Mauritius has no choice but to rely on its human resources. According to you, what can be done to have a critical mass of human resources with the right skills and competencies that can be readily absorbed by our labour market?
Figure 11.35: Obtaining the right skills and competencies that can be readily absorbed by our labour market
30% 26.5%

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Percentage of respondents

25%

20%

15% 11.0% 10% 98.0% 7.3% 6.1% 5% 4.9% 4.9% 3.7% 3.7% 3.7%

0%
Provide training facilities Provide training accordint to demand of labour market Review our education system to meet the needs of the labour market Training and Govt must inform Intensive training courses should guidance should population in which sector be made be given to available to students so as there is shortage people to get a balanced of labour and encourage labour market training in the particular sector Train unemployed people A train need analysis should be done Career guidance should be implemented in schools By empowering people

PAGE
Opinions
N

755

25.6 percent of respondents agreed that providing training facilities would help to have a pool of skilled human resources. A number of employers also opined that career guidance service has an important role to play to reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of manpower.

Question 20 In what ways can the present situation of underemployment (not utilising the full potential of the employees) be tackled?
The following have been proposed as solutions by Parastatals to tackle the problem of unemployment and details are listed below: N Training N Motivation N Entrepreneurship N Counseling

Public Service

Training
Provide appropriate training Create more job opportunities Employees must be trained in more than one eld in order to be multi-skilled Provide full training

Motivation
Motivate employees to work Provide motivating salary package Introduce awards for best performing employees in all organisations

Entrepreneurship
Create small enterprises Encourage self employment

Counseling
Research work and surveys must be carried out to nd out elds in which people can work, train them and give them such work so as to make maximum use of their potential Set up a registered pool of under employed Appoint candidates according to their qualications Employers must see to it that qualied employees are posted to the right job

Others
Working for longer hours of work Encourage skill development program Change of mindset Create good working environment

Question 21 (a) Is there a performance appraisal system in your organisation?


Figure 11.36: Performance appraisal system

No 62%

Yes 38%

Despite the recommendations of the PRB Report 2003, only 38 percent of the Parastatal Organisations surveyed had a performance appraisal system in place. The PRB Report 2008 has reiterated the recommendation to put in place a proper performance appraisal system.

756

(b) If yes, what method(s) do you use to appraise your employees?


Figure 11.37: Methods of Appraisal
35% 30%
Percentage of respondents

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

29%

25% 20% 16% 15% 10% 5% 0% Work objectives are set, agreed upon and measured according to key performance indicators Monitor productivity and competencies Employees performance is assessed yearly Employees are accountable for their job Condential report 10% 6% 6%

Appraisal Methods

Out of those Parastatals that had a performance appraisal system in place, 29 percent had set agreed objectives measured by KPIs. 16 percent monitored productivity and competencies. 6 percent still used the method of having condential report which is not a 360 degree method and does not necessarily develop the employee to meet the organisations and personal objectives.

Question 22 Do you have a career plan for your employees once they are recruited by your organisation? If yes, give a brief explanation
78 percent of Parastatal Bodies surveyed did not have a career plan in place despite the prescribed career path in PRB Reports. Table 11.26: Career plans

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Explanati tion Employees can move to superior grades Employees can move to higher grades all depending on their performance Assign additional responsibilities A well dened career path, based on performance appraisal system, is presented to candidates at time of interview Only for ofce staff and professionals. They can apply for senior posts Employees are promoted after accomplishment of the necessary years of service and based on qualication

Perce cent 66.7 11.1 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6

Out of those organisations that had a career plan, around 67 percent indicated that their employees could move to superior grades. A few planned for employees to climb the hierarchical ladder depending on their performance. This scheme will be more applicable after establishment of a formal performance appraisal system.

Question 23 Assuming there is a crisis situation where your organisation has to close down, do you have a program/scheme to redeploy your workers? If yes, give a brief explanation.
Table 11.27: Redeployment Program/Scheme in case of crisis situation
Percent
Redeploy in other Government Departments 42.9 To redeploy within the group 28.6 Redeploy employees in sister company 14.3 To redeploy to the parent Ministry 7.1 Some will be deployed to another company with which we have good working relationship

7.1

82.9 percent of Parastatal bodies did not have any redeployment strategies. Among those which had it, around 43 percent had planned to redeploy in other Government departments. However, generally such policies are decided at the top level of the Government.

758

Question 24 Kindly suggest any scheme(s) / incentive(s) / support that would motivate you to train your employees
Figure 11.38: Schemes for Motivation
Percentage of respondents
25% 21% 20%

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

15%

10%

10% 6%

5%

5% 2%

0% None Financial assistance should be provided by established institutions or government Lower cost of training programs Refund of training cost Provide free training programmes Increase in budget

Suggestions

It is interesting to note that all the schemes/incentives that could motivate Parastatal Bodies to train their staff were geared towards nancial assistance. The sum dedicated for training in such organisations forming part of the Public Service might be limited and they have to do with the limited budget. Also such organisations, by law, do not contribute to the Training Grant Fund and therefore do not obtain any refund after any training.

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Question 25 Do you employ expatriates in your organisation?

Public Service

Figure 11.39:Expatriates Employment


Yes 15%

No 85%

Very few Parastatal Bodies employed expatriates as at June 2007. Such organisations were able to recruit locally. However, it should be noted that the procedure for recruitment of expatriates, especially, for Governmental organisations.

Question 26 For each occupational group, rate the following skills/competencies according to their importance while recruiting people in your organisation. Unimportant = U; Neither unimportant nor important = N; Important = I
Table 11.28: Skills/competencies according to their importance while recruiting people in your organisation
Managerial U
Senior Ofcials & Managers (87%) Professionals (82%) Technicians & Associate Professionals (93%) Clerk (98%) Service Workers & Sales Workers (33%) Skilled Agricultural & Fisheries Workers (23%) Craft & Related Trade Workers (41%) Plant & Machine Operators & Assemblers (61%) Elementary Occupations (91%) 1.3 28.8 48.1 63.2 38.2 46.0 58.7

Work Experience I
100.0 91.0 69.7 32.5 22.2 31.6 32.4 12.0 6.7

Technical Capabilities I U
1.3 11.3 14.8

Educational Qualications U
10.5 2.9 4.0 21.3 29.6 47.4 44.1 56.0 53.3 1.3

Generic Skills U
6.0 2.7

N
9.0 28.9 38.8 29.6 5.3 29.4 42.0 34.7

U
3.8 10.0 25.3

N
4.2 1.5 2.6 28.8 18.5 15.8 17.6 32.0 52.0

N
8.5 4.5 3.9 27.5 29.6 31.6 17.6

I
91.5 95.5 94.7 61.3 55.6 68.4 82.4 52.0 20.0

I
100.0 100.0 98.7 100.0 70.4 42.1 52.9 40.0 25.3

N
2.8 1.5 2.6 5.0 5.3 8.8 14.0 17.3

I
97.2 98.5 97.4 95.0 100.0 94.7 91.2 80.0 80.0

95.8 98.5 97.4 67.5 81.5 84.2 82.4 58.0 22.7

10.0 29.3

38.0 50.7

760

Question 27 Please state the eld(s) in which it is difcult to recruit people for your organisation.
Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
Table 11.29: Field(s) in which it is difcult to recruit people for your organisation
Field(s)
Administrative Anesthesia Bus Repair Cardiology Customer Care Education Educational Administration Electrical Engineering Engineering

Job Title(s)
Fund Raiser Aesthesis Tradesman/Mechanic/Tyreman Cardiologist/Cardiac Surgeon Receptionist Educator Assistant Lecturer/Lecturer Electrical Engineer Civil Engineer/Technician (Engineering)/Mechanical Engineer/Engineer Accounts Clerk/Accountant Senior Financial Intelligence Analyst Research Scientist Physiotherapist/Occupational Therapist/Psychologist/Speech Therapist Health & Safety Ofcer System Administrator Asst Inspector of Works Training Ofcer Materials Testing Technician Technician Mechanical Engineer Media Specialist Carnatic Tutor Assistant Lecturer/Lecturer Research Scientist Examiner Programme Ofcer Programme Ofcer Programme Ofcer Risk Manager Head of Stores Music Tutor Draughtsman/Archeologist/Inspectors Technical Ofcer/Historian/Technical Ofcer

Qualications required
BSc Finance Specialist NTC 3 Specialist in Cardiology HSC HSC plus Teacher's Certicate MSc BSc Engineering Diploma in Civil Engineering/ Diploma in Mechanical Engineering/BSc ACCA level 1/ACCA Final Degree Finance BSc Geology BSc Physiotherapist/BSc Occupational Health/BSc Psychology/BSc Diploma in Occupational Health & Safety BSc IT Diploma in Building and civil Engineering BSc Diploma in Building and civil Engineering NTC2 BSc Engineering Media Regulatory Studies Degree in Karnatic Music MSc BSc Physical Oceanography

Finance Financial Investigative Analysis Geology Health

Health & Safety ICT Inspectorate Jewellery Laboratory Maintenance Mechanical Engineering Media Regulatory Framework Music Physical Education Physical Oceanography Pleasure craft Qualication evaluation and standard setting Quality Assurance Recognition of prior learning Risk Management Store Management Teaching Technical

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Master Class 1 Postgraduate BSc Quality Assurance Postgraduate ACCA Final Degree in Engineering/Store Management BSc Music Diploma in Draughtsmanship/BSc Archeology/Diploma in Town & Country Planning/BSc Agriculture/ BSc Social Studies/ Diploma Civil Engineering MSc Management Masters in Trafc Management/Planning

Tourism Trafc Management

Manager Trafc Manager

Question 28 State the elds in which you wish to train your employees for the next three years.
Table 11.30: Field(s) in which you wish to train your employees for the next three years.
FIELD OF STUDY
ACCA Administration Agricultural Economics Communication skills Computer Auditing Computer Awareness Custom Broker Customer Care Finance Geology Human Resource Management ICT IT Language (Mandarin) Maintenance Management Marketing Media Regulatory Mobility & Orientation Music Ofce Administration Pedagogy Physical Oceanography Project Management Quality Assurance Secretariat Sign Language Social Studies

COURSE LEVEL
Level 2/Level 3 Degree Postgraduate Certicate Basic Level 2 & 3 Basic Basic/Level 2 Basic Masters Basic Advanced/Level 2 Basic/Certicate/Diploma Basic Basic/Certicate Diploma/Post graduate Basic Final Basic Degree Certicate Degree Masters Postgraduate Degree Degree Diploma Diploma

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES
5 5 1 20 100 1500 2 2027 1 2 1 70 26 6 102 8 5 3 3 6 5 5 2 3 8 2 2 2

762

Question 29 Please state area(s) in which it is difcult to nd local trainers for your employees.
Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
No availability of qualied trainers was the main impediment to training. The main areas where it was difcult to nd local trainers are listed below:
Karnatic Music Electronic Ticketing Geology Media in general Physical Oceanography Qualification Evaluation and standard Quality Assurance Recognition of prior learning Repair of air-conditioning buses Social Work Software Application Technical Tourism Marketing

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Question 30 State the number of unlled vacancies (up to June 2007) in your organisation.
Table 11.31: The number of unlled vacancies (up to June 2007) in your organisation
Job Title itle
Accountant Administrative Assistant Administrative Clerk Administrative Secretary Assistant Lecturer Assistant Computer Analyst Assistant Inspector of Works Assistant Manager Assistant Visual Audio Accounting Technician Attendant Caretaker/Gardener Chief Inspector of Works Child Protection Ofcer Clerical Ofcer Clerk Clerk/Word Processing Operator Community Development ofcer Community Welfare Assistant Computer Support Ofcer Coordinator Craft Motivator Deputy Director Director Divisional Managers Dress Making Teacher Driver Electrical Engineer Evaluation Ofcer Executive Assistant Executive Ofcer Finance Ofcer General Manager General Worker Handy worker Head Educational Services Health & Safety Ofcer Higher Executive Ofcer Internal Auditor Internal Controller Lecturer Library Clerk

No of Unlled Vacancies
3 2 2 3 2 1 5 3 1 2 1 27 3 3 7 5 22 10 29 1 14 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 5 4 1 164 10 2 3 2 1 2 10 2

Qualication required
ACCA Final / Degree Degree plus 2 years experience SC/HSC/ Diploma/Degree BSc Management & Administration Graduate Degree in IT Diploma in Building and civil Engineering BSc SC Level 2 ACCA CPE CPE Diploma in Building and civil Engineering Diploma in Child Protection SC/ HSC SC/HSC SC Diploma social work SC HSC HSC/Degree CPE BSc / MSc MSc Management / Post Graduate MSc or MBA SC + Certicate in Dress Making Driving License/CPE BSc Engineering Degree in Communication Diploma HSC/SC plus 4 years experience as Clerical Ofcer HSC/ ACCA level 1 BSc Public Administration CPE CPE Masters Degree in Communication/Education Information Diploma in Occupational Health & Safety HSC ACCA ACCA MSc Certicate in Library Studies/ HSC

764

Job Title
Lorry Helper Marketing Manager Materials Testing Technician Mechanic Medical Records Assistant Motivator Nursing Aid Nursing Ofcer Organiser Orientation and Mobility Instructor Out Reach Ofcer Personnel Ofcer Public Relations Ofcer Program Ofcer Program Welfare Ofcer Purchasing & Marketing Assistant Quality Ofcer Research Coordinator Risk Manager Secretary

No of Unlled Vacancies
1 1 2 13 5 2 10 10 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 SC/HSC BSc

Qualication required

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Diploma in Building and Civil Engineering

CPE + Experience in social work HSC Qualied nurse Degree in social Work SC SC Diploma in HR BSc / Diploma in social work BSc Quality Management Degree in Social Science SC Diploma D egree ACCA Final BSc Management/Diploma in Secretarial Studies Degree ICSA ACCA

Senior Accountant Technician Senior Cartier Senior Coordinator Senior Financial Intelligence Analyst Senior Inspector of Works Senior Internal Controller Senior Project Manager Social Worker Stores Attendant System Administrator Technical Staff Tourism Promotion Manager Trafc Manager Training Ofcer Trimmer Tyreman Warden/ TV Operator Watchman Welfare Development Ofcer

1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 3 6 1 1 11 1 1 31 31 1

Degree plus 5 years experience as Coordinator Degree Finance

PAGE
Diploma in Building and Civil Engineering ACCA 1 BSc Management + Experience HSC CPE Degree in IT ACCA BSc Tourism

765

Public Service

BSc

CPE CPE HSC

Manpower Projections for the Public sector: 2007-2010


A projection of the number of employees was carried out for the Public sector. For that purpose a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis was run on a number of variables as listed in Table 11.32 data for these variables were obtained from the National Accounts of the CSO. Table 11.32: List of variables used for developing the model to predict employment in the Public sector Variables
GDP at basic prices GDP at market prices Employment in General Government Services Gross Domestic Fixed Capital Formation (Public sector ) Annual growth rate of Public sector investment Public sector investment as a percent of GDP at market prices Public sector investment as a percent of GDFCF Value added for General Government Compensation of employees paid by general Government Final consumption expenditure-General Government

The MLR revealed that two variables, Value added for General Government and Public sector investment as a percent of GDFCF, explained very well for the prediction in number of employees in the Public sector. In fact, a regression value of over 95 percent was obtained, with Value added for General Government alone accounting for almost 86 percent of variation in employment. However, since Public sector investment as a percent of GDFCF contributed signicantly in explaining for employment prediction it was included in the model. Figure 11.40 : Trends in employment in the Public sector, 2000-2010
6
76000

83

73

91

748

32

74

06

36

73

72000

Number of employees

70000

68000

66000

64000

62000

60000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008* 2009* 2010*

61

67

65

59

68

23

71

31

72

34

74000

73

Year * Estimated by HRDC

As can be observed from Figure 11.40, the number of employment almost reached a turning point in 2006 with 74 326 employees and the following year 0.7 percent fall in number of employees was noted. According to the HRDC model, the year 2008 would witness a rise of about 1.3 percent to reach 74 808 employees before again taking a downward trend up till 2010. In fact, a 2 percent fall in number of employees would be noted from 2008 to 2010.

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73

31

Conclusion and Strategies


Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010
PAGE

The HRDC Manpower Planning Survey 2007-10 conrmed the fact that the Public sector is a vital component of the economy contributing to development. Our education system plays a central role in supplying labour to both the Public sector and the Private Sector. Around 27 percent of respondents were condent about the Mauritian Education System while 53 percent of respondents agreed that our training system would meet the requirements of the labour market. To meet the challenges emerging from globalisation, the Public sector would need to modernise for improved delivery of services, strategic thinking and planning, assessment of training needs and implementation of continuous training programmes. In our survey, we saw that 55 percent of respondents were condent that the number of employment would increase in the Civil Service. However with the recent PRB Report 2008, a number of posts have been abolished and it is a common practice nowadays in the Public Service not to ll certain vacancies. 88 percent of respondents in the Civil Service agreed that employees would have to be more creative and innovative in the Public Service. These skills are vital to have an efcient Civil Service focused on the need for provision of high quality services to the public. The survey also revealed that more than 80 percent of respondents in the Public sector agreed that their employees would have to be ICT procient. There are certain key areas in the Civil Service where it is difcult to recruit people like archiving, analytical chemist, Indian dance, oriental languages, food engineering, entomology, metrology, air trafc, micro biology, agronomist, engineering, seed pathology, valuation among others. The Civil Service planned training their employees in different elds for the next three years. These comprise Modern Techniques of Crop Production, Breeding Molecular, Generics, Security, Specialised discipline of Psychopathology. Treasury Accounting System, Meteorology, Fisheries Management among others. One major reform being undertaken in the Public Service is the development of a Performance Management System. It is quite alarming to note that less than 50 percent of respondents had a performance appraisal system despite the recommendations of the PRB Report 2003. The most common method used in the Public Service to measure performance is the Condential Report which is not a 360 degree method and does not necessarily develop the employee to meet the organisations and personal objectives. Our survey showed that 62 percent of respondents agreed that the contribution of Parastatals to the National Growth would rise. Almost two out of every three respondents agreed that our educational system will meet the requirements of the labour market. The majority of respondents (63 percent) agreed that our training system would meet the requirements of the labour market. Based on the responses, it could be observed that some Parastatal organisations have future plans for expansion. Most of the challenges in Parastatals were overcome by providing training to workers. On-the-job training has been found to the most popular form of training among employers. Employers also provided internet facility to employees and invested in new equipment and technologies. To overcome the challenge of local and international competition, Parastatals were providing lower interest rates and improved the quality of service. They also intended to send employees to follow courses in established institutions.

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68.3 percent of Parastatal organisations conducted TNA during the survey period. Various difculties have been experienced by employers when planning training among which high cost ranks highest. As concerns labour turnover, 87.8 percent of employers reported that no employees resigned in the month of July 2007. Employees in the Public Service enjoy a higher level of job security than the private sector. 78 percent of Parastatal Bodies surveyed did not have a career plan in place despite the prescribed career path in PRB Reports. Out of those organisations that had a career plan, around 67 percent had it for employees to move to superior grades. A few planned for employees to climb the hierarchical ladder depending on their performance. This scheme will be more applicable after establishment of a formal performance appraisal system.

Strategies
Performance Management
There is a need to instill greater performance orientation among public servants. It is important to set objectives that relate to the overall goals of the Public sector, monitoring the performance of staff and giving them support, feedback and the opportunity to develop. There is also the need to focus on improving performance, transparency, accountability and the efcient achievement of planned results. It is important to align HR practices recruitment, selection, rewards, training and development with performance. A shift should be made from a multi-layered structure to atter structures to improve accountability and facilitate decision taking while maintaining a balance between career prospects and career earnings according to PRB report 2008. This also leads to empowerment of staff.

Performance-related pay
A pay package is very important in improving and sustaining the motivation, performance and integrity of public servants. Public servants should be paid enough to attract and retain competent people while providing sufcient incentives for staff to maintain a high level of performance. The present pay system does not allow discrimination between low performing and high performing organisations, teams and individuals. To induce desired behaviour and attitude for improved performance, a reward mechanism and an institutional framework to link pay to results and to motivate organisations to embrace and implement change has been introduced. Performance related bonuses should be encouraged. There is a need to introduce a reward mechanism and institutional framework to link pay to results and to motivate organisations to embrace and implement change.

Dissemination of information
Quality data on employment and wages in the Public sector, particularly in developing countries and economies in transition, makes it difcult to measure the actual cost and contribution of staff to the overall performance of the Public sector.

Outsourcing
It is important for the Public sector to outsource certain functions. Improving efciency is one of the claimed benets of outsourcing, with new market-like constraints and incentives.

Meritocracy
A merit-oriented and career based Civil Service is decisive in explaining differences in the performance of Public Service in terms of the quality of services and the absence of corruption. There is a need to establish a merit-based career Civil Service to improve and maintain the prestige of Public sector employment.

768

Labour Migration
The departure of a skilled migrant signies a loss of investment in previous education and training for Mauritius as well as a loss of skills and experience that would otherwise provide future contributions to development. It is important that this phenomenon be counterbalanced by earn, learn and return strategies to take advantage of the enhanced skills and experience of the expatriate population, with programmes to facilitate remittances and encourage migrants to return.

Review of National Human Resource Development Plan 2007-2010

Survey on Public sector characteristics


There is a need to have a well dened database on training programmes and the pool of human capital to help policy makers. Training and development should be provided to equip employees with the right competencies and attitudes at different levels.

Culture change
Technical staff could share their skills and competence through exchange programmes and temporary transfers among Ministries. This will help to incorporate or reinvigorate desirable values, such as impartiality, integrity and dedication to Public Service, while at the same time promoting management innovations and efciency improvements. Make the Public Service impartial, professional and responsive that portrays the highest levels of neutral competence, efciency and performance orientation in every respect.

Proper Recruitment
There is a need to ensure that the Public sector is staffed with the right people in the right place through proper recruitment and selection criteria. Leadership being one of the most important drivers of excellence, it is essential that selection to management or technical management positions be made judiciously. In this context, the PRB report 2008 has come up, based on foreign experience, with a Leadership Capability Prole outlining the requirements for potential leaders i.e. they are expected to have the required mindset, attitude and soft skills; have acquired relevant experience through varied pathways; must possess leadership and management skills; and have the capability to deliver outcomes. The Leadership Capability Prole is expected to serve as a guideline for potential leaders, for training of future leaders and for recruiting agencies of the Public Service in the selection of a diverse pool of talents.
My creed is that Public Service must be more than doing a job efciently and honestly. It must be a complete dedication to the people and to the nation with full recognition that every human being is entitled to courtesy and consideration, that constructive criticism is not only to be expected but sought, that smears are not only to be expected but fought, that honor is to be earned, not bought.
(American Senator, 1897-1995)

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Brief on estimated number of employees in the Public Sector, 2007-2010


Civil Service:
Main observations from Table 11.33 with respect to employment in the Civil Service are as follows:
N

Police Constables were most common representing 16 percent of the jobs in the Civil Service followed by General Workers that represented 8 percent in June 2007. Teachers/Senior Teachers represented 7 percent of the Civil Servants. Education Ofcers represented 5 percent in June 2007 and Nursing Ofcers represented 5 percent. Hospital Servants represented 4 percent. Police Sergeants represented 2 percent and School Caretakers represented 2 percent. Table 11.33 : Number of employees in the Civil Service as at 30 June 2007
Job Title
ADA Administrative Manager, NTA Administrative Secretary Administrator Adviser Aerodrome Licensing Inspector Aerodrome Licensing Ofcer Aeronautical Information Ofcer Agricultural Clerk Agricultural Clerk (Personal) Agricultural Clerk Assistant Agricultural Condential Secretary Agricultural Engineer Agricultural Executive Assistant Agricultural Handyman Agricultural Implement Operator Agricultural Superintendant Agricultural Supervisor Agricultural Technician Aids Education Nurse Aids Physician Air Trafc Control Assistant Air Trafc Control Ofcer Air Trafc Control Supervisor Air Trafc Services Standards Inspector Air Trafc Services Standards Ofcer Airworthiness Inspector Airworthiness Surveyor Ambassador Ambulance Attendant (on shift) Ambulance Driver (on shift) Apicultural Ofcer Archives Ofcer Archivist Area Superintendent Articer Assistant Health Information, Education and Communication Ofcer Assistant Catering Ofcer Assistant Citizen's Advice Bureau Co-ordinator Assistant Commercial Ofcer Assistant Commissioner of Police Assistant Commissioner, Probation and After Care Assistant Commissioner, Social Security Assistant Conservator of Forests Assistant Controller, Fisheries Protection Service Assistant Director (Primary) Assistant Director of Youth Affairs Assistant Director, Labour and Industrial Relations

N N N

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


3 1 1 14 1 0 0 5 55 3 5 1 4 13 2 6 9 1 2 8 2 16 32 10 0 0 1 0 15 122 151 2 8 1 4 1 10 21 2 0 22 3 7 2 4 1 0 5

770

Job Title
Assistant Finance Ofcer Assistant Fumigation Supervisor Assistant Housing Ofcer Assistant Inspector Assistant Instrument Curator Assistant Master Tailor Assistant Mate Assistant Mechanical Ofcer (Personal) Assistant Medical Laboratory Technician Assistant Medical Records Ofcer Assistant Medical Records Organiser Assistant Orthopaedic Technician Assistant Park Ranger Assistant Parliamentary Counsel Assistant Regional Development Ofcer Assistant Secretary Assistant Secretary, National Planning & Development Commission Assistant Secretary, Planning Appeals Tribunal Assistant Secretary, Public and Disciplined Forces Assistant Solicitor-General Assistant Superintendent of Police Assistant Superintendent of Police Band Assistant Superintendent, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Assistant Supervisor (Oriental Languages) Assistant Supervisor (The Arts) Assistant Transport Planner Assistant Vulcaniser Assistant Director Assistant Manager Attach (Administration) Attendant (Haemodialysis) Attendant (Nursing School) (Personal) Audio typist Automobile Electrician Aviation Clerk Aviation Patrolman Aviation Security/Facilitation Inspector Aviation Security/Facilitation Ofcer Ayurvedic Medical Ofcer Band Constable Band Corporal Band Inspector Band Sergeant Band Sub-Inspector Bandmaster Binder Bio-Medical Engineer (Health) Bio-Medical Technician Blacksmith Blood Bank Assistant Blood Bank Ofcer Blood Donor Organiser Boatman Boatswain (Sea-going Vessel) Boiler Operator Boiler Operator (on roster) Cabinet Maker Careers Ofcer Caretaker (on roster) Carpenter Cartographer Catering Manager Catering Ofcer Catering Supervisor Chainman Chairman Chairman, Public and Disciplined Forces Service Chairperson, Planning Appeals Tribunal Charge Nurse (Female) Charge Nurse (Male) Charge Nurse (Psychiatric) (Female) Charge Nurse (Psychiatric) (Male) Chemical Laboratory Assistant/Senior Chemical Laboratory Assistant Chemical Laboratory Technician Chief Archives Ofcer Chief Blacksmith Chief Cartographer Chief Catering Administrator

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 1 4 1 5 4 2 1 25 15 3 15 0 1 1 57 1 1 1 3 98 1 1 48 5 1 1 7 2 4 2 10 10 8 0 24 0 1 5 74 4 4 10 1 1 1 3 10 4 16 14 1 1 0 3 0 45 3 18 44 13 1 13 36 29 1 1 1 395 284 11 19 3 10 1 1 1 1

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Job Title
Chief Clinical Scientist Chief Court Ofcer Chief Court Usher Chief ElectronicTechnician Chief Employment Ofcer Chief Executive Ofcer Chief Female Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Chief Fisheries Ofcer Chief Government Analyst Chief Government Valuer Chief Government Whip Chief Health Inspector Chief Health Statistician Chief Hospital Administrator Chief Hospital Supplies Ofcer Chief Housing Development Ofcer Chief Inspector Chief Inspector of Police Chief Inspector of Police Band Chief justice Chief Legal Assistant Chief Mason Chief Mechanic Chief Medical Laboratory Technician Chief Medical Ofcer Chief Meteorological Technician Chief Motor Mechanic Chief Nursing Ofcer Chief Nutritionist Chief Occupational Safety and Health Inspector Chief Occupational Therapist Chief Ofcer Chief Ofcer (Aviation Security/Facilitation) Chief Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Chief Panel Beater Chief Pharmacy Dispenser Chief Physiotherapist Chief Planning Inspector Chief Police Medical Ofcer Chief Procurement Ofcer Chief Radiographer Chief Regional Development Ofcer Chief Registrar Chief Reporter and Editor Chief Road Transport Inspector Chief Sanitary Engineer Chief Speech Therapist and Audiologist Chief State Attorney Chief Surveyor Chief Technical Ofcer Chief Town and Country Planning Draughtsman Chief Town and Country Planning Ofcer Chief Trade Analyst Chief Tradesman Chief Valuation Technician Chief Vehicle Examiner Chief Welder Child Welfare Ofcer (Personal) Citizen's Advice Bureau Co-ordinator Citizen's Advice Bureau Organiser Civil Status Ofcer Clerical Ofcer Clerical Ofcer/ Higher Clerical Ofcer Clerk (Planning) Clerk Assistant Clerk of the National Assembly Clinical Assistant Clinical Psychologist Clinical Scientist (Bio Chemistry) Clinical Scientist (Virology) Cloakroom Attendant Clerical Ofcer/Higher Clerical Ofcer Clerical Ofcer/Higher Clerical Ofcer/Senior Clerical Ofcer Coach Coach (Swimming) Coach Painter Commanding Ofcer Commercial Examiner

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 20 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 133 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 11 4 0 1 3 1 28 55 39 1528 0 97 1 2 5 5 4 48 20 20 19 12 9 1 0

772

Job Title
Commercial Ofcer Commissioner of Police Commissioner of Probation and After Care Commissioner, Social Security Communication Ofcer Communication, Navigation and Surveillance Ofcer Community Health Development Motivator Community Health Care Ofcer Community Health Development Organiser Community Health Nursing Ofcer Community Health Rehabilitation Ofcer Community Midwife Community Physician Computer Laboratory Attendant Computer Technician Condential Secretary Condential Secretary (Planning) Conservator Conservator of Forests Consultant Consultant (Oral Surgery) Consultant (Orthodontics) Consumer Protection Ofcer Controller, Fisheries Protection Service Cook (on Roster) Cooperative Development Ofcer Cooperative Ofcer Co-ordinator Coordinator(Health & Anti drug) Court Ofcer Court Service care Ofcer Court Usher Coxswain Condential Secretary Curator of Vacant Estates Cutter Dean Deckhand/Fisherman Demographer Dental Assistant Dental Surgeon/Senior Dental Surgeon Dental Technician Deputy Assistant Superintendent of Police Deputy Bandmaster Deputy Chairman of Committees Deputy Chairman, Public Service Commission Deputy Chairperson, Planning Appeals Tribunal Deputy Chief Government Valuer Deputy Chief Government Whip Deputy Chief Health Inspector Deputy Chief Hospital Administrator Deputy Chief Nursing Ofcer Deputy Chief Surveyor Deputy Chief Town and Country Planning Ofcer Deputy Clerk Deputy Commissioner of Police Deputy Commissioner, Probation and After Care Deputy Commissioner, Social Security Deputy Conservator of Forests Deputy Controller, Fisheries Protection Service Deputy Director Deputy Director General, NSS Deputy Director of Civil Aviation Deputy Director, Employment Service Deputy Director, Legal Metrology Services Deputy Director, Meteorological Services Deputy Director, National Parks and Conservation Deputy Director, Strategic Planning and Implementation Unit Deputy Forest Ranger Deputy Head Teacher Deputy Head Teacher (Aided Schools) Deputy Head Teacher (Oriental Languages) Deputy Master & Registrar Deputy Project Manager (Ministry of Environment) Deputy Rector Deputy Registrar Deputy Registrar of Associations Deputy Registrar of Civil Status

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 1 1 1 1 2 11 245 1 74 111 94 58 69 5 202 0 1 1 53 1 1 21 1 230 3 19 8 0 95 17 49 3 19 1 1 0 2 1 59 52 1 19 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 6 1 2 1 3 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 7 820 6 180 1 1 43 1 1 1

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Job Title
Deputy Road Transport Commissioner Deputy Secretary for Foreign Affairs Deputy Secretary, Central Tender Board Deputy Social Welfare Commissioner Deputy Speaker Deputy, General Manager Development Control Ofcer Director Director General, ADSU Director General, NSS Director of Civil Aviation Director of Court Services Director of Public Prosecutions Director of Sports Director of Youth Affairs Director, Emergency Services Director, Employment Service Director, Human Resource Development Director, Labour and Industrial Relations Director, Legal Metrology Services Director, Medical Unit Director, Meteorological Services Director, National Parks and Conservation Service Director, Occupational Safety and Health Director, Ofce of Fair Trading Director, Pharmaceutical Services Director, Solid Waste Management Division Director, Strategic Planning and Implementation Unit Disability Ofcer Divisional Cooperative Ofcer Divisional Environment Ofcer Divisional Forest Assistant Divisional Head Divisional Meteorologist Divisional Scientic Ofcer Divisional Scientic Ofcer (Fisheries) Draughtsman's Assistant Draughtsman Driver Driver (Bibliobus) Driver (Heavy vehicles above 5 tons) Driver (Mechanical Unit) Driver (on roster - day & night) Driver (on roster) Driver (on shift) Driver (Ordinary Vehicles up to 5 tons) Driver (Planning) Driver Heavy Vehicle Driver Mechanical Unit ECG Technician Edu. Psychologist Education Ofcer Education Ofcer(Physical Education) Education(Prevoc) EEG Assistant Technician EEG Technician Electrician Electrician (on shift) Electronic Technician Emergency Physician Employment Ofcer Environment Enforcement Assistant Environment Ofcer Executive Assistant Executive Assistant (Housing) Executive Ofcer Executive Ofcer (Health Services) Factory Operative Factory Operative Assistant Family Counselling Ofcer Family Protection Ofcer (Personal) Family Welfare and Protection Ofcer Female Assistant Superintendent, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Female Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Field Assistant (Personal) First Secretary Fisheries Protection Ofcer Fitter

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 1 1 2 1 1 6 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 4 6 2 3 3 1 8 2 1 343 3 36 6 10 8 52 44 0 1 14 28 11 2548 81 0 2 1 10 4 4 35 42 12 37 2 1 302 87 0 2 0 4 23 1 1 4 23 132 8

774

Job Title
Fitter (on shift) Flight Operations Inspector Foreman Foreman (General) Forest Guard Forest Ranger Forester Fumigation Attendant Fumigation Supervisor Gangman Gangman (on roster) Gardener Gardener/Nurseryman Gatekeeper (Health) Gatekeeper (on shift) Gateman General Worker General Assistant General Development Worker General Manager General Worker (Casual) General Worker (on shift) General Worker Government Analyst Government Valuer Graphic Artist Gun Fitter Haemodialysis Ofcer Haemodialysis Supervisor Handy Worker Handy Worker ( Special Class) Hatchery Operator Head Cook Head Family welfare and Protection unit Head Gardener/Nurseryman Head Library Cadre Head Nurseryman (Fisheries) (on roster) Head ofce attd/ Ofce attd Head Ofce Attendant Head Poler Head Police Attendant Head Remuneration Analyst Head Teacher/Senior Head Teacher Head Teacher/Senior Head Teacher (Aided Schools) Head, Child Development Unit Head, Consumer Protection Unit Head, Disability Unit Head, Occupational Health Unit Head, School for Subnormal Children Head, School for the Blind Head, School for the Deaf Head, Vector Biology and Control Division Head, Women's Unit Health & Physical Education Instructor Health Care Assistant (General) Health Care Assistant (Haemodialysis) Health Economist Health Engineering Assistant Health Information, Education and Communication Ofcer Health Inspector Health Promotion Co-ordinator Health Statistician Health Surveillance Ofcer Heavy Vehicle/Mechanical Driver Helper High Commissioner Higher Executive Ofcer Higher Social Security Ofcer Home Economics Ofcer Home Economics Organiser/Senior Home Economics Hospital Administrative Assistant Hospital Administrator Hospital Attendant (on shift) Hospital Executive Assistant Hospital Physicist Hospital Servant (on shift) Housing Attendant Housing Clerk

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


4 0 20 3 60 8 38 2 1 96 1 16 240 79 6 2 4 418 13 7 1 4 1 2 5 13 0 2 1 1 232 200 2 6 0 11 1 10 65 60 3 30 1 223 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 41 1 301 1 1 11 5 97 1 3 111 1 0 7 115 192 7 1 18 9 299 0 3 1 872 2 3

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Public Service

Job Title
Housing Development Cadet Housing Development Ofcer Housing Ofcer Human Resource Analyst Incinerator Operator Insecticide Sprayerman Insecticide Sprayerman (Health) Inspector Inspector (Pre-Vocational) Inspector of Associations Inspector of Police Inspector of Works Instructor (Personal) Instructor/Instructress School for the Blind Instructor/Instructress School for the Deaf Instructor/Instructress School for the Subnormal Instrument Curator Irrigation Operator Job Analyst Job Analyst's Assistant Judge in Bankruptcy Laboratory Attendant Labour and Industrial Relations Ofcer Launch Driver Launch Driver (Shift) Laundry Attendant (on roster) Law Librarian Law Library asst Law Library Ofcer Leader of the Opposition Leading Hand Leather Worker Legal Assistant Legal Metrologist Legal research Asst Legal Secretary Leisure Ofcer Liaison Ofcer Librarian Library Attendant Library Clerk Library Ofcer Library Ofcer/Senior LO Licensing/Registration Ofcer Liftman Linen Ofcer Linen Room Assistant Local Government Binder's Asst Local Government Cabinet Maker Local Government Cadastral Assistant Local Government Chemical Sprayerman Local Government Clerk Local Government Drainman Local Government Enforcement Ofcer Local Government Executive Assistant Local Government Gardener/Nurseryman Local Government Groundsman Local Government Mason Local Government Painter Local Government Road Mender Local Government Telephone Operator Local Government Tradesman's Assistant Local Government Welder Local Government Word Processing Operator Lorry Loader Machine Minder Machine Minder (Bindery) Machine Minder (Bindery) (On Roster) Magistrate/Senior Magistrate Maintenance Assistant Maintenance Handy Worker Maintenance Handy Worker (Personal) Maintenance Ofcer Maintenance Ofcer (Communication, Navigation & Surveillance) Maintenance Superintendent Maintenance Supervisor (Communication, Navigation & Surveillance) Manager Manager, Recreation Centre

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


5 1 1 12 7 89 100 10 7 14 378 4 8 2 2 2 6 4 3 0 1 380 40 1 5 60 1 4 1 1 187 17 6 2 13 1 3 10 4 70 69 68 7 10 2 53 3 1 2 1 1 7 4 5 2 6 4 2 3 8 1 17 1 2 111 7 7 21 50 37 7 3 5 12 0 4 1 2

776

Job Title
Mandatory Occurrence Reporting Ofcer Marine Electronic/Electrical Technician Marine Engineering Assistant Marital Counsellor Mason Master Tailor Matron Medical Superintendent Medical and Health Ofcer/Senior Medical and Health Ofcer Medical Laboratory Technician Medical Physics Technician Medical Records Assistant Medical Records Clerk Medical Records Ofcer Medical Records Organiser Medical Social Worker Medical Superintendent Members of Parliament Mentor Mentor (Aided Schools) Meteorological Technician Meteorologist Midwife Midwife Educator Minister Counsellor/Deputy High Commissioner Mortuary Attendant (on roster) Motivator Motor Diesel Mechanic Motor Mechanic Motor/Diesel Mechanic Music Organiser National Aids Coordinator Nightsoilman Nuclear Medicine Technologist Nurse Educator Nurse Educator (Female) Nurse Educator (Male) Nurseryman (Fisheries) (on roster) Nursing Administrator (Female) Nursing Administrator (Male) Nursing Ofcer Nursing Ofcer (Psychiatric) Nursing Supervisor (Female) Nursing Supervisor (Male) Nutritionist Occupational Health Physician Occupational Safety and Health Engineer Occupational Safety and Health Inspector Occupational Therapist Occupational Therapy Assistant Ofce Assistant Ofce Attendant Ofce Attendant (Planning) Ofce Helper Ofce Supervisor Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Ofcer-in-charge (National Identity Card Unit) Ofcer-in-Charge, Import Division Ofcial Receiver Ombudsman Operator Waste Water Pumping Station (on shift) Operator Pumping Station Operator Waste Water Pumping Station (on shift) Opposition Whip Organising Ofcer, Recreation Centre Organising Ofcer, Women's Centre Orthopaedic Appliance Maker (Leather) Orthopaedic Appliance Maker (Metal) Orthopaedic Appliance Maker (Wood) Orthopaedic Technician Packing Assistant Painter Panel Beater Park Ranger Parliamentary Counsel Parliamentary Private Secretary Pathological Laboratory Assistant Pedagogical Inspector (Personal)

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


0 1 1 0 84 1 1 4 489 155 1 265 195 14 1 11 6 59 50 0 23 7 124 4 9 17 2 8 62 7 2 1 1 4 17 5 7 28 9 9 2 439 67 36 41 15 8 3 23 9 15 3 455 0 1 36 26 1 0 2 1 2 5 1 1 2 2 21 18 12 2 55 40 23 3 1 5 16 10

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Public Service

Job Title
Perfusionist Permanencier Permanent Secretary Personnel Licensing Assistant Personnel Licensing Ofcer Pharmacist Pharmacy Dispenser Pharmacy Stores Manager Physical Education Instructor Physical Education Organiser Physiotherapist Physiotherapy Assistant Plan Printing Operator Planner Planning Assistant Planning Inspector Plans and Records Ofcer Plant & Equipment Operator Plant Mechanic Plant Room Operator (on shift) Plumber and Pipe Fitter Podiatrist Poler Police Attendant Police Constable Police Constable (Security/Driver) Police Corporal Police Dental Surgeon/Senior Police Dental Surgeon Police Medical Ofcer/Senior Police Medical Ofcer Police Sergeant Pre-reg Trainee Agricultural Engineer President (court) President, Permanent Arbitration Tribunal Primary School Inspector Principal Agricultural Engineer Principal Archives Ofcer Principal Assistant Secretary Principal Bio-Medical Technician Principal Careers Ofcer Principal Cartographer Principal Chemical Laboratory Technician Principal Civil Status Ofcer Principal Community Health Care Ofcer Principal Community Health Nursing Ofcer Principal Community Midwife Principal Consumer Protection Ofcer Principal Court Ofcer Principal Court Usher Principal Demographer Principal Dental Assistant Principal Dental Surgeon Principal Electronic Technician Principal Female Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Principal Fisheries Ofcer Principal Fisheries Protection Ofcer Principal Government Valuer Principal Health Engineering Assistant Principal Health Information, Education and Communication Ofcer Principal Health Inspector Principal Health Surveillance Ofcer Principal Hospital Physicist Principal Human Resource Analyst Principal Inspector of Associations (Personal) Principal Job Analyst Principal Labour and Industrial Relations Ofcer Principal Legal Assistant Principal Licensing/Registration Ofcer Principal Local Government Enforcement Ofcer Principal Medical Laboratory Technician Principal Medical Ofcer Principal Meteorological Technician Principal Nurse Educator Principal Nutritionist Principal Occupational Safety and Health Inspector Principal Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Principal Pathological Laboratory Assistant Principal Pharmacist Principal Pharmacy Dispenser

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


3 15 17 0 0 17 148 13 38 3 15 43 3 7 11 6 1 5 1 9 22 0 14 270 8 365 100 1 275 1 6 1 192 2 3 0 48 1 1 29 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 2 28 8 1 1 1 4 1 3 25 3 2 1 17 1 1 1 2 3 7 2 2 1 14 4 10 1 2 5 5 1 1 16

778

Job Title
Principal Physical Education Organiser Principal Planner Principal Police Medical Ofcer Principal Primary School Inspector Principal Probation Ofcer Principal Procurement Ofcer Principal Protocol Assistant Principal Radiographer Principal Radiographic Assistant Principal Regional Development Ofcer Principal Research and Development Ofcer Principal Road Transport Inspector Principal Sanitary Engineer Principal Social Security Ofcer Principal Social Welfare Ofcer Principal State Attorney Principal State Counsel Principal Statistician Principal Supervisor (Female), Family Planning (Personal) Principal Surveying and Mapping Assistant Principal Surveyor Principal Technical Ofcer (Fisheries) Principal Technician (Electrical) Principal Test Chemist Principal Tourism Planner Principal Town and Country Planning Draughtsman Principal Town and Country Planning Ofcer Principal Trade Analyst Principal Valuation Technician Principal Vector Biology and Control Laboratory Technician Principal Vehicle Examiner Principal Youth Ofcer Printing Machine Operator Probation Ofcer Procurement Ofcer Principal Cooperative Ofcer Project Co-ordinator (AIDS) Project Manager Protocol Assistant Psychologist Publicity Assistant Puisne Judge Quality Control Pharmacist/Chemist Radiographer Radiographic Assistant (on shift) Radiographic Assistant (Personal) Range Warden Rattaner Receptionist Receptionist (Health Services) Receptionist/Telephone Operator Record Manager Rector Refuse Collector Regional Court administrator Regional Development Ofcer Regional Health Director Regional Health Services Administrator Regional Nursing Administrator Regional Public Health Superintendent Registrar Dangerous Chemical Control Board Registrar of Associations Registrar of Civil Status Registrar, Cooperative Societies Registrar, Public and Disciplined Forces Service Commission Remuneration Analyst Reporter Reprographic Operator Research and Development Ofcer Research and Development Ofcer (Wildlife) Research Ofcer NAEC Resource Centre Attendant Rigger Road Transport Commissioner Road Transport Inspector Rodent Control Assistant Supervisor Rodent Control Attendant Rodent Control Supervisor

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 4 2 8 10 1 1 7 5 2 5 4 1 22 8 2 7 1 1 1 11 1 2 2 2 1 4 1 23 1 2 10 2 37 9 18 1 2 1 8 3 11 1 92 14 63 3 1 4 10 53 1 50 294 2 16 5 5 5 7 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 18 2 0 1 9 1 37 2 13 1

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Public Service

Job Title
Sail-maker Sampler Sanitary Attendant Sanitary Attendant (on shift) Sanitary Engineer School Caretaker School Clerk Scientic Ofcer Scientic Ofcer (Fisheries) Scientic Ofcer, Vector Biology and Control Division Scientic Ofcer, Vector Biology and Control Division (Personal) Seamstress Second Secretary Secondary School Inspector Secretary (Enironment Appeal tribunal) Secretary (Pay Research Bureau) Secretary /Chief Justice Secretary /Registrar Secretary for Cooperative Development Secretary for Foreign Affairs Secretary for Trade Development Secretary NAEC Secretary, Central Tender Board Secretary, Morcellement Board Secretary, National Planning & Development Commission Secretary, NTA Board Secretary, Ombudsman's Ofce Secretary, Planning Appeals Tribunal Secretary, Public and Disciplined Forces Service Commissions Senior Aeronautical Information Ofcer Senior Agricultural Engineer Senior Archives Ofcer Senior Area Superintendent Senior Attach Senior Aviation Patrolman Senior Bio-Medical Technician Senior Blood Bank Ofcer Senior Careers Ofcer Senior Cartographer Senior Chemical Laboratory Technician Senior Child Welfare Ofcer (Personal) Senior Civil Status Ofcer Senior Clinical Scientist Senior Coach Senior Coach (Swimming) Senior Commercial Ofcer Senior Community Health Care Ofcer Senior Community Health Nursing Ofcer Senior Community Midwife Senior Computer Laboratory Attendant Senior Consumer Protection Ofcer Senior Cook Senior Cooperative Development Ofcer Senior Cooperative Ofcer Senior Court Ofcer Senior Court Usher Senior Dental Assistant Senior Development Control Ofcer Senior ECG Technician Senior Educational Psychologist Senior Education Ofcer (Administration) Senior Education Ofcer (Administration) (Personal) Senior Electronic Technician Senior Employment Ofcer Senior Environment Ofcer Senior Family Welfare & Protection Ofcer Senior Female Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Senior Field Assistant (Personal) Senior Fisheries Protection Ofcer Senior Gangman Senior Gardener/Nurseryman Senior Government Analyst Senior Government Valuer Senior Health Engineering Assistant Senior Health Information, Education and Communication Ofcer Senior Health Inspector Senior Health Statistician Senior Health Surveillance Ofcer

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 163 38 4 2 822 277 7 14 1 1 5 46 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 0 3 1 1 4 2 1 12 1 4 1 1 10 6 20 1 3 14 3 24 60 14 14 1 5 1 1 5 8 14 1 0 1 2 57 4 27 1 5 5 1 30 1 18

780

Job Title
Senior Home Economics Ofcer Senior Human Resource Analyst Senior Inspector Senior Inspector of Associations Senior Laboratory Attendant Senior Laboratory Technologist Senior Labour and Industrial Relations Ofcer Senior Leading Hand Senior Legal Assistant Senior Liaison Ofcer Senior Librarian Senior Library Attendant Senior Library Clerk Senior Library Ofcer Senior Licensing/Registration Ofcer Senior Linen Ofcer Senior Local Government Enforcement Ofcer Senior maintenance asst Senior Maintenance Ofcer (Communication, N & S) Senior Medical Laboratory Technician Senior Medical Records Clerk Senior Medical Social Worker Senior Meteorological Technician Senior Midwife Educator Senior Nurse Educator Senior Occupational Health Physician Senior Occupational Safety and Health Inspector Senior Occupational Therapist Senior Occupational Therapy Assistant Senior Ofce Attendant Senior Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Senior Organising Ofcer, Recreation Centre Senior Organising Ofcer, Women's Centre Senior Park Ranger Senior Pathological Laboratory Assistant Senior Pharmacist Senior Pharmacy Dispenser Senior Physical Education Organiser Senior Physiotherapist Senior Physiotherapy Assistant Senior Planner Senior Planning Assistant Senior Planning Inspector Senior Police Attendant Senior Primary School Inspector Senior Probation Ofcer Senior Procurement Ofcer Senior Protocol Assistant Senior Puisne Judge Senior Radiographer Senior Radiographic Assistant Senior Regional Development Ofcer Senior Registrar Senior Reporter and Editor Senior Research & Development Ofcer (Wildlife) Senior Research and Development Ofcer Senior Road Transport Inspector Senior Sampler Senior School Clerk Senior Scientic Ofcer (Environment) Senior Scientic Ofcer (Fisheries) Senior Secondary School Inspector Senior Shorthand Writer Senior Social Security Ofcer Senior Social Welfare Ofcer Senior Speech Therapist and Audiologist Senior Sports Ofcer Senior State Attorney Senior State Counsel Senior Statistical Ofcer Senior Statistician Senior Stockman Senior Supervisor of Oriental Languages Senior Survey & Demograhic Ofcer Senior Surveying and Mapping Assistant Senior Surveyor Senior Technical Assistant Senior Technical Ofcer

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 2 5 5 61 2 27 14 4 0 3 1 16 3 4 11 2 2 10 57 25 1 32 1 4 1 8 3 4 4 12 2 0 0 1 4 67 1 3 6 4 2 3 1 12 18 0 1 1 39 7 4 3 6 1 7 12 5 84 1 1 6 2 75 26 1 6 1 4 42 5 4 7 1 9 10 7 53

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Public Service

Job Title
Senior Technical Ofcer (Fisheries) Senior Technical Ofcer (Legal Metrology) Senior Technician (Electrical) Senior Technician (Mechanical) Senior Test Chemist Senior Tourism Planner Senior Town and Country Planning Draughtsman Senior Town and Country Planning Ofcer Senior Trade Analyst Senior Trade Information Ofcer Senior Trafc Warden Senior Valuation Technician Senior Vector Biology and Control Laboratory Technician Senior Vehicle Examiner Senior Word Processing Ofcer Senior Word Processing Operator Senior Youth Ofcer Senior/Head School Caretaker Senior/Head Workshop Assistant Senior/Principal Health Economist Shorthand Writer Social Facilitator Social Security Attendant Social Security Ofcer Social Welfare Commissioner Social Welfare Ofcer Social Worker Sociologist/Planner Solicitor-General Speaker Special Clerical Ofcer Specialist (Dental Services) Specialist/Senior Specialist Speech and Hearing Therapy Assistant Speech Therapist and Audiologist Sports Medical Ofcer Sports Nursing Ofcer Sports Ofcer Sprayerman State Attorney State Counsel Station Master Station Ofcer Statistical Ofcer Statistician Statistician/Systems Coordinator Steward Stockman Store Ofcer Storeman Stores Attendant Sub-Inspector of Police Sugar Technologist Superintendent (Central Sterile Supply Department) Superintendent of Police Superintendent of Police (Engineer Squadron) Superintendent, Orthopaedic Appliances Workshop Superintendent, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Superintendent, Specialised Schools Superintendent, Surgical Technology Workshop Superintending Dental Surgeon Supervisor (Central Sterile Supply Department) Supervisor (The Arts) Supervisor Community Health Rehabilitation Ofcer Supervisor of Oriental Languages Supervisor of Works Supervisor, Central Sterile Supply Department Supervisor, Community Health Rehabilitation Ofcer Supervisor/Senior Supervisor (Female ) (FP) (Personal) Survey & Demographic Ofcer Survey Ofcer Surveying and Mapping Assistant Surveyor Swimming Pool Attendant Swimming Pool Attendant (on roster ) Automobile Electrician Carpenter Motor Mechanic

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


6 1 0 1 27 2 3 4 1 1 7 42 1 3 1 13 17 95 1 1 6 1 40 194 2 42 15 1 1 1 9 9 241 12 3 1 2 11 1 5 31 18 1 97 27 1 28 79 1 2 153 90 3 2 58 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 8 3 4 3 10 5 11 27 30 5 7 1 1 0

782

Job Title
Painter Plumber & Pipe Fitter Welder Tailor Teacher(Secondary, Prevoc) Teacher/Senior Teacher Teacher/Senior Teacher (Aided Schools) Teacher/Senior Teacher (Oriental Languages) Technical Assistant Technical Manager Technical Ofcer Technical Ofcer (Fisheries) Technical Ofcer (Legal Metrology) Technical Ofcer/Senior Technical Ofcer (Wildlife) Technician (Communication, Navigation & Surveillance) Technician (Electrical) Technician (Youth & Sports) Telephone Operator/Receptionist Telephone Supervisor Telephonist Temporary Youth Ofcer Test Chemist Theatre Attendant (on shift) Third Secretary Time Keeper (Health) Timekeeper Transport Division Toolskeeper Tourism Planner Town and Country Planning Draughtsman Town and Country Planning Ofcer Trade Analyst Trade Information Ofcer Tradesman Tradesman Carpenter Tradesman Mason Tradesman Motor Mechanic Tradesman's Assistant Tradesman's Assistant (Seamstress) Trafc Warden Trainee Draughtsman Trainee Legal Assistant Trainee Meteorological Technician Trainee Meteorologist Trainee Surveyor Transport and Workshop Manager Transport Controller Transport Ofcer Transport Planner Transport Superintendent Transport Supervisor Turner and Machinist Upholsterer Usher/Senior Usher (Education) (Female) Usher/Senior Usher (Education) (Male) Valuation Technician Vector Biology and Control Laboratory Technician Vehicle Examiner Vice President (court) Vice-President Vulcaniser Ward Manager (Male) Ward Assistant (Male and Female) Ward Manager (Female) Ward Manager (Psychiatric) (Female) Ward Manager (Psychiatric) (Male) Wardress/Attendant (on roster) Waste Water Pipe Cleaner (on roster) Watchman Watchman (on shift) Welder Welfare Assistant Welfare Assistant (Psychiatry) Welfare Ofcer, Rehabilitation Youth Centre Woman Assistant Commissioner of Police Woman Deputy Commissioner of Police Woman Police Assistant Superintendent Woman Police Chief Inspector Woman Police Constable

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


1 1 2 27 0 3 846 35 1 838 30 2 51 28 8 0 3 0 2 1 1 99 11 3 9 1 15 1 2 6 11 1 1 3 5 2 1 2 207 8 35 1 4 7 3 17 1 2 1 1 1 5 2 5 59 58 35 2 18 3 1 5 71 130 78 1 1 18 18 179 58 16 12 8 1 1 1 2 6 475

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Public Service

Job Title
Woman Police Corporal Woman Police Deputy Assistant Superintendent Woman Police Inspector Woman Police Sergeant Woman Police Superintendent Woman Sub-Inspector of Police Woodcutter Word processing operator Word Processing Operator (Oriental Language) Word Processing Operator (Planning) Workshop Assistant Workshop Assistant (on shift) Workshop Supervisor Word Processing Operator X- Ray Attendant Youth Ofcer Total employment in Civil Service

No. of employees as at 30 June 2007


25 1 17 60 2 10 30 544 3 0 96 2 3 54 3 17 53 474

Parastatals:
Main observations from Table 11.34 with respect to employment trend in Parastatals are as follows:
N N N N N N N N N N

An 8 percent increase would occur among Accountants from June 2007 to year 2010. Among Accounts Ofcers/Senior Accounts Ofcers, a 13 percent increase is anticipated. 33 percent increase is expected among Administrative Professionals. A 20 percent increase is expected among Assistant Secretaries. An 18 percent decrease is anticipated among Associate Professors. A 13 percent increase is expected among Caretakers. An 11 percent increase is expected among Chairmen. A 12 percent decrease is projected among Coach Repairer. Drivers represented 8 percent of workers in Parastatals, the most common job. Conductors represented 6 percent of the Parastatal workers and General Workers represented 5 percent and Teachers represented 4 percent. Table 11.34 :Estimated number of employees in Parastatals, 2007-2010
Job Title
Accountant Accounting And Administrative Assistant Accounting Assistant Accounting Technician Accounts Clerk Accounts Manager Accounts Ofcer Accounts Ofcer/Senior Accounts Ofcer Acting Senior Dressmaking Teacher Administrative and Financial Manager Administrative Assistant Administrative Clerk Administrative Manager Administrative Ofcer Administrative Professional Administrative Secretary Adult Literacy Instructress Agricultural Clerk Agricultural Executive Assistant Agricultural Marketing Ofcer Ambulance Driver Analyst Programmer App. Mechanic Archives Ofcer Arts Gallery Conservator Assistant Audio Visual and Documentation Ofcer Assistant Commercial Manager Assistant Director Assistant Documentation Ofcer Assistant Editor Assistant Executive Clerk

as at 30 June 2007
25 2 29 27 14 1 2 24 2 3 16 3 14 8 15 13 8 2 1 5 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 3 6 1 19

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


26 3 29 27 14 1 2 25 2 6 16 4 15 8 15 14 8 2 1 5 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 3 6 1 19 27 4 29 27 14 1 2 27 2 6 17 4 15 8 15 14 8 2 1 5 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 3 6 1 19 27 4 29 27 14 1 2 27 2 6 17 4 15 8 20 14 8 2 1 5 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 3 6 1 19

784

Job Title
Assistant Executive Assistant Finance Ofcer Assistant Financial Intelligence Analyst Assistant Financial Ofcer Assistant General Manager Assistant Human Resource Manager Assistant Instructor Assistant IT Manager Assistant Lecturer/Lecturer Assistant Librarian Assistant Manager Assistant Printing Ofcer Assistant Purchasing and Supply Ofcer Assistant Registrar Assistant Research Scientist Assistant Secretary Assistant Stores Ofcer Assistant Supervisor, Womens Association Assistant Technician Assistant to CEO Assistant Tradesman Associate Professor Asst Director - Revenue Asst Handicraft Promotion Ofcer Asst Secretary(Contract) Asst System Analyst Asst System/Network Administrator Attendant Attendant (Workshop) Attendant/Cleaner Attendant/Driver Auxiliary Driver BA/System Administrator Baby Care Staff Binder Blacksmith Board Member Boatman Bursar Business Development Ofcer Cabinet Maker Cardiac Anaesthetist Cardiac Surgeon Cardiologist Carer Caretaker Carpenter Cashier Chairman Charge hand Chief Administrative Assistant Chief Carpenter Chief Cashier Chief Executive Ofcer Chief Finance Ofcer Chief Manager Finance Chief Mason Chief Planning Inspector Chief Social Worker Chief Specialised Nursing Superintendent Chief Technician Chief Tradesman Child Care Asst Child Care Giver Claims Ofcer Cleaner Cleaner (Full Time) Clerical Assistant Clerical Ofcer Clerical Ofcer/Higher Clerical Ofcer Clerk Clerk, NWC Clerk/Word Processing Operator Coach Coach Painter Coach Repairer Commercial Executive

as at 30 June 2007
11 7 2 14 1 2 8 1 189 1 21 3 1 4 5 5 24 3 33 1 3 17 1 1 1 1 1 61 1 5 40 5 1 9 2 11 4 1 1 8 1 2 1 1 1 232 16 30 9 6 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 6 1 7 3 59 337 28 7 172 1 4 41 1

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


11 7 2 14 1 2 8 1 191 1 21 3 2 4 10 5 24 3 32 1 3 16 1 1 1 1 1 65 1 7 41 5 1 9 2 11 4 1 1 8 1 2 1 1 1 240 16 30 10 6 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 7 6 1 7 3 59 347 28 7 175 1 4 39 1 11 7 2 14 1 2 8 1 195 1 21 3 2 4 11 5 24 3 32 1 3 14 1 1 1 1 1 65 1 7 41 4 1 9 2 11 4 1 1 8 1 2 1 1 1 250 16 30 10 6 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 7 6 1 7 3 59 352 28 7 177 1 4 36 1 11 7 2 14 1 2 8 1 194 1 21 3 2 4 11 6 24 3 32 1 3 14 1 1 1 1 1 65 1 7 41 3 1 9 2 11 4 1 1 8 1 2 1 1 1 263 16 30 10 6 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 7 6 1 7 3 59 353 28 7 177 1 4 36 1

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Public Service

Job Title

as at 30 June 2007
5 1 1 21 31 153 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 15 665 118 1 4 5 38 3 18 7 86 1 4 2 278 224 1 17 7 13 1 4 8 1 2 1 1 43 1 1 4 1 13 5 2 1 5 10 2 3 870 1 1 285 1 70 2 46 9 9 6 1 3 2 1 11 25 2 95 1 8 3 99

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


5 1 1 21 31 153 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 15 655 118 1 4 5 38 5 18 7 86 1 4 2 278 224 1 17 6 14 1 4 8 1 2 1 1 48 1 1 4 1 13 5 2 1 5 10 2 3 856 1 1 285 1 70 2 45 9 9 6 1 3 3 1 12 25 2 99 1 8 3 99 5 1 1 21 31 153 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 15 655 116 1 4 5 38 5 18 7 86 1 4 2 278 224 1 16 6 14 1 4 8 1 2 1 1 48 1 1 4 1 13 5 2 1 5 10 2 3 857 1 1 285 1 70 2 44 9 9 6 1 3 3 1 12 25 2 100 1 8 3 99 5 1 1 21 31 153 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 15 655 113 1 4 5 38 5 18 7 86 1 4 2 278 224 0 14 6 13 1 4 8 1 2 1 1 47 1 1 4 1 13 5 2 1 5 10 2 3 857 1 1 285 1 70 2 42 9 9 6 1 3 3 1 12 25 2 100 1 8 3 99

Commercial Ofcer Communication and Public Relations Manager Community Development Commissioner Community Development Ofcer Community Service Extra Asst Community Welfare Asst Computer /Network Technician Computer Analyst/Senior Computer Analyst Computer Laboratory Attendant Computer Ofcer Computer Operations Controller Computer Operator Computer Programmer Computer Support Ofcer Computer Technician Conductor (Employed) Condential Secretary Construction Manager Control Clerk Cook Coordinator Copy Editor Council Member Craft And Related Trade Worker Craft Worker Cultural Advisor Curator Curriculum Ofcer Customs Ofcer 1 Customs Ofcer 2 Data Entry Supervisor Data Input Clerk Depot Manager Deputy Director Deputy Executive Director Deputy General Manager Deputy Rector Deputy Registrar Deputy Specialised Nursing Superintendent Designer Development Ofcer Director Director Cardiac Services Director General Dispenser Distance Learning Ofcer Divisional Manager Doctor Documentalist Documentation and Research Ofcer(Oriental Languages) Documentation Ofcer Dog Catcher Draughtsman Dressmaking Teacher Driver Driver/Messenger Driver/Ofce Attendant Education Ofcer Educational Data Asst Educator Electrical Engineer Electrician Elementary Occupation Engineer Engineering Superintendent Evaluation Ofcer Events Manager Events Ofcer Examiner Executive Assistant Executive Clerk Executive Director Executive Ofcer Executive Secretary Extension Ofcer Factory Operator Factory Worker

786

Job Title
Family Support Ofcer Field Intelligence Ofcer Field Ofcer Finance Clerk Finance Manager Finance Ofcer Financial Analyst Financial Controller Financial Intelligence Analyst Fitter Foreman Forklift Driver Fuel Attendant Fund Raiser Gangman Gardener/Nurseryman Gardeners Gateman General Assistant General Clerk General Field Worker General Manager General Manager's Personal Driver General Ofce/Premises Worker General Purpose Handy Worker General Worker Graphics Artist Graphics Ofcer Group Human Resource Manager Hadj/Programme Ofcer Hairdresser Handicraft Teacher Handy worker Handy Worker (Skilled) Handy Worker(Special class) Handyman Handyman/Tradesman Head Engineering Department Head Engineering Services Head Gandhian Basic School Head Lay Services Head Librarian Head Library and Archives Head National Resource Centre Head of Department/Department Manager Head of Finance Head of Graphics, Printing And Photography Head of School Head of Stores Head Ofce Attendant Head Operations and Maintenance Attendant Head Publishing and Printing Department Head Registry Health & Safety Ofcer Helper Heritage Protection Ofcer Higher Executive Assist Higher Executive Ofcer Higher Purchasing & Supply Ofcer Higher Stores Ofcer HIV Prevention Ofcer Home Economics Instructress (on sessional basis) Housing Inspector Human Resouce Assistant Human Resource Manager Human Resource Ofcer Industrial Relations Ofcer Information & Documentation Ofcer Information Control Ofcer Information Security Analyst Information Technology Ofcer Insecticide Sprayerman Inspector Instructor Insurance Clerk Internal Auditor Internal Controller

as at 30 June 2007
105 3 72 17 6 38 1 6 2 5 10 8 15 1 38 14 35 4 55 2 1 10 2 1 1 589 6 4 1 1 1 1 23 1 25 103 95 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 15 1 1 5 0 6 1 1 1 6 28 1 1 41 2 15 1 26 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 65 1 13 2

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


105 3 72 17 6 44 7 6 3 5 10 8 15 1 38 14 35 4 55 2 1 11 2 1 1 589 5 3 1 1 1 1 28 1 25 114 95 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 15 1 1 5 0 6 1 1 1 7 27 1 1 41 2 15 1 26 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 65 1 13 3 105 3 72 17 6 45 7 6 3 5 10 8 15 1 38 14 34 4 55 2 1 11 2 1 1 589 5 3 1 1 1 1 33 1 25 114 95 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 15 1 1 5 1 6 1 1 1 8 27 1 1 41 2 14 1 26 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 65 1 13 4 105 3 72 17 6 45 7 6 3 5 10 8 15 1 38 14 34 4 55 2 1 11 2 1 1 588 5 3 1 1 1 1 33 1 25 114 95 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 15 1 1 5 1 6 1 1 1 8 27 1 1 41 2 14 1 26 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 65 1 13 4

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Public Service

Job Title
Investigator Investment Advisor Irrigation Manager Irrigueur IT Administrator/Analyst IT Assistant IT Manager IT Ofcer IT Ofcer/Technician IT Security Ofcer IT Technical Ofcer IT Technician Laboratory Attendant Labourer Laundry Worker Legal Advisor Legal Counsel Legal Ofcer Legal Research Assistant Legal Research Ofcer Legal Specialist Liaison Ofcer Librarian Library Attendant Library Clerk Library Ofcer Lift Operator Linen Worker Lorry Driver Lorry Helper Lubricator Maintainance Ofcer Management Executive Manager Manager ( Business Development & Promotion) Manager (Personal) Manager, Planning, Research & Development Manager, Quality Assurance Services Managing Director Managing Secretary Manual Worker Marketing Assistant Marketing Ofcer Mason Masseur Matron Meat Loader/Lorry Helper Mechanic Mechanical Engineer Mechanical Engineer/Senior Mechanical Engineer Medical Record assistant Messenger/Driver Motivator Music Tutor Nurse Nursery Attendant Nursing Aid Nursing Ofcer Ofce Attendant Ofce Attendant/Driver Ofce Attendant/Messenger Ofce Clerk Ofce Secretary Ofce Superintendent Ofce Supervisor Ofcer Ofcer In Charge Operations And Maintenance Attendant Operations And Maintenance Manager Operations Ofcer Operations/Maintenance Technician(Mechanical) Operator Pumping Station Overseer Painter Parking Assistant Parking Cashier Parking Supervisor

as at 30 June 2007
2 9 1 118 2 1 2 4 9 4 21 1 31 179 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 8 4 9 19 14 1 2 4 4 7 16 1 41 7 1 2 2 3 1 17 1 5 22 8 1 7 191 1 1 0 7 47 8 2 1 27 1 189 17 36 3 5 6 3 106 3 22 1 14 15 2 1 16 35 8 10

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


2 9 1 118 3 2 2 4 9 4 21 1 31 179 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 8 4 9 19 14 1 2 4 5 7 16 1 41 7 1 2 2 3 1 17 1 6 22 8 1 7 191 1 1 5 7 47 8 2 1 32 1 188 17 36 3 5 6 3 106 3 22 1 14 15 2 1 15 35 8 10 2 9 1 118 3 2 2 5 9 4 21 1 31 179 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 8 4 9 20 14 1 2 4 5 7 16 1 41 7 1 2 2 3 1 17 1 6 22 8 1 7 186 1 1 5 7 47 8 2 1 37 1 189 17 36 3 5 6 3 106 3 22 1 14 15 2 1 14 35 8 10 2 9 1 118 3 2 2 5 9 4 21 1 31 179 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 8 4 9 20 14 1 2 4 5 7 16 1 41 7 1 2 2 3 1 17 1 6 22 8 1 7 178 1 1 5 7 47 8 2 1 37 1 189 17 36 3 5 6 3 106 3 22 1 14 15 2 1 14 35 8 10

788

Job Title

as at 30 June 2007
28 7 2 9 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 5 2 2 3 0 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 19 1 1 16 3 8 2 2 8 2 44 0 2 1 11 32 1 5 3 339 294 3 0 1 2 3 3 1 1 22 3 1 1 3 3 1 7 1 23 4 1 2 4 24 2 9 2 2 2 17 1

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


28 7 2 11 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 5 2 2 3 0 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 19 1 1 16 3 8 2 2 11 2 43 0 2 1 11 32 1 5 3 339 294 3 1 3 2 3 3 1 1 22 3 1 1 3 3 1 7 1 23 4 1 2 4 24 2 9 2 2 2 17 1 28 7 2 11 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 5 2 2 3 1 3 1 0 1 3 2 1 2 19 1 1 18 3 8 2 2 11 2 45 1 2 2 11 32 1 5 3 339 294 3 1 3 2 3 3 1 1 22 3 1 1 3 3 1 7 1 23 4 1 2 4 24 2 9 2 2 2 18 1 28 7 2 11 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 5 2 2 3 1 3 1 0 1 3 2 1 2 19 1 1 18 3 8 2 2 11 2 45 1 2 2 11 32 1 5 3 339 294 3 1 3 2 3 3 1 1 22 3 1 1 3 3 1 7 1 23 4 1 2 4 24 2 9 2 2 1 17 1

Part Time Music Tutor Performing Artist Personal Secretary Personnel Ofcer Physiotherapist Physiotherapy Ofcer Pipe Fitter Planning Inspector Planning Manager Planning Ofcer Plumber And Pipe Fitter Preprimary Teacher Principal Accounts & Procurement Ofcer Principal Community Development Ofcer Principal Draughtsman Principal Executive Assistant Principal Finance Ofcer Principal Legal Research Ofcer Principal Purchasing And Supply Ofcer Principal Social Welfare Ofcer Principal Stores Ofcer Printing and Publishing Ofcer Printing Assistant Printing Ofcer Printing Operator Production/Curriculum Assistant Professional Professor Programme Coordinator Programme Ofcer Project Coordinator Project Ofcer Project Worker Psychologist Public Relations Ofcer Pump Operator Purchasing And Supply Ofcer Purchasing Ofcer Quality Assurance Ofcer Quality Inspector Receptionist Receptionist/Telephonist Recruitment Ofcer Rector Registrar Relief Conductor Relief Driver Research Analyst Research Assistant Research Coordinator Research Intelligence Ofcer Research Ofcer Research Ofcer/Senior Research Ofcer Resident Manager Resource Ofcer Resource Person Resource Person (on sessional basis) Retail Manager Retread Plant Superintendent Safety And Health/Senior Safety And Health/Welfare Ofc Sales and Marketing Ofcer Sales Assistant Salesman/Salesperson Sanitary Attendant Secretary Secretary To The Board Secretary -Treasurer Secretary/Receptionist Secretary-General Section Head Senior Accounts Clerk Senior Accounts Ofcer Senior Administrative Assistant Senior Assistant Editor Senior Binder Senior Cashier Senior Clerk

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Job Title
Senior Clerk/WPO Senior Community Development Ofcer Senior Computer Operator Senior Coordinator Senior Executive Assistant Senior Executive Ofcer Senior Extension Ofcer Senior Finance Ofcer Senior Gangman Senior Gangman/Nurseryman Senior Gardener Senior General Assistant Senior Head Ofce Attendant Senior Housing Inspector Senior Instructor Senior Insurance Clerk Senior Internal Controller Senior Investment Advisor Senior Laboratory Attendant Senior Lecturer Senior Legal Research Ofcer Senior Librarian Senior Library Attendant Senior Library Clerk Senior Ofce Attendant Senior Ofcials/Managers Senior Performing Artist Senior Planning Inspector Senior Printing Ofcer Senior Purchasing And Supply Ofcer Senior Social Welfare Ofcer Senior Specialised Perfusionist Senior Store Keeper Senior Stores Ofcer Senior Technical Assistant Senior Technical Executive Senior Technical Ofcer Senior Technician Senior Terminal Operator(Civil) Senior Terminal Operator(Electrical) Senior Terminal Operator(Mechanical) Senior Tobacco Ofcer Senior Tourism Enforcement Ofcer Senior Trafc Controller Senior Trainer Senior WPO Senior/Head Ofce Attendant Shop Assistant Shop Keeper Site Supervisor Slaughterer Social Facilitator Social Worker Social Worker/Employment Ofcer Specialised Head Nurse Specialised Nursing Ofcer Specialised Nursing Superintendent Specialised Perfusionist Specialised Registered Medical Ofcer Sports and Welfare Ofcer Statistical and Marketing Ofcer Statistical Ofcer Statistician Stock Clerk Stockman Store Manager(Inventory) Store Manager(Purchasing & Supply) Store Ofcer Store/Library Clerk Storekeeper Storeman Stores Attendant Stores Ofcer Substance Abuse Prevention Ofcer Supervising Attendant Supervisor, Womens Association

as at 30 June 2007
1 9 2 5 1 10 1 13 1 2 4 7 9 1 3 1 0 6 7 54 0 1 1 2 5 11 2 1 1 3 6 1 9 2 22 2 4 15 6 14 8 4 0 9 3 16 3 10 2 1 10 4 1 2 13 45 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 5 1 26 13 3 1 1

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


1 9 2 4 1 10 1 13 1 2 4 7 9 1 1 1 1 6 7 51 0 1 1 2 5 11 2 1 1 3 6 1 8 2 22 2 4 13 6 14 8 4 2 9 3 16 3 10 2 1 10 4 1 3 13 45 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 5 1 26 13 3 1 1 1 9 2 4 1 10 1 13 1 2 4 7 8 1 1 1 1 6 7 46 1 1 1 2 5 11 2 1 1 3 6 1 7 2 22 1 4 13 6 14 8 4 2 9 3 16 3 10 2 1 10 4 1 3 13 45 0 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 5 1 26 13 3 1 1 1 9 2 4 1 10 1 13 1 2 3 7 7 1 1 1 1 6 7 45 1 1 1 2 5 11 2 1 1 3 6 1 6 2 22 1 4 13 6 14 8 4 2 9 3 16 3 10 2 1 10 4 1 3 13 45 0 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 5 1 25 13 3 1 1

790

Job Title

as at 30 June 2007
19 4 51 2 2 4 1 1 1 29 43 56 416 95 1 111 45 2 25 1 3 1 8 3 223 12 1 1 1 26 1 5 6 3 4 5 5 6 6 4 4 3 0 18 2 2 106 1 51 15 55 6 4 1 8 3 3 1 21 5 13 1 1 1 189 1 54 1 2 23 4 2 69 9 21 1 28 11 548

Number of employees 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10


19 4 51 2 4 4 1 1 1 29 43 56 427 95 1 111 45 2 25 1 3 1 8 3 223 12 1 1 1 26 1 5 6 3 4 6 5 6 8 10 4 5 3 18 2 2 116 1 51 20 55 6 4 1 9 3 3 1 23 6 13 1 1 1 194 1 54 1 2 24 5 2 69 9 21 1 28 11 673 19 4 51 2 4 4 1 1 1 295 43 56 427 95 1 113 45 2 25 1 3 1 8 3 223 13 1 1 1 26 1 5 6 3 4 6 4 6 8 10 4 5 3 18 2 2 108 1 51 25 55 6 4 1 9 3 3 1 23 6 13 1 1 1 196 1 54 1 2 23 5 2 69 9 21 1 28 11 704 19 4 51 2 4 4 1 1 1 29 43 56 428 95 1 113 45 2 24 1 3 1 8 3 223 13 1 1 1 26 1 5 6 3 4 6 4 6 8 10 4 5 3 18 2 2 108 1 51 25 55 6 4 1 9 3 3 1 23 5 13 1 1 1 201 1 54 1 2 23 5 2 69 9 21 1 28 11 698

Supervisor/Senior Supervisor Support 1 Support 2 Support Ofcer System Administrator System Analyst System Analyst(Contract) Systems Supervisor Teacher Teacher on contract Teacher/Educator/Supervisor Teacher-Contractual Teacher-Permanent Team Leader Technical Advisor Technical And Mechanical Ofcer Technical Assistant Technical Assistant (Electrical) Technical Attendant Technical Consultant Technical Executive Technical Executive (Engineering Services) Technical Executive (Operations) Technical Manager Technical Ofcer Technical Ofcer (Civil) Technical Ofcer (Electrical) Technical Ofcer(Building & Civil Engineering-Contract) Technical Ofcer/Senior Technical Ofcer Technician Technician (Engineering Services) Technician Operations Telephone Operator Telephonist Terminal Attendant/Gardener Test Bench Operator Theatre Attendant Ticket Issuing Machine Repairer Tourism Enforcement Ofcer Tourism Information Ofcer Tourism Promotion Manager Tourism Promotion Ofcer Tourist Warden Tradesman Assistant Tradesman/Senior Tradesman(Electronics) Trafc Controller Trafc Ofcer Trafc Planner(Contract) Trafc Supervisor Trainee Specialised Nursing Ofcer Trainer Training Centre Manager Training Ofcer Treasurer(Financial Ofcer) Trimmer/Upholsterer Turner Machinist Typist/Receptionist Tyre Retreading Superintendent Tyreman Tyreman Supervisor Usher Vehicle Controller Vice Chairman Vulganisor Warden/TV Operator Warehouse Manager Watchman Weighbridge Attendant Weighbridge Operator Welder Welfare Development Ofcer Woodcutter Word Processing Operator Word Processing Operator/Receptionist Workshop Assistant Workshop Superintendent Workshop Supervisor TOTAL

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