LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED India’s largest manufacturer of low tension switchgear offers Reactive Power Management Products and

Solutions. These products and system solutions fulfill the Reactive Power need of Industrial and Agricultural customers. The products and system solutions confirm to the design and quality standards associated with all L&T switchgear products

Training Centres
The L&T Switchgear Training Centres at Pune, Lucknow & Coonoor are the only facilities of their kind in India. The cenres have State-of-the-art training facilities, well-equipped workshop & testing systems. Training programmes on Reactive Power Management Products and related subjects are being regularly conducted at above Training centres. Kindly contact the nearest Training Centre for further details.

Pune
T-156 / 157, MIDC, Bhosari, Pune 411026 Tel : 020-7120037, 7120653 Fax : 020-7122993 e-mail : wro-stc@wro.ltindia.com

Lucknow
Plot No. C / 6-7 Sarojini Nagar Industrial Area Lucknow 226 008 Tel : 0522-437728 Fax : 0522-437592 & 223813 e-mail : ltswgtrg@w1.vsnl.net.in

Coonor
Ooty-Coonor Main Road Needle Industries P.O. Ketti, Niligiris - 643 243 (T .N.) (T.N.) Tel : 0423-57158 Fax : 0423-57158

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pages

1. Introduction 2. Benefits of Power Factor Correction 3. Modes of Compensation 4. Calculation of kVAr Required 4.1. for motors 4.2. for Distribution / Industrial Networks 4.3. for transformers 5. Harmonics and its Effects 6. Selection of Capacitors & APFC's 6.1. Selection of capacitors 6.2.Selection of APFC Systems 7. Capacitor Technology and Types 7.1. MPP Type Capacitors 7.2. MD-XL Type Capacitors 7.3. MD Type Capacitors 7.4. FF(APP) Type Capacitors 8. “IntellVAr” APFC Technology and Types 8.1. Technology 8.2. Technical Data 8.3. Product Range 8.4. Thyristor switched APFC systems 8.5. Technology 8.6. Product Range 9. PF Correction in Harmonic Rich Environments 9.1. Background 9.2. Detuned Filters 9.3. Fixed detuned filter components 9.4. Fixed detuned filters 9.5. APFC cum detuned filter 10. PF Correction in Installations With Captive Generation by DG sets 11. Useful Formulae and Tables.

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59 61

1. INTRODUCTION

Active and Reactive Power. A vast majority of Electrical loads in low voltage industrial installations are inductive in nature. Typical examples are Motors, Transformers, Drives, Fluorescent lighting. Such loads consume both Active and Reactive Power. The Active Power is used by the load to meet its real output requirements whereas Reactive Power is used by the load to meet its magnetic field requirements. The Reactive Power (inductive) is always 90 deg lagging with respect to Active Power as shown in Fig. 1.1(a).
b b b b

The supply of Reactive Power from the system results in reduced installation efficiency due to: Increased current flow for a given load. Higher voltage drop in the system. Increase in losses of Transformers, Switchgear and Cables. Higher kVA demand from the supply system.

b

Levy of penalties by the Electricity supply authorities.

CosΦ kW kVAri kVA

= Power factor = Active power = Reactive power (inductive). = Apparent power = √kW2 + kVAr2

It is therefore necessary to reduce & manage the flow of Reactive Power to achieve higher efficiency of the Electrical system and reduction in cost of Electricity consumed.

It is thus a reality that flow of Active and Reactive Power always takes place in Electrical installations. This means that the supply system has to be capable of supplying both The most cost effective method of reducing and managing Reactive Power is by Power Factor Improvement through Power Capacitors. The concept of power factor improvement

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is shown below as Fig 1.2(a) and fig 1.2(b). As power factor tends to unity, the electrical system efficiency will improve. Due to the changing nature of modern electrical installations it has now become nessessery to use various types of fixed and variable power capacitors to achieve desired power factor improvement. The methodology followed to achieve a consistently high power factor under modern application conditions is referred to as “ REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT ” therefore involves proper selection and use the following products.
b b

Power Capacitors Automatic Power Factor Correction systems Detuned Harmonic Filters

b

cosΦ1 = initial power factor cosΦ2 = final power factor kVA2 < kVA1. The products offered in this publication are designed to enable the user to achieve optimum Reactive Power Management in the electrical installation for ensuring maximum savings and reducing cost of electricity consumed under given load conditions.

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2. BENEFITS OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
2.1 The benefits can be summarised as follows:b b b b

b b

Saving in kVA (demand ) charges. Elimination of Power Factor penalties. Release of system capacity by which additional loads can be easily added. Reduction in current drawn. Reduced Transformer / Switchgear/ Cable losses.

b

Improved Voltage Regulation. Increased life of Switchgear/ Cables due to reduced operating temperatures.

The figure given gives a comparison of a typical industrial installation with an initial power factor of 0.75 fig 2.1 (a) and a corrected Power Factor of 0.95 fig 2.1 (b).

Comparison Table. (Assuming connected load of 800 kW)
Installation status Case 1 Without capacitors Case 2 With capacitors PF kVA demand Current drawn (Amps) PF penalty Saving in kVA charges

0.75

1067

1484

Yes

No

0.95

842

1171

No

Yes Also all the benefits described in (2.1) shall be available.

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3. MODES OF COMPENSATION

Providing compensation at the main incomer of the installation is called central compensation (pos. No. 1). This is suitable for installations where the loads are few and situated close to the main supply bus. (Refer Fig. 3.1)

Fig. (3.1)

Providing compensation at b main incomer – central compensation. (pos. No 1). b at Power distribution boards – group compensation. (pos. No 2). This is suitable for installations where there are number of power distribution boards for various load feeders. (Refer Fig. 3.2)

Fig. (3.2) Providing compensation at all stages. b At the main incomer bus – central compensation. (pos. No 1). b At power distribution boards – group compensation. (pos. No 2). b At individual load terminals individual compensation. (pos. No 3) Fig. (3.3) This is suitable for installations consisting of main receiving station, substations, several load feeders and a wide variety of loads. (Refer Fig. 3.3)

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4. CALCULATION OF kVAr REQUIRED
The estimation of kVAr required for compensation to achieve desired power factor is generally done depending on the type of loads to be compensated. For ease of use, the tables and formulae given in this section may be used.
Table 4.1 Motor Rating in HP 2.5 5 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 200 250

4.1 Capacitor kVAr For AC Induction Motors Table 4.1 gives the recommended ratings of power capacitors, which are to be used directly with 3 Phase AC induction motors.

Capacitor ratings in kVAr when motor speed (rev / min) is: 3000 1500 1000 750 500 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 29.0 30.0 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 38.0 38.0 40.0 45.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 12.5 14.5 16.5 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 29.0 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 38.0 39.0 40.0 40.0 42.0 50.0 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 6.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 32.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 38.0 39.0 40.0 41.0 42.0 43.0 43.0 45.0 55.0 2.0 3.5 4.5 5.5 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 15.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 37.0 38.0 39.0 40.0 41.0 42.0 43.0 44.0 45.0 45.0 47.0 60.0 2.5 4.0 5.5 6.5 9.0 12.0 14.5 17.0 21.0 25.0 28.0 31.0 34.0 37.0 40.0 43.0 46.0 49.0 52.0 54.0 55.0 56.0 57.0 59.0 60.0 61.0 62.0 63.0 65.0 67.0 70.0

Notes : 1) It is considered uneconomical in industrial applications to improve power factor by individual compensation for motor ratings below 15 hp.

2) For motor ratings above 250 hp the capacitor kVAr rating would be about 25% of the motor rating in hp. 3) In all cases it should be ensured that the capacitor current at rated voltage is always less than 90% of the no load current of the motor. This is

5

due to the fact that when capacitor current exceeds the no load magnetizing current of the motor, excessive voltage surges can occur due to self excitation in the event of an interruption in power supply, which will prove harmful to both the motor as well as the capacitor.

4) The capacitor kVAr values indicated in the above table are after taking into consideration the condition specified in the item –3 above and assuming motor loading of greater than 80%.

5) If the motor is loaded to less than 80%, the capacitor kVAr required may be greater than the values indicated in the above table. In such a case the capacitor should be connected upstream in group or central compensation mode.

4.2. For Distribution / Industrial Networks In electrical installations, the operating load kW and its average power factor (PF) can be ascertained from the electricity bill. Table-4.2
Initial PF

Alternatively it can also be easily evaluated by the formula b Average PF = kWh / kVAh b Operating load kW = kVA demand x Average PF.
Final PF

The average PF is considered as the initial PF and the final PF can be suitably assumed as required.In such cases required Capacitor kVAr can be calculated as shown in example.

Example :Calculate the required kVAr compensation for a 500 kW installation to improve the PF from 0.75 to 0.96.

«
0.4 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.5 0.52 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.58 0.6 0.62 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.68 0.7 0.72 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.78 0.8 0.82 0.84 0.85

0.9 1.807 1.676 1.557 1.500 1.446 1.343 1.248 1.158 1.074 1.034 0.995 0.920 0.849 0.781 0.716 0.685 0.654 0.594 0.536 0.480 0.425 0.398 0.371 0.318 0.266 0.214 0.162 0.135

0.91 1.836 1.705 1.585 1.529 1.475 1.372 1.276 1.187 1.103 1.063 1.024 0.949 0.878 0.810 0.745 0.714 0.683 0.623 0.565 0.508 0.453 0.426 0.400 0.347 0.294 0.242 0.190 0.164

0.92 1.865 1.735 1.615 1.559 1.504 1.402 1.306 1.217 1.133 1.092 1.053 0.979 0.907 0.839 0.775 0.743 0.712 0.652 0.594 0.538 0.483 0.456 0.429 0.376 0.324 0.272 0.220 0.194

0.93 1.896 1.766 1.646 1.589 1.535 1.432 1.337 1.247 1.163 1.123 1.084 1.009 0.938 0.870 0.805 0.774 0.743 0.683 0.625 0.569 0.514 0.487 0.460 0.407 0.355 0.303 0.251 0.225

0.94 1.928 1.798 1.678 1.622 1.567 1.465 1.369 1.280 1.196 1.156 1.116 1.042 0.970 0.903 0.838 0.806 0.775 0.715 0.657 0.601 0.546 0.519 0.492 0.439 0.387 0.335 0.283 0.257

0.95 1.963 1.832 1.712 1.656 1.602 1.499 1.403 1.314 1.230 1.190 1.151 1.076 1.005 0.937 0.872 0.840 0.810 0.750 0.692 0.635 0.580 0.553 0.526 0.474 0.421 0.369 0.317 0.291

0.96 2.000 1.869 1.749 1.693 1.639 1.536 1.440 1.351 1.267 1.227 1.188 1.113 1.042 0.974 0.909 0.877 0.847 0.787 0.729 0.672 0.617 0.590 0.563 0.511 0.458 0.406 0.354 0.328

0.97 2.041 1.910 1.790 1.734 1.680 1.577 1.481 1.392 1.308 1.268 1.229 1.154 1.083 1.015 0.950 0.919 0.888 0.828 0.770 0.713 0.658 0.631 0.605 0.552 0.499 0.447 0.395 0.369

0.98 2.088 1.958 1.838 1.781 1.727 1.625 1.529 1.440 1.356 1.315 1.276 1.201 1.130 1.062 0.998 0.966 0.935 0.875 0.817 0.761 0.706 0.679 0.652 0.599 0.547 0.495 0.443 0.417

0.99 2.149 2.018 1.898 1.842 1.788 1.685 1.590 1.500 1.416 1.376 1.337 1.262 1.191 1.123 1.058 1.027 0.996 0.936 0.878 0.821 0.766 0.739 0.713 0.660 0.608 0.556 0.503 0.477

kVAr = kW x multiplying factor from table - 4.2. = 500 x 0.59 = 295 kVAr.

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Note : The table 4.2 is based on the following formula: kVAr required = kW (tan ø 1- tan ø 2) where ø1 ø2

= Cos-1(PF1) and = Cos-1(PF2)

PF1 and PF2 are initial and final power factors respectively
4.3 Capacitor kVAr for Transformers Power and distribution transformers, which work on the principle of electro-magnetic induction, consume reactive power for their own needs even when its secondary is not connected to any load. The power factor will be very low under such a situation. To improve the power factor, it is required to connect a fixed capacitor or a capacitor bank at the LT side of the transformer. The table (4.3) gives the approximate kVAr of capacitors required.

Table - 4.3 Sl.no 1 2 3 kVA rating of the transformer Upto and including 315 kVA 315kVA – 1000 kVA Above 1000 kVA kVAr required for compensation 5% of kVA rating. 6% of kVA rating. 8% of kVA rating.

Note : The requirements of capacitors suitable for welding transformers will be made available on request.

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Film Foil / APP / ALL PP capacitors

MPP-S capacitor unit

Capacitor Banks

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5. HARMONICS AND ITS EFFECTS

5.1 What Are Harmonics

Electrical loads can be classified as linear and non-linear loads. A linear load is one which draws a sinusoidal current when subjected to sinusoidal voltage as shown in fig 5.1(a). The current wave may or may not have a phase difference with respect to the voltage. A pure resistance, inductance or capacitance or any combination of these forms a linear load. On the contrary a non-linear load is one which draws non-sinusoidal or pulsating current when subjected to sinusoidal voltage as shown in fig 5.1(b). Any nonsinusoidal current can be mathematically resolved into a series of sinusoidal components ( Fourier series ). The first component is called

as fundamental and the remaining components whose frequencies are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency are known as harmonics. If the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, then 2nd harmonic will have a frequency of 100Hz and the 3rd will have 150Hz and so on.

Fig 5.1(a) Waveform for linear load.

Fig 5.1(b) Waveform for Non-linear load.

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A diagrammatic representation of the various harmonics of a nonsinusoidal wave is shown in Fig. 5.2. f1 - Fundamental f5 - Fifth Harmonic f7 - Seventh Harmonic f11 - Eleventh Harmonic

Distorted Wave

f1 f5 f7 f11 Total

Time

Fig 5.2

5.2 Sources Of Harmonics Following are some of the non-linear loads which generates harmonics: b Static Power Converters and Rectififiers, which are used in UPS, Battery chargers, etc. b Arc Furnaces. b Power Electronics for motor controls ( AC / DC Drives.) b Computers. b Television receivers. b Saturated Transformers. b Fluorescent Lighting. b Telecommunication equipments.

5.3 The following table (5.1) gives the ill effects of Harmonics on different equipments Table - 5.1
Equipment Motor Transformer Switchgear and cables Capacitors Protective Relays Power electronic equipments Control & Instrumentation Electronic equipments Communication equipments Nature of ill effect. Over heating, production of pulsating torque. Over heating, noise and insulation failure. Increased losses due to skin effect followed by over heating. Severe overloading followed by overheating. Unreliable operation and nuisance tripping. Mis-firing of thyristors and failure of semiconductor devices. Erratic operation followed by nuisance tripping and breakdown. Interference and noise.

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6. SELECTION OF CAPACITORS AND APFC’s
6.1 Selection Of Capacitors The criteria for selecting Capacitors is mainly driven by the following: b Application for which the capacitor is to be used. b Total cost i.e. purchase + operating cost. 6.1.1 Application Based Selection (a) For Irrigation Pumpsets: For this application which is mainly in the Agricultural sector it is recommended that MPP-D type Capacitors (Series 26D) should be used. This application is relatively simple and the kVAr of the Capacitor may be selected as per table 4.1 in section 4. (b) For Industrial Use: In Industrial applications the application based selection of Capacitors must take into account the Harmonic presence in the installation. Since this is not easy to measure as it is a function of various parameters some of which are dynamic it is recommended that the following guidelines may be adapted.
b If the percentage of nonlinear load is less than or equal to 10% of the total load, standard MPP-S type Capacitors may be used. For ex: In an installation which has a connected load of 100 kW, the non linear load is 7 kW. Consequently the percentage of nonlinear load is 7%. Hence, MPP-S Capacitors may be used. b If the percentage of nonlinear load exceeds 10% but is less than 20%, then heavy duty capacitors must be used since the presence of Harmonics can adversely effect the life of the Capacitors. These heavy duty capacitors are MPP-H, MD-XL, MD & FF(APP) types. For more detailed description of these technologies refer section 7. a If the percentage of nonlinear load exceeds 20%, it is recommended that detuned filters i.e. Capacitors + Reactors should be used. For more detailed description refer section 9.

Capacitor Range MPP-S, MPP-H, MD-XL, FF, MD.

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6.1. 2 Cost Based Selection The total cost of using a capacitor is a function of b Purchase Cost b Operating Cost While purchase cost is easy to estimate it is necessary to also evaluate operating cost as can be seen from the following example. The operating cost of a capacitor is a function of the total losses & the operating time of the capacitor. Ex: An installation requires 1000 kVAr which will be operated for about 6000 hrs per year. Calculate the operating cost of MD-XL Capacitors verses MD type Capacitors assuming a life expectancy of 15 years for the Capacitors. The total energy consumed by the Capacitors for its own operation is calculated as follows: b MD-XL Capacitors Energy consumed = ( Loss per kVAr x Total kVAr x Operating time ) /1000 = ( 0.5 x 1000 x 6000 x 15 ) / 1000 = 45,000 kwH b MD Capacitors Energy consumed = (Loss per kVAr x Total kVAr x Operating time) / 1000 = (1.5 x1000 x 6000 x 15) / 1000 = 1,35,000 kwH Consequently, the excess energy consumption due to the MD Capacitor shall be = 1,35,000 – 45,000 = 90,000 kWh This energy consumed can be converted into cost using a weighted average cost of Rs. 5 per kWh. Consequently, the extra cost shall be Rs. 5 x 90,000 = Rs. 4,50,000. On a per kVAr base this can work out to Rs. 450/- per kVAr. It is obvious that operating cost must be evaluated carefully before taking the final decision on the type of capacitor to be used. It is also self explanatory that lower the losses, lower will be the operating cost.

6.2 Selection Of Automatic Power Factor Correction Systems (APFC)

The kVAr rating of APFC system can be decided depending upon kW of the load, existing PF (initial) and final PF. (Refer example worked out in section 4.2). The type of APFC system can be selected based upon the Harmonic content of the load. If the Harmonic generating load is less than 20%, the APFC should be used as mentioned in section-8. If the Harmonic load is greater than 20% then reactor protected APFC should be used as mentioned in section 9.5. (MS-Office based(EXCEL) Selection software for APFC system and fixed capacitors is available. Please contact us)

MEHER ‘s wide range of power capacitors are manufactured in the most modern manufacturing plant using state of the art technology backed by automated production equipment. Stringent Quality Control procedures ensure World class product performance, safety and cost effectiveness for a variety of applications.

The Low Voltage Capacitors are offered in the following versions:
b

b b b

Metallised Polypropylene type Capacitors MD-XL type Capacitors MD type Capacitors Film Foil(FF/APP) type Capacitors

APFC system

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7. CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGY & TYPES

7.1. MPP – Metallised Polypropylene Capacitors The MPP type Capacitors are available in the following categories: a a a Dry type MPP-D type Capacitors for use in Agricultural pumpsets Normal duty MPP-S type Capacitors for use in Industrial applications Heavy duty MPP-H type Capacitors for use in Heavy Duty Industrial applications and in Harmonic rich environment.

Winding

deposit - free zone Contact Layer polypropylene film, metal deposit on one side

MPP

Fig 7.1 overcurrent as against 130% specified in the standards. For more details refer the technical data tables given. ADVANTAGES OF MPP CAPACITORS b Modular construction technology b High inrush transient current withstand capability b Lowest watt loss b Negligible temperature rise b Self healing with Pressure sensitive disconnector (PSD) b High reliability 7.2. MD-XL Type Capacitors The MD-XL type Capacitors comprise of a Low loss Polypropylene Film combined with dual side Metallised paper in the dielectric structure. The Metallisation serves as the electrode and the presence of paper ensures a high quality impregnation. The Polypropylene film and Metallised paper are wound together in cylindrical windings as shown in fig 7.2
Winding Polypropylene film (without metal deposit)

The MPP type Capacitors comprise of a Polypropylene Film as the dielectric, vacuum coated with a special metal layer which acts as the electrode of the capacitor. The MPP film is wound into cylindrical windings as shown in fig 7.1. The technology of winding is extremely critical to product performance and the windings are manufactured on very sophisticated Automatic machines. The Capacitor elements so produced are then subjected to several processes including end connection spraying, Vacuum thermal treatment, assembly into the required containers followed by an elaborate vacuum impregnation process. Modern technology and processes such as alloy/differential metallisation, sophisticated winding technology, enhanced end contact quality, reduced edge stresses and elimination of trapped air cumulatively ensure superior performance from the Metallised Polypropylene Capacitors. MPP-H Capacitors are designed to withstand overload conditions which are beyond those specified in the IS and IEC standards. This is necessary because in some applications over voltages and overcurrents due to system parameters and Harmonic presence can cause the overloading of capacitors. For ex: the MPP-H Capacitor is designed to carry 180%

Contact Layer Kraft paper (metal deposit

MD-XL

FIG 7.2

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The production technology involved in this type of capacitor is very sophisticated due to the use of dissimilar materials and the need for extended vacuum drying and impregnation processes. The vacuum drying and impregnation procedure ensures that the dielectric is free of any voids and thereby minimises occurrence of partial discharges. This results in long life expectancy and extremely stable electrical characteristics. ADVANTAGES OF MD-XL CAPACITORS
b b

MD
Aluminium Foil

SAFETY OF THE CAPACITORS Protection against over voltage and short circuits:
Polypropylene Film b

Modular Construction

Insulating Paper

Fig 7.3

7.4. Film Foil Capacitors Film foil capacitors are manufactured by using Hazy polypropylene film, which is placed between two layers of Metal foil and windings, as shown in fig 7.4.

b b b b

b

Modular construction technology Very high inrush transient current withstand capability Superior overload capability Lowest watt loss Negligible temperature rise Self healing with Pressure sensitive disconnector (PSD) High reliability

FF
Metal Foil

MPP and MD-XL capacitors are modular type and are self-healing i.e. regenerate themselves after breakdown of dielectric. Sustained self-healing causes rising pressure inside the capacitors. With rising pressure the case begins to expand opening the folded bellow and pushing the terminal deck upwards. As a result, the prepared connecting wire is separated at the notched spot and the current path is interrupted irreversibly. A schematic representation is shown below. Consequently the capacitor is safely disconnected in the event of any short circuit.

Polypropylene Film

Fig 7.4

MD-XL Capacitors are designed for very long life operation under overload conditions which are much beyond those specified in the IS and IEC standards. This is because in some applications overvoltages and overcurrents due to system parameters and Harmonic presence can cause the overloading of capacitors. For ex: the MD-XL Capacitor is designed to carry 200% over current as against 130% specified in the standards. For more details refer the technical data tables given. 7.3. MD Type Capacitors The MD type Capacitors comprise of several layers of polypropylene film and insulating paper wound together with Aluminium foil as shown in fig 7.3 These Capacitors are designed to meet the requirements beyond IS and IEC. These are the integrated construction capacitors and are being replaced by modular designs.

These capacitors are also designed to meet the customer requirement beyond IS and IEC. The drying and impregnation process ensures that the dielectric is free of any voids to minimize the occurrence of partial discharges. This results in long life expectancy and stable electrical characteristics.
b

Before PSD operation

After PSD operation

Integrated Type

SELF HEALING DIELECTRIC The capacitors such as MPP-S, MPP-H and MD-XL type are manufactured by using the material having self healing property. In the event of dielectric break down, the metal layers around the breakdown channel are evaporated by the temperature of the electric arc that forms between the electrodes. An insulation area is formed which is resistive and voltage proof for all operating requirements of the capacitor. The Capacitor remains functional during and after the breakdown. MD & FF/APP capacitors are of the integrated type construction and non self-healing. They are provided with internal fuses to safely isolate each element when failure occurs.

FF/APP/ALL PP & MD type capacitors

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Technical Data

Series Type Standards Rated voltage Overvoltage Overcurrent

26 D MPP-D IS 2834-1986 415/440 V ( Other ratings on request) As per clause 5.2 of IS 2834-1986 As per clause 5.3 of IS 2834-1986, 1.43 In at 1.1 Cn & 1.1 Un combined with presence of Harmonics.

Frequency ( Hz) No of phases Capacitance tolerance Test voltage, terminal / terminal Test voltage, terminal / case (insulation level) Peak transient overcurrent Losses Total Dielectric Degree of protection Ambient temperature category Maximum permissible altitude Mounting position Safety features

50 / 60 Three - 5 % to + 10 % 1.5 . Un 2.5 kV AC

<100 x In < 0.5 W / kVAr < 0.2 W / kVAr IP 21 (with connecting cable) -25 / D (Maximum 55 deg C) 2000m above mean sea level Wall mounting Self healing Polyurethane Resin encapsulation

Container type Finish Dielectric Impregnant Discharge Device Electrodes

M.S.Sheet Metal Polyester Paint Coated. Bi- axially oriented Polypropylene Film Resin Discharge Resistor Special vacuum deposited metal alloy with re-inforced edge.

Capacitors for Agricultural use

15

FIG 7.5

THREE PHASE CAPACITORS, MPP-D Type. Rated Voltage 415/440VAC, 50 Hz, Delta Conn.
Ouput, Qn kV Ar kVAr 1 2 3 4 5 6 In at 415V Amps 1.39 2.78 4.17 5.56 6.95 8.35 Ordering Code for 415 V 26D3010A1 26D3020A1 26D3030A1 26D3040A1 26D3050A1 26D3060A1 In at 440V Amps 1.31 2.62 3.94 5.24 6.56 7.87 Ordering Code for 440 V 26D3010B1 26D3020B1 26D3030B1 26D3040B1 26D3050B1 26D3060B1 W 124 124 173 173 173 173 Dimensions of unit (mm) W1 104 104 153 153 153 153 D 56 56 56 56 56 56 415V H1 118 147 147 147 163 175 440V H1 122 152 137 137 152 167 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 Ref. Fig.

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Technical Data
Series Type Standards 19 M MPP-S IS 2834-1986/ IS 13340-1993/IS 13341-1992/ IEC 831-1 (1996-11) & IEC 831- 2 (1995-12) Rated voltage Overvoltage 415/440 V ( Other ratings on request) Un Continous

Un + 10 % (up to 12 hours daily) Un + 15 % (up to 30 minutes daily) Un + 20 % (up to 5 minutes daily) Un + 30 % (up to 1 minute) Any overvoltage >1. . 15 Un shall not occur more than 200 times in the Capacitor’s life. As per clause 20.1 of IEC

Overcurrent

. 15 Cn combined with 1. . 5 In at 1. overvoltage & presence of harmonics, as per clause. 21 of IEC 831.

Frequency ( Hz) No of phases Capacitance tolerance Test voltage, terminal / terminal Test voltage, terminal / case Peak transient overcurrent Losses Total Dielectric Degree of protection Ambient temperature category Maximum permissible altitude Mounting position Safety features

50 / 60 Single (or)Three - 5% to 15% 2.15 . Un 3. . 6 kV AC < 100 x In < 0.5 W / kVAr < 0.2W / kVAr IP 31 - 25 / D (Maximum 55 deg C) 2000m above mean sea level Vertical with terminals upwards Self healing Pressure Sensitive Disconnector (PSD)

Container type Finish Dielectric Impregnant Discharge Device Electrodes

M.S.Sheet Metal Polyester Paint Coated. Bi- axially orented Polypropylene Film Non-PCB bio -degradable impregnant. Discharge Resistor Special vacuum deposited metal alloy with re-inforced edge.

MPP-S Capacitor unit

17

FIG 7.6

THREE PHASE CAP ACITORS, MPP-S T ype. Rated V oltage 415/440V AC, 50 Hz, Delta Conn. CAPACITORS, Type. Voltage 415/440VAC,
Ouput, Qn KV Ar KVAr 7.5 10 12.5 15 20 25 In at 415V Amps 10.43 13.91 17.39 20.87 27.82 34.78 Ordering Code for 415 V 19M3075A3 19M3100A3 19M3125A3 19M3150A3 19M3200A3 19M3250A3 In at 440V Amps 9.84 13.12 16.4 19.68 26.24 32.80 Ordering Code for 440 V 19M3075B3 19M3100B3 19M3125B3 19M3150B3 19M3200B3 19M3250B3 D 94 94 94 154 154 154 H1 215 215 215 215 215 215 H2 321 321 321 321 321 321 H3 80 80 80 80 80 80 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 Dimensions of unit (mm) Ref. Fig.

18

Technical Data

Series Type Standards

80 M MPP-H IS 2834-1986/ IS 13340-1993/ IS 13341-1992/ IEC 831-1 (1996-11) & IEC 831- 2 (1995-12)

Rated voltage Overvoltage

415/440 V (Other ratings on request) Un Continous

Un + 15 % (up to 12 hours daily) Un + 20 % (up to 30 minutes daily) Un + 25 % (up to 5 minutes daily) Un + 30 % (up to 1 minute) Any overvoltage >1. . 15 Un shall not occur more than 200 times in the Capacitor’s life. As per clause 20.1 of IEC.

Overcurrent

. 15 Cn combined with 1. . 8 In at 1. over voltage and presence of harmonics, as per IEC clause 21.

Frequency ( Hz) No of phases Capacitance tolerance Test voltage, terminal / terminal Test voltage, terminal / case Peak transient overcurrent Losses Total Dielectric Degree of protection Ambient temperature category Maximum permissible altitude Mounting position Safety features

50 / 60 Single (or)Three - 5% to 15% 2.15 . Un 3. . 6 kV AC < 200 x In < 0.5 W / kVAr < 0.2 W / kVAr IP 31 - 25 / D (Maximum 55 deg C) 2000m above mean sea level Vertical with terminals upwards Self healing with PSD Pressure Sensitive Disconnector

Container type Finish Dielectric Impregnant Discharge Device Electrodes

M.S.Sheet Metal Polyester Paint Coated. Bi-axially orented Polypropylene Film Non-PCB bio-degradable impregnant. Discharge Resistor Special vacuum deposited metal alloy with re-inforced edge.

MPP-H Capacitor unit

19

FIG 7.7

THREE PHASE CAP ACITORS, MPP-H T ype Rated V oltage 415/440V AC, 50 Hz, Delta Conn. CAPACITORS, Type Voltage 415/440VAC, Ouput,Qn KV Ar KVAr In at 415V Amps 7.5 10 12.5 15 20 25 10.43 13.91 17.39 20.87 27.82 34.78 Ordering Code for 415 V 80M3075A3 80M3100A3 80M3125A3 80M3150A3 80M3200A3 80M3250A3 In at 440V Amps 9.84 13.12 16.4 19.68 26.24 32.80 Ordering Code for 440 V 80M3075B3 80M3100B3 80M3125B3 80M3150B3 80M3200B3 80M3250B3 D 94 94 94 154 154 154 H1 283 283 283 283 283 283 H2 391 391 391 391 391 391 H3 80 80 80 80 80 80 Dimensions of unit (mm) Ref. Fig.

7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7

20

Technical Data
Series Type Standards 61 M MD-XL IS 2834-1986/ IS 13340-1993 IS 13341-1992/ IEC 831-1 (1996-11) & IEC 831- 2 (1995-12) Rated voltage Overvoltage 415/440 V (Other ratings on request) Un Continous

Un + 15 % (up to 12 hours daily) Un + 20 % (up to 30 minutes daily) Un + 25 % (up to 5 minutes daily) Un + 30 % (up to 1 minute) As per IEC clause 20.1.

Overcurrent

2 In at 1. . 15 Cn combined with over voltage and presence of harmonics as per IEC clause 21.

Frequency ( Hz) No of phases Capacitance tolerance Test voltage, terminal / terminal Test voltage, terminal / case Peak transient overcurrent Losses Total Dielectric Degree of protection Ambient temperature categor Maximum permissible altitude Mounting position Safety features

50 / 60 Single (or)Three - 5% to 15% 2.15 . Un 3. . 6 kV AC < 200 x In < 0.5 W / kVAr < 0.2 W / kVAr IP 31 - 25 / D (Maximum 55 deg C) 2000m above mean sea level Vertical with terminals upwards Self healing with PSD Pressure Sensitive Disconnector

Container type Finish Dielectric

M.S.Sheet Metal Polyester Paint Coated. Combination of Capacitor tissue paper and bi-axially oriented Polypropylene Film

Impregnant Discharge Device Electrodes

Non-PCB bio-degradable impregnant. Discharge Resistor Special double side vacuum deposited metal coating

MD-XL Capacitor unit

21

FIG 7.8

THREE PHASE CAP ACITORS,MD-XL T ype. Rated V oltage 415/440V AC, 50 Hz, Delta Conn. CAPACITORS,MD-XL Type. Voltage 415/440VAC, Ouput,Qn KV Ar KVAr In at 415V Amps 7.5 10 12.5 15 20 25 10.43 13.91 17.39 20.87 27.82 34.78 Ordering Code for 415 V 61M3075A3 61M3100A3 61M3125A3 61M3150A3 61M3200A3 61M3250A3 In at 440V Amps 9.84 13.12 16.4 19.68 26.24 32.80 Ordering Code for 440 V 61M3075B3 61M3100B3 61M3125B3 61M3150B3 61M3200B3 61M3250B3 D 94 94 94 154 154 154 H1 283 283 283 283 283 283 H2 391 391 391 391 391 391 H3 80 80 80 80 80 80 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 Dimensions of unit Ref. Fig.

22

Technical Data Series Type Standards Rated voltage Overvoltage 16 F MD IS 2834-1986 / IS 13585 -1994 415/440 V ( Other ratings on request) Un Continous Un + 15 % (up to 12 hours daily) Un + 20 % (up to 30 minutes daily) Un + 25 % (up to 5 minutes daily) Un + 30 % (up to 1 minute) Any overvoltage >1.15 Un shall not occur more than 200 times in the Capacitor’s life. As per IS 13585 clause 6.1.1 Overcurrent 1.43 In at 1.1 Cn combined with overvoltage and presence of Harmonics. As per clause 6.2 of IS 13585 Frequency ( Hz) No of phases Capacitance tolerance Test voltage, terminal / terminal Test voltage, terminal / case (insulation level) Peak transient overcurrent Losses(total) Degree of protection Ambient temperature category Maximum permissible altitude Mounting position Safety features < 200 x In < 2.5 W / kVAr IP 31 - 25 / D (Maximum 55 deg C) 2000m above mean sea level Vertical with terminals upwards Internal Fuses (Operation co-ordinated with case - rupture characteristics to avoid bursting) Container type Finish Dielectric Impregnant Discharge Device Electrodes M.S.Sheet Metal Enamel Paint finish. Combination of Capacitor tissue paper and bi-axially oriented Polypropylene Film Non-PCB bio-degradable impregnant. Discharge Resistor High purity, annealed aluminium condensor foil 50 / 60 Single (or) Three - 5% to + 10% 2.15 . Un 3.6 kV AC

MD Type Capacitor unit

23

FIG 7.9

16F Capacitor Unit THREE PHASE CAPACITORS, MD Type. Rated Voltage 415/440VAC, 50 Hz, Delta Conn.
Output KV Ar KVAr In at 415V Amps 10 12.5 15 20 25 13.91 17.39 20.87 27.82 34.78 Ordering Code for 415 V AC VAC 16F3100A3 16F3125A3 16F3150A3 16F3200A3 16F3250A3 In at 440V Amps 13.12 16.4 19.68 26.24 32.80 Ordering Code for 440 V AC VAC 16F3100B3 16F3125B3 16F3150B3 16F3200B3 16F3250B3 W 350 350 350 350 350 W1 325 325 325 325 325 Dimensions of unit FOR 415 V H1 156 179 216 280 325 H2 236 259 296 360 405 FOR 440V H1 138 167 189 244 300 H2 218 247 269 324 380 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 Ref. Fig.

24

Technical Data Series Type Standards Rated voltage Overvoltage 20 F FF IS 2834-1986 / IS 13585 -1994 415/440 V ( Other ratings on request) Un Continous Un + 15 % (up to 12 hours daily) Un + 20 % (up to 30 minutes daily) Un + 25 % (up to 5 minutes daily) Un + 30 % (up to 1 minute) Any overvoltage >1.15 Un shall not occur more than 200 times in the Capacitor’s life. As per IS 13585 clause 6.1.1 Overcurrent 1.43 In at 1.1 Cn combined with over voltage and presence of Harmonics. As per clause 6.2 of IS 13585. Frequency ( Hz) No of phases Capacitance tolerance Test voltage, terminal / terminal Test voltage, terminal / case (insulation level) Peak transient overcurrent Losses (total) Degree of protection Ambient temperature category Maximum permissible altitude Mounting position Safety features < 200 x In times rated current < 1.0 W / kVAr IP 31 - 25 / D (Maximum 55 deg C) 2000m above mean sea level Vertical with terminals upwards Internal Fuses (Operation co-ordinated with case - rupture characteristics to avoid bursting) Container type Finish Dielectric Impregnant Discharge Device Electrodes M.S.Sheet Metal Enamel Paint finish. Bi-axially oriented hazy Polypropylene Film Non-PCB bio -degradable impregnant. Discharge Resistor High purity,annealed aluminium condensor foil 50 / 60 Single (or) Three - 5% to 10% 2.15 . Un 3.6 kV AC

FF/APP/ALL-PP Capacitor unit

25

FIG 7.10

20F Capacitor Unit THREE PHASE CAPACITORS, FF/APP/ALL PP Type. Rated Voltage 415/440VAC, 50 Hz, Delta Conn.
Output Qn KV Ar KVAr 10 12.5 15 20 25 In , at 415V Amps 13.91 17.39 20.87 27.82 34.78 Ordering Code for 415 V 20F3100A3 20F3125A3 20F3150A3 20F3200A3 20F3250A3 In , at 440V Amps 13.12 16.4 19.68 26.24 32.80 Ordering Code for 440 V 20F3100B3 20F3125B3 20F3150B3 20F3200B3 20F3250B3 W 355 355 355 355 386 Dimensions of unit FOR 415 V W1 330 330 330 330 361 H1 163 196 230 288 325 H2 243 276 310 368 405 W 355 355 355 355 350 FOR 440V W1 330 330 330 330 325 H1 151 180 211 266 325 H2 231 260 291 346 405 7.10 7.10 7.10 7.10 7.10 Ref. Fig.

26

30 to 50 kVAr Capacitor Banks

27

FIG 7.11

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS, MPP-S Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
Output, Qn KV Ar KVAr 30 35 40 45 50 15+15 20+15 20+20 20+25 25+25 Unit Confg. In , at 415V Amps 41.78 48.75 55.71 62.28 69.64 Ordering Code for 415V 19M3300A3 19M3350A3 19M3400A3 19M3450A3 19M3500A3 In , at 440V Amps 39.41 45.98 52.55 59.12 65.68 Ordering Code for 440V 19M3300B3 19M3350B3 19M3400B3 19M3450B3 19M3500B3 Al. Bus Bar Size,mm 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 410 410 410 410 410 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11 H Ref. Fig.

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS, MPP-H Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
30 35 40 45 50 15+15 20+15 20+20 20+25 25+25 41.78 48.75 55.71 62.28 69.64 80M3300A3 80M3350A3 80M3400A3 80M3450A3 80M3500A3 39.41 45.98 52.55 59.12 65.68 80M3300B3 80M3350B3 80M3400B3 80M3450B3 80M3500B3 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 480 480 480 480 480 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,MD-XL Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
30 35 40 45 50 15+15 20+15 20+20 20+25 25+25 41.78 48.75 55.71 62.28 69.64 61M3300A3 61M3350A3 61M3400A3 61M3450A3 61M3500A3 39.41 45.98 52.55 59.12 65.68 61M3300B3 61M3350B3 61M3400B3 61M3450B3 61M3500B3 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 480 480 480 480 480 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11

28

30 to 50 kVAr Capacitor Banks

29

FIG 7.12

16F Banks THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,MD Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
Output, Qn KV Ar KVAr 30 40 50 15+15 20+20 25+25 Unit Confirn. In , at 415V Amps 41.78 55.71 69.64 Ordering Code for 415V 16F3300A3 16F3400A3 16F3500A3 In , at 440V Amps 39.41 52.55 65.68 Ordering Code for 440V 16F3300B3 16F3400B3 16F3500B3 Al. Bus Bar Size,mm 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 D 350 350 350 H 411 475 520 D 355 355 355 H 384 439 495 7.12 7.12 7.12 For 415 V For 440 V Ref. Fig.

20F Banks THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,FF/APP/ ALL PP Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
30 40 50 15 x 2 20 x 2 25 x 2 41.78 55.71 69.64 20F3300A3 20F3400A3 20F3500A3 39.41 52.55 65.68 20F3300B3 20F3400B3 20F3500B3 25 x 6 25 x 6 25 x 6 355 355 386 425 483 520 355 355 350 406 461 520 7.12 7.12 7.12

30

55 to 75 kVAr Capacitor Banks

31

FIG 7.13

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS, MPP-S Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
Output, Qn KV Ar KVAr 55 60 65 75 20+20+15 20+20+20 25+20+20 25+25+25 Unit Confg. In , at 415V Amps 76.60 83.57 90.54 104.46 Ordering Code for 415V 19M3550A3 19M3600A3 19M3650A3 19M3750A3 In , at 440V Amps 72.25 78.82 85.39 98.53 Ordering Code for 440V 19M3550B3 19M3600B3 19M3650B3 19M3750B3 Al. Bus Bar Size,mm 25 x 6 25 x 6 30 x 6 30 x 6 410 410 410 410 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 H Ref. Fig.

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS, MPP-H Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
55 60 65 75 20+20+15 20+20+20 25+20+20 25+25+25 76.60 83.57 90.54 104.46 80M3550A3 80M3600A3 80M3650A3 80M3750A3 72.25 78.82 85.39 98.53 80M3550B3 80M3600B3 80M3650B3 80M3750B3 25 x 6 25 x 6 30 x 6 30 x 6 480 480 480 480 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,MD-XL Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
55 60 65 75 20+20+15 20+20+20 25+20+20 25+25+25 76.60 83.57 90.54 104.46 61M3550A3 61M3600A3 61M3650A3 61M3750A3 72.25 78.82 85.39 98.53 61M3550B3 61M3600B3 61M3650B3 61M3750B3 25 x 6 25 x 6 30 x 6 30 x 6 480 480 480 480 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13

32

45 to 75 kVAr Capacitor Banks

33

FIG 7.14

16F Banks THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,MD Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
Output, Qn KV Ar KVAr 45 60 75 15 x 3 20 x 3 25 x 3 Unit Confirn. In , at 415V Amps 62.68 83.57 104.46 Ordering Code for 415V 16F3450A3 16F3600A3 16F3750A3 In , at 440V Amps 59.12 78.82 98.53 Ordering Code for 440V 16F3450B3 16F3600B3 16F3750B3 Al. Bus Bar Size,mm 25 x 6 25 x 6 30 x 6 D 350 350 350 H 411 475 520 D 355 355 355 H 384 439 495 7.14 7.14 7.14 For 415 V For 440 V Ref. Fig.

20F Banks THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,FF/APP/ALL PP Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
45 60 75 15 x 3 20 x 3 25 x 3 62.68 83.57 104.46 20F3450A3 20F3600A3 20F3750A3 59.12 78.82 98.53 20F3450B3 20F3600B3 20F3750B3 25 x 6 25 x 6 30 x 6 355 355 386 425 483 520 355 355 350 406 461 520 7.14 7.14 7.14

34

80 to 100 kVAr Capacitor Banks

35

FIG 7.15

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS, MPP-S Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
Output, Qn KV Ar KVAr 80 85 90 95 100 20+20+20+20 25+20+20+20 25+25+20+20 25+25+25+20 25+25+25+25 Unit Confg. In , at 415V Amps 111.43 118.39 125.36 132.32 139.28 Ordering Code for 415V 19M3800A3 19M3850A3 19M3900A3 19M3950A3 19M3X10A3 In , at 440V Amps 105.10 111.66 118.23 124.80 131.37 Ordering Code for 440V 19M3800B3 19M3850B3 19M3900B3 19M3950B3 19M3X10B3 Al. Bus Bar Size,mm 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 410 410 410 410 410 7.15 7.15 7.15 7.15 7.15 H Ref. Fig.

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS, MPP-H Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
80 85 90 95 100 20+20+20+20 25+20+20+20 25+25+20+20 25+25+25+20 25+25+25+25 111.43 118.39 125.36 132.32 139.28 80M3800A3 80M3850A3 80M3900A3 80M3950A3 80M3X00A3 105.10 111.66 118.23 124.80 131.37 80M3800B3 80M3850B3 80M3900B3 80M3950B3 80M3X00B3 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 480 480 480 480 480 7.15 7.15 7.15 7.15 7.15

THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,MD-XL Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
80 85 90 95 100 20+20+20+20 25+20+20+20 25+25+20+20 25+25+25+20 25+25+25+25 111.43 118.39 125.36 132.32 139.28 61M3800A3 61M3850A3 61M3900A3 61M3950A3 61M3X00A3 105.10 111.66 118.23 124.80 131.37 61M3800B3 61M3850B3 61M3900B3 61M3950B3 61M3X00B3 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 6 480 480 480 480 480 7.15 7.15 7.15 7.15 7.15

36

80 to 100 kVAr Capacitor Banks

37

FIG 7.16

16F Banks THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,MD Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
Output, Qn KV Ar KVAr 80 100 20 x 4 25 x 4 111.43 139.28 Unit Confirn. In , at 415V Ordering Code for 415V 16F3800A3 16F3X00A3 105.10 131.37 In , at 440V Ordering Code for 440V 16F3800B3 16F3X00B3 Al. Bus Bar Size,mm 50 x 6 50 x 6 D 350 350 H 475 520 D 355 355 H 439 495 7.16 7.16 For 415 V For 440 V Ref. Fig.

20F Banks THREE PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS,FF/APP/ALL PP Type. Rated voltage 415/440VAC,50Hz,Delta Conn.
80 100 20 x 4 25 x 4 111.43 139.28 20F3800A3 20F3X00A3 105.10 131.37 20F3800B3 20F3X00B3 50 x 6 50 x 6 355 386 483 520 355 350 461 520 7.16 7.16

38

8. “IntellVAr” APFC TECHNOLOGY & TYPES

8.1. “IntellVAr” APFC Technology NEED FOR AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTION Modern Power networks cater to a wide variety of electrical and power electronic loads, which create a varying power demand on the supply system. In case of such varying loads, the power factor also varies as a function of the load requirements. It therefore becomes practically difficult to maintain a consistent power factor by the use of Fixed Compensation i.e. fixed capacitors which shall need to be manually switched to suit the variations of the load. This will lead to situations where the installation can have a low power factor leading to higher demand charges and levy of power factor penalties. In addition to not being able to achieve the desired power factor it is also possible that the use of fixed compensation can also result in leading power factor under certain load conditions. This is also unhealthy for the installation as it can result in over voltages, saturation of transformers, mal-operation of diesel generating sets, penalties by electricity supply authorities etc. Consequently the use of fixed compensation has limitations in this context. It is therefore necessary to automatically vary, without manual intervention, the compensation to suit the load requirements. This is achieved by using an Automatic Power Factor Correction(APFC) system which can ensure consistently high power factor, without any manual intervention. In addition, the occurrence of leading power factor will be prevented. MEHER manufactures a wide range of Automatic Power Factor Correction Products named as IntellVAr ( Intelligent Volt Ampere reactive compensation ) IntellVAr APFC products are fully automatic in operation and can be used to achieve: b Consistently high power factor under fluctuating load conditions. b Elimination of low power factor penalty levied by electrical supply authorities. b Reduced kVA demand charges. b Lower energy consumption in the installation by reducing losses. b Prevention of leading power factor in an installation Table 8.1 gives a brief overview of IntellVAr products. The basic operation of the IntellV Ar IntellVAr is as follows: b To continuously sense and monitor the load conditions by the use of the external CT (whose output is fed to the Control Relay) b To automatically switch ON and switch OFF relevant Capacitor steps to ensure consistent power factor. b To ensure easy user interface for enabling reliable understanding of system operation, such as display of real time power factor, number of switching operations carried out etc. b To protect against any electrical faults in a manner that will ensure safe isolation of the power factor correction equipment.

39

Table 8.1
Sl No 1 2 3 4 PRODUCT IntellV Ar -S IntellVAr Ar-S IntellV Ar -F IntellVAr Ar-F IntellV Ar -C IntellVAr Ar-C IntellV Ar -D IntellVAr Ar-D INCOMER SDF / MCCB MCCB SDF / MCCB SDF / MCCB CONTROL Auto / Auto + Manual Auto / Auto + Manual Auto / Auto + Manual Automatic DESCRIPTION Standard Version Fuseless Version Compartmentalised Version (Available on request) Dynamic Compensation (Thyristor Switched) Version

SALIENT FEATURES OF “IntellVAr”
b

The principle of operation of IntellVAr products is shown in fig 8.1

b

b

b

Modular design which allows easy handling by the user and also capable of being extended/ upgraded. The incoming switchgear provided has 50 kA fault interrupting capability. Copper bus bar system suitable for withstanding 50 kA fault current. Minimal jointing in all the connections to ensure better reliability and lower losses.

Fig 8.1 Table - 8.2 Output Matrix of 200 kVAr, Output steps (16 x 12.5), 3 Ph , 50 Hz, IntellVAr APFC
Output Step No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Stage 1 Stage 2 12.5 kV Ar 12.5 kV Ar kVAr kVAr ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON Stage 3 Stage 4 25 kV Ar 50 kV Ar kVAr kVAr ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON Stage 5 50 kV Ar kVAr ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON Stage 6 50 kV Ar kVAr ON ON ON ON ON Total Output 12.5 25 37.5 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 112.5 125 137.5 150 162.5 175 187.5 200
b b b b b b

b

b

Switchgear used such as contactors, switch disconnector fuses, MCCB’s etc. conform to the latest Indian and International Standards. Use of special connecting cables suitable for high temperature withstand. Flush mounted meters to indicate line voltages and currents. Advanced microprocessor relay with communication capabilities. Use of MPP-H/MD-XL/FF(APP) type capacitors. Choice of constructional designs such as fuseless, compartmentalised etc. User friendly and aesthetically designed enclosure, vermin and dust protection. Wide variety of output steps due to well engineered design (refer table - 8.2)

40

Catalogue Number Structure for Automatic Power Factor Correction System (APFC)
Position Catalogue Number A = APFC 100 = kVAr Eg. 035 = 35 kVAr 300 = 300 kVAr 8 = Capacitor Type Eg. 8 = MPP-H Capacitor 6 = MD-XL Capacitor 2 = Film Foil Capacitor B = System voltage at 50Hz A = 415 V B = 440 V 04 = Output Steps Eg. 04 = 4 Output Steps 12 = 12 Output Steps S = IntellVAr Product Version S = Stadard Version F = Fuseless Version C = Compartmentalised Version D = Dynamic Compensation (Thyristor Switched) Version H = Detuned Filter Version M = Incoming Switchgear S = SDF (Switch Disconnector Fuse) M = MCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker) A = ACB (Air Circuit Breaker) N = Without Incoming Switchgear M= Type of Control A = Automatic M = Auto + Manual C = Closed Loop 1 « 2 « 3 « 0 4 « 0 5 « 8 6 « 7 « 8 « 4 9 « 10 « 11 « M

A 1

B 0

S M

41

8.2. Technical Data
Series Type of Capacitors Standards Capacitors Reactor Switchgear - Contactors - Fuses - SDF - MCB - MCCB APFC Relay APFC Panel IS 13947 part 4 / sec-1 IS 13924 part 1 &2 , IS 9224 part 1 & 2, IEC 269, part 1 & 2. IS 13947 part 3 , IEC 947 -3 IS 8828 part 2 , IEC 898. IS 13947 part 2 , IEC 947 -2 CE IS 8623 IS 2834 -1986, IEC 831-1, IEC 831-2 IS 5553, IEC 76 /3, VDE 0532 IntellVAr-S, IntellVAr-F , IntellVAr-D MPP-H, MD-XL, FF

Rated Voltage No of Phases Frequency (Hz) Overvoltage Overcurrent Enclosure Material Enclosure frame Rear panel Doors Paint Application Degree of protection Ambient temperature category Losses Mounting position 35 - 75 kVAr 100 - 300 kVAr Saftey features Additional safety features Maximum permissible altitude Bus Bar Adaptor Technology Main busbar Standard Incoming Bus bar NH Bus mounting fuse base with grip cover Bus Bar Support Temperature withstand Standard Short circuit withstand Standard features

440 V 3 50 As per above standards As per above standards

Sheet Steel 9 - fold profiled 1.5 mm 2.0 mm Dipcoated primed and powder coated in texture RAL 7032 Indoor IP42 - 25 / D (Max 55 deg C) 2 W / kVAr Wall mounting Free standing floor mounting Short circuit protection Emergency push button 2000m 60 mm system technology 30 x 10 tinned Cu DIN 43671 Aluminium

SMC, Silicon free, chlorine free 120 deg C UL 94-V0 50 kA Voltmeter with selector switch, Ammeter with selector (not provided in IntellVAr-D) switch, Door interlock, R Y B indicating lamps, Emergency push button.

42

Software package includes selection of APFC System and selection of fixed capacitors in Microsoft Office (EXCEL).

35 to 75 kVAr APFC system

43

8.3. IntellVAr Product Range The detailed product listing is given in the tables below. Table - 8.3 IntellVAr-S STANDARD APFC PANEL WITH MPP-H CAPACITORS , SDF INCOMER & AUTOMATIC CONTROL Rated voltage 440 V / 50 Hz, Control Voltage 230 V / 50 Hz
KV Ar KVAr Output Steps 35 40 40 50 50 60 60 75 7x5 4 x 10 8x5 5 x 10 10 x 5 6 x 10 12 x 5 6 x 12.5 Switching sequence 1:2:4 1:1:2 1:2:2:3 1:2:2 1:2:2:5 1:2:3 1:2:4:5 1:2:3 A0358B07SSA A0408B04SSA A0408B08SSA A0508B05SSA A0508B10SSA A0608B06SSA A0608B12SSA A0758B06SSA Cat. No. Incomer SDF FN-100 FN-100 FN-100 FN-100 FN-100 FN-125 FN-125 FN-200 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 12.5 1 Switching Stages 2 10 10 10 20 10 20 10 25 3 20 20 10 20 10 30 20 37.5 4 15 25 25 5 6 Dimensions W x H x D (mm) 800x1000x300 800x1000x300 800x1000x300 800x1000x300 800x1000x300 800x1000x300 800x1000x300 800x1000x300

Note : 1. If APFC System with capacitors other than MPP-H is required then, change the digit at position ‘5’ of catalogue number. (Refer Catalogue number structure page number 41.) Eg. The cat. no. of 35 kVAr APFC System with MPP-H type capacitors is A0358BO7SSA (From Table 8.3). The digit at postion number 5 for MD-XL type capacitor is ‘6’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 35 kVAr APFC System with MD-XL type capacitors will be A0356BO7SSA

2. If APFC System rated for other voltage is required then, change the digit at position number ‘6’ of catalogue number. (Refer Catalogue number structure page number 41). Eg. The cat. no. of 35 kVAr APFC System rated for 440 V is A0358BO7SSA (From Table 8.3). The digit at positon number 6 for 415 V system is ‘A’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 35 kVAr APFC System rated for 415 V is A0358AO7SSA

44

ASS, VSS, Ammeter & Voltmeter for indication. Micro processor based conroller.

APFC System (Auto option only)

Capacitor duty contactor to limit the inrush & reduce losses

Emergency push button to switch-off the panel.

Indicating lamps for 3Φ supply.

Incomer with SDF Plinth for base.

ASS, VSS, Ammeter & Voltmeter for indication.

APFC System (Auto+manual)

Micro processor based conroller. Auto/Manual selector.

Manual switching push buttons with indicating lamps for that step.

Emergency push button to switch-off the panel. Capacitor duty contactor to limit the inrush & reduce losses

Indicating lamps for 3Φ supply.

Incomer with SDF

Plinth for base.

45

Table - 8.4 IntellVAr-S, STANDARD APFC PANEL WITH MPP-H CAPACITORS, SDF INCOMER & AUTOMATIC CONTROL Rated voltage 440 V / 50 Hz, Control Voltage 230 V / 50 Hz

KV Ar KVAr

Output Steps

Switching sequence 1:1:2 1:1:2:4 1:2:2:5

Cat. No.

Incomer SDF 1 25 12.5 10

Switching Stages 2 25 12.5 20 3 50 25 20 4 50 50 5 6 -

Dimensions W x H x D (mm) 800x2000x600 800x2000x600 800x2000x600

100 100 100

4 x 25 8 x 12.5 10 x 10

A1008B04SSA A1008B08SSA A1008B10SSA

FN-200 FN-200 FN-200

125 125

5 x 25 10 x 12.5

1:2:2 1:2:3:4

A1258B05SSA A1258B10SSA

FN-250 FN-250

25 12.5

50 25

50 37,5

50

-

-

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

150 150 150

6 x 25 12 x 12.5 15 x 10

1:2:3 1:1:2:4:4 1:2:2:5:5

A1508B06SSA A1508B12SSA A1508B15SSA

FN-315 FN-315 FN-315

25 12.5 10

50 12.5 20

75 25 20

50 50

50 50

-

800x2000x600 800x2000x600 800x2000x600

175 175

7 x 25 14 x 12.5

1:2:4 1: 1:2:4:6

A1758B07SSA A1758B14SSA

FN-400 FN-400

25 12.5

50 12.5

100 25

50

75

-

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

200 200 200

4 x 50 8 x 25 16 x 12.5

1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2 1:1:2:4:4:4

A2008B04SSA A2008B08SSA A2008B16SSA

FN-400 FN-400 FN-400

50 25 12.5

50 25 12.5

50 50 25

50 50 50

50 50

50

800x2000x600 800x2000x600 800x2000x600

225 225

9 x 25 18 x 12.5

1:2:2:2:2 1:1:2:4:4:6

A2258B09SSA A2258B18SSA

FN-630 FN-630

25 12.5

50 12.5

50 25

50 50

50 50

75

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

250 250

5 x 50 10 x 25

1:1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2:2

A2508B05SSA A2508B10SSA

FN-630 FN-630

50 25

50 25

50 50

50 50

50 50

50

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

275

11 x 25

1:2:2:2:2:2

A2758B11SSA

FN-630

25

50

50

50

50

50

800x2000x600

300 300

6 x 50 12 x 25

1:1:1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2:4

A3008B06SSA A3008B12SSA

FN-630 FN-630

50 25

50 25

50 50

50 50

50 50

50 100

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

Note : 1. If APFC System with capacitors other MPP-H is required then, change the digit at position ‘5’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MPP-H type capacitors is A1008BO4SSA (From Table 8.4). The digit at position number 5 for MD-XL type capacitor is ‘6’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100

kVAr APFC System with MD-XL type capacitors will be A1006BO4SSA 2. If APFC System rated for other voltage is required then, change the digit at position number ‘6’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 440 V is A1008BO4SSA (From Table 8.4).

The digit at postion number 6 for 415 V system is ‘A’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 415 V is A1008AO4SSA 3. If APFC System with incomer other than SDF is required then, change the digit at position ‘10’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41)

46

Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with SDF Incomer is A1008BO4SSA (From Table 8.4). The digited position number 10 for MCCB incomer is ‘M’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MCCB Incomer will be A1008BO4SMA 4. If APFC System other than automatic control is required then, change the digit

at position number ‘11’ of cat. no. (Refer catalogue number structure, page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with automatic control is A1008BO4SSA (From Table 8.4). The digit at postion number ‘11’ for Auto + Manual control is ‘M’. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with automatic and manual control will be A1008BO4SSM
APFC System (Auto option only)

Micro processor based conroller.

Internal view of Fuseless APFC system

Emergency push button to switch-off the panel.

Indicating lamps for 3Φ supply.

Incomer with MCCB. APFC System (Auto+manual)

Micro processor based controller

Internal view of Fuseless APFC system

Indicating lamps for 3Φ supply

Emergency push button to disconnect all capacitors

MCCB as incomer

47

Table - 8.5 IntellVAr-F, FUSELESS APFC PANEL WITH MPP-H CAPACITORS , MCCB INCOMER & AUTOMATIC OPTION Rated voltage 440 V / 50 Hz, Control Voltage 230 V / 50 Hz

kV Ar kVAr

Output Steps

Switching sequence 1:1:2 1:1:2:4 1:2:2:5

Cat. No.

Incomer MCCB 1 25 12.5 10

Switching Stages 2 25 12.5 20 3 50 25 20 4 50 50 5 6 -

Dimensions W x H x D (mm) 800x2000x600 800x2000x600 800x2000x600

100 100 100

4 x 25 8 x 12.5 10 x 10

A1008B04FMA A1008B08FMA A1008B10FMA

DTH-200 DTH-200 DTH-200

125 125

5 x 25 10 x 12.5

1:2:2 1:2:3:4

A1258B05FMA A1258B10FMA

DTH-250 DTH-250

25 12.5

50 25

50 37.5

50

-

-

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

150 150 150

6 x 25 12 x 12.5 15 x 10

1:2:3 1:1:2:4:4 1:2:2:5:5

A1508B06FMA A1508B12FMA A1508B15FMA

DTH-400 DTH-400 DTH-400

25 12.5 10

50 12.5 20

75 25 20

50 50

50 50

-

800x2000x600 800x2000x600 800x2000x600

175 175

7 x 25 14 x 12.5

1:2:4 1: 1:2:4:6

A1758B07FMA A1758B14FMA

DTH-400 DTH-400

25 12.5

50 12.5

100 25

50

75

-

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

200 200 200

4 x 50 8 x 25 16 x 12.5

1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2 1:1:2:4:4:4

A2008B04FMA A2008B08FMA A2008B16FMA

DTH-400 DTH-400 DTH-400

50 25 12.5

50 25 12.5

50 50 25

50 50 50

50 50

50

800x2000x600 800x2000x600 800x2000x600

225 225

9 x 25 18 x 12.5

1:2:2:2:2 1:1:2:4:4:6

A2258B09FMA A2258B18FMA

DTH-630 DTH-630

25 12.5

50 12.5

50 25

50 50

50 50

75

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

250 250

5 x 50 10 x 25

1:1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2:2

A2508B05FMA A2508B10FMA

DTH-630 DTH-630

50 25

50 25

50 50

50 50

50 50

50

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

275

11 x 25

1:2:2:2:2:2

A2758B11FMA

DTH-630

25

50

50

50

50

50

800x2000x600

300 300

6 x 50 12 x 25

1:1:1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2:4

A3008B06FMA A3008B12FMA

DTH-630 DTH-630

50 25

50 25

50 50

50 50

50 50

50 100

800x2000x600 800x2000x600

Note : 1. If APFC System with capacitors other MPP-H is required then, change the digit at position ‘5’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MPP-H type capacitors is A1008BO4FMA (From Table 8.5). The digit at position number 5 for MD-XL type capacitor is ‘6’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MD-XL type capacitors will be A1006BO4FMA

2. If APFC System rated for other voltage is required then, change the digit at position number ‘6’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 440 V is A1008BO4FMA (From Table 8.5). The digit at postion number 6 for 415 V system is ‘A’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 415 V is A1008AO4FMA

3. If APFC System other than automatic control is required then, change the digit at position number ‘11’ of cat. no. (Refer catalogue number structure, page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with automatic control is A1008BO4FMA (From Table 8.5). The digit at postion number 11 for Auto + Manual control is ‘M’. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with automatic and manual control will be A1008BO4FMM

48

8.4. “IntellVAr-D” Thyristor Switched APFC Automatic power factor correction for normal fluctuating loads has already been explained. However, there are certain loads which demand, under certain operating conditions, large amount of reactive power for very short duration of time. Typical examples are :
b b b b b

Malfunctioning of sensitive electrical and electronic equipment such as relays, PLC’s etc.

These ill-effects can be overcome by injecting into the network defined amount of reactive power at a very fast rate which can meet the demand of such loads. Conventional power factor correction systems using contactors as switching devices cannot be used in such cases as they will not have sufficient speed of response to meet the reactive power demand imposed by such loads. It is therefore necessary to use the “IntellVAr-D” type automatic power factor correction system. This system is a dynamic power factor correction system in which the switching and controlling devices used have a response time in milliseconds.

Welding equipment Injection moulding equipment Starting of large induction motors Traction loads such as, lifting cranes, elevators, lifts etc.

The large demand of reactive power by such loads during operation can cause:
b b b

Rapid voltage fluctuation System instability Oversizing of electrical installation since the kVA capacity will have to be provided for the maximum power demand.

FIG 8.2

49

b

To instantly and automatically switch ON and switch OFF relevant capacitor steps to ensure consistent power factor.

b

Minimal jointing in all the connections to ensure better reliability and lower losses.

The switching devices used are thyristors and the controller is a special fast acting device which is capable of very fast response.
b

b

Switchgear used such as contactors, MCCB’s etc. conform to the latest Indian and International Standards.

To ensure easy user interface for enabling reliable understanding of system operation, such as display of real time power factor
b

8.5 Technology (“IntellVAr-D” Thyristor Switched APFC systems)
b

Use of special connecting cables suitable for high temperature withstand.

To protect against any electrical faults in a manner that will ensure safe isolation of the power factor correction equipment. SALIENT FEATURES OF “IntellVAr-D”
b b b

These systems feature the use of power capacitors, thyristors and associated control / firing circuits for fast response time. In this system, it is possible to switch in capacitors such that the inrush transient currents are totally eliminated. In addition the capacitors can be switched repetitively without any limits since, there is no need for allowing discharge of the capacitor before it is switched in. The principle of operation is illustrated in fig 8.2
b b b

Advanced microprocessor controller with communication capabilities. Use of MPP-H/MD-XL/FF(APP) type capacitors. Choice of constructional designs such as fuseless etc. User friendly and aesthetically designed enclosure, vermin and dust protective.

Modular design which allows easy handling by the user and also capable of being extended/ upgraded. The incoming switchgear provided has 50 kA fault interrupting capability. Copper bus bar system suitable for withstanding 50 kA fault current. Use of by-pass switching contactors to enhance thyristor life and significantly reduce operating losses.
b b

Use of series reactor for harmonic suppression.

The basic operation of the “IntellVAr-D” is as follows:
b

To continuously sense and monitor the load conditions by the use of the external C (whose output is fed to the controller)

b

8.6. IntellVAr-D Product Range The detailed product listing is given in the table below. Table - 8.6 IntellVAr-D Thyristor Switched (Dyanamic Compensation) APFC PANEL WITH MPP-H CAPACITORS , SDF INCOMER & AUTOMATIC OPTION.(CLOSED LOOP) WITH SERIES REACTORS Rated voltage 440 V / 50 Hz.
kV Ar kVAr Output Steps 100 2x50 Switching sequence 1:1 A1008B02DSC Cat. No. Incomer SDF FN 200 1 50 Switching Stages 2 50 3 4 5 6 Dimensions W x H x D (mm) 800x2200x800

150

3x50

1:1:1

A1508B03DSC

FN 315

50

50

50

800x2200x800

200

4x50

1:1:1:1

A2008B04DSC

FN 400

50

50

50

50

1600x2200x800

250

5x50

1:1:1:1:1

A2508B05DSC

FN 630

50

50

50

50

50

1600x2200x800

300

6x50

1:1:1:1:1:1

A3008B06DSC

FN 630

50

50

50

50

50

50

1600x2200x800

50

Note : 1. If APFC System with capacitors other MPP-H is required then, change the digit at position ‘5’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MPP-H type capacitors is A1008BO2DSC (From Table 8.6). The digit at position number 5 for MD-XL type capacitor is ‘6’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MD-XL type capacitors will be A1006BO2DSC 2. If APFC System rated for other voltage is required then, change the digit at position number ‘6’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41)

Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 440 V is A1008BO2DSC (From Table 8.6). The digit at postion number 6 for 415 V system is ‘A’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 415 V is A1008AO2DSC 3. If APFC System with incomer other than SDF is required then, change the digit at position ‘10’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with SDF Incomer is A1008BO2DSC (From Table 8.6). The digited position number 10 for MCCB incomer is ‘M’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MCCB Incomer will be A1008BO2DMC

APFC System

51

9. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN HARMONIC RICH ENVIRONMENT.
9.1 Background A harmonic rich environment is said to exist when the percentage of Non linear loads in an installation becomes greater than 20% of connected load. Power factor correction by the use of capacitors, in such an environment, must therefore be carried out with certain precaution. This is due to the fact that parallel resonance conditions can occur, i.e the magnitude of the Capacitive reactance of capacitors installed and the inductive reactance of the network can tend to become equal.
b

operating voltages is a typical indication of presence of harmonics.

recommended in such situations. In order to achieve desired power

While it is possible to design the capacitors to withstand the overload conditions, the increase in distortion will cause other ill effects such as :
b

factor correction and to avoid harmonic current amplification, Detuned Filter circuit must be used (refer IEC 61642).

Capacitors installed being subjected to severe harmonic overloading, leading to premature failure. Total harmonic distortion in the network increasing beyond the permissible levels, which is harmful to various equipments within the installation.

9.2. Detuned Filters A detuned filter works on the principle of providing capacitive kVAr output at the fundamental frequency but avoids resonance by offering an inductive impedance to specified harmonic frequencies. The tuning frequency is generally lower than 90 % of the lowest harmonic frequency whose amplitude is significant in the installation. For example if 5th and 7th harmonics are significant in the network the detuned filter should have a tuning frequency less than 90% of the 5th harmonic frequency i.e, < 90% of 250 Hz.

Fig 9.1

If such resonance occurs near to a frequency which is present in the network,current amplification takes place. A circuit representation of this phenomenon is shown in fig.9.1 This current amplification can lead to overloading of capacitors and an increase of the voltage distortion in the network. Consequently capacitors drawing higher current i.e. more than the rated current at normal

Due to these reasons it is necessary to design and engineer a proper Reactive Power Management solution which will not only improve the average power factor of the installation but will also avoid harmonic current amplification and control harmonic distortion. The use of capacitors in the conventional manner is therefore not

52

The detuned filter consists of capacitors connected in series with suitable reactors as shown in fig. 9.2(a). The typical impedance characteristics of the detuned filter is shown in fig. 9.2(b) . fr is the tuning frequency of the detuned filter. Below fr, the detuned filter will have capacitive impedance where as above fr, the detuned filter will have inductive impedance. Consequently detuned filters are suitable for installations / networks where the fifth harmonic and greater are dominant.

9.3 Fixed Detuned Filter Components In a detuned filter the capacitors used will have to be rated for a higher voltage than the system voltage due to:
b

Presence of series reactor and, Absorption of harmonic currents in the detuned filter.

b

Fig 9.2(a)

Fig 9.2(b) The reactors used will also have to be specifically designed to carry both fundamental and harmonic currents.

Advantages Of Using Detuned Filters
b

The filter capacitors and reactors are available as stand alone products so as to enable users to easily configure a fixed filter to suit the requirement.

Will protect the capacitors from harmonic overloading.

b

Shall prevent current amplification. Can be used as fixed or APFC type. Achieve consistently high power factor.

b

b

53

9.3.1 Filter Capacitors These capacitors are available in two ratings i.e 15 and 30 kVAr, which when used with appropriate series reactor will give a capacitive output of 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kVAr at 440V, 50 Hz. The capacitors are however rated as 500V capacitors since they have to withstand over voltages due to the presence of series reactor and flow of harmonic currents. Consequently the Capacitors recommended for this application are the low loss MD-XL type, which have very high overload capability and long term stable performance under high temperature. The dimentional details are shown in Table 9.1 & Fig 3.

FIG 9.3

Table – 9.1 3phase, Capacitors. MD-XL Type: Rated voltage 500V AC, 50Hz, delta connected
Output kV Ar . kVAr Ar. 15 In at 500V . 500V. Amps 17.32 61M3165M3 Ordering Code D 94 Dimensions in mm. H1 283 H2 391 H3 80 Ref. Fig. 9.3

30

34.64

61M3330M3

154

283

391

80

9.3

54

Temperature switch to disconnect the power supply

Reactors for Detuned Filters

1 2 3 4 5 4

MD-XL Capacitor unit for Detuned Filter

1 2 3

Discharge resistor to reduce voltage safely Brass terminals to carry high currents Porcelin bushings to withstand high temperature Galvanised and zinc passivated centre & bottom plate for ease of earthing & fixing Modular construction for replacement of module

4

5

55

Fig 9.4

9.3.2 Series Reactors The values and dimensions of the series reactor to be used in series with the capacitor is shown in the table 9.2 below. Table - 9.2
Value in mH 3.709 1.855 0.928 0.618 0.464 FR3370125B0 FR3370250B0 FR3370500B0 FR3370750B0 FR3371000B0 Ordering Code B 180 230 300 300 300 H 180 205 240 270 270 Dimensions in mm. T 105 140 170 200 200 d 136 176 224 224 224 e 77 95 119 147 147 Ref.

φ
7 7 10 10 10

Fig. 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4

56

Table 9.3 gives the value of the reactor that should be used in series with the suitable capacitor to get the required output :Table 9.3
Output kV Ar r equir ed kVAr requir equired at 440 V 12.5 25 50 75 100 kV Ar of capacitor kVAr to be used 15 x 1No. 30 x 1No. 30 x 2 Nos. 30 x 3 Nos. 30 x 4 Nos. Value of the reactor to be used in mH 3.709 1.855 0.928 0.618 0.464

9.4 Fixed Detuned Filters Table 9.4 FIXED DETUNED FILTERS WITH MD-XL CAPACITORS & SDF INCOMER
kV Ar kVAr Cat. No. I/c Contactor Capacitor (kV Ar) (kVAr) 12.5 25 50 75 100 FB3701256BS FB3702506BS FB3705006BS FB3707506BS FB3710006BS FN-32 FN-63 FN-125 FN-200 FN-200 MN -32 MN -45 MN - 110 ML - 10 ML - 10 12.5 25 25 x 2 25 x 3 25 x 4 Reactor (mH) 3.709 1.855 0.928 0.618 0.464 Dimensions W x H x D (mm) 800x1000x300 800x1000x300 800 x1800x500 800x1800x500 800x1800x500

APFC System

57

9.5 APFC cum Detuned Filter Table - 9.5 IntellVAr-H, DETUNED FILTER CUM APFC PANEL WITH MD-XL CAPACITORS , SDF INCOMER & AUTOMATIC OPTION. Rated voltage 440 V/ 50 Hz, Control Voltage 230 V / 50 Hz

kV Ar kVAr

Output Steps

Switching sequence 1:2

Cat. No.

Incomer SDF 1 25

Switching Stages 2 50 3 4 5 6

Dimensions Wx H x D (mm) 800x2000x600

75

3 x 25

A0756B03HSA

FN-200

100

4 x 25

1:1:2

A1006B04HSA

FN-200

25

25

50

-

-

-

800x2000x600

125

5 x 25

1:2:2

A1256B05HSA

FN-250

25

50

50

-

-

-

800x2000x600

150

3 x 50

1:1:1

A1506B03HSA

FN-315

50

50

50

-

-

-

800x2000x600

kV Ar kVAr

Output Steps

Switching sequence 1:1:2:2

Cat. No.

Incomer SDF 1 25

Switching Stages 2 25 3 50 4 50 5 6 -

Dimensions Wx H x D (mm) 1600x2000x600

150

6 x 25

A1506B06HSA

FN-315

175

7 x 25

1:2:2:2

A1756B07HSA

FN-315

25

50

50

50

-

-

1600x2000x600

200 200

4 x 50 8 x 25

1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2

A2006B04HSA A2006B08HSA

FN-315 FN-315

50 25

50 25

50 50

50 50

50

-

1600x2000x600 1600x2000x600

225 250 250

9 x 25 5 x 50 10 x 25

1:2:2:2:2 1:1:1:1:1 1:1:2:2:2:2

A2256B09HSA A2506B05HSA A2506B10HSA

FN-630 FN-630 FN-630

25 50 25

50 50 25

50 50 50

50 50 50

50 50 50

50

1600x2000x600 1600x2000x600 1600x2000x600

275

11 x 25

1:2:2:2:2:2

A2756B11HSA

FN-630

25

50

50

50

50

50

1600x2000x600

300

6 x 50

1:1:1:1:1:1

A3006B06HSA

FN-630

50

50

50

50

50

50

1600x2000x600

Note : 1. If APFC System rated for other voltage is required then, change the digit at position number ‘6’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 440 V is A1006BO4HSA (From Table 9.5). The digit at postion number 6 for 415 V system is ‘A’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System rated for 415 V is A1006AO4HSA

2. If APFC System with incomer other than SDF is required then, change the digit at position ‘10’ of catalogue number. (Refer catalogue number structure. Page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with SDF Incomer is A1006BO4HSA (From Table 9.5). The digited position number 10 for MCCB incomer is ‘M’ as per catalogue number structure. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with MCCB Incomer will be A1006BO4HMA

3. If APFC System other than automatic control is required then, change the digit at position number ‘11’ of cat. no. (Refer catalogue number structure, page number 41) Eg. The cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with automatic control is A1006BO4HSA (From Table 9.5). The digit at postion number ‘11’ for Auto + Manual control is ‘M’. So the cat. no. of 100 kVAr APFC System with automatic and manual control will be A1006BO4HSM

58

10. PF CORRECTION IN INSTALLATIONS WITH CAPTIVE GENERATION BY DG SETS

10.1. Introduction Captive Generation through DG sets is becoming increasingly popular in industries where the installed capacity of utility connection is far below the required capacity and the availability of quality power is of paramount importance. The DG set consists of a diesel engine, which is mechanically coupled to an alternator. The engine supplies the mechanical energy to the alternator and the alternator supplies the electrical energy to the load. The alternator is subjected to certain copper losses, which is proportional to the square of the current delivered by it. The diesel engine has to supply these losses in addition to supplying the load requirements. Thus by reducing the losses in the alternator the diesel consumption of the diesel engine can be brought down. 10.2. Alternator loss reduction by P.F improvement Reducing the current output from alternator without altering the loading conditions can reduce the alternator losses. Improving the power factor at the output of the alternator can conveniently do this. Hence, improvement in the Power Factor in alternator leads to reduction of fuel consumption in DG sets.

Conventionally capacitors are not used along with DG sets. Hence DG sets operate at a relatively low power factor of 0.6 to 0.8. The following example gives an approximate calculation to show the impact of power factor improvement on reduction of Alternator losses and accrued savings in Diesel consumption. Consider a 3 phase, 415V, 50Hz, 500 kVA DG set used in an Industry for 6000 hours/year with an average load of approximately 250 kW at 0.65 PF. What is the fuel saving if PF is improved to 0.93? The full load copper loss of the alternator is 12 kW and average yield of the DG set is 3kWh/litre of fuel (HSD).

APFC system

59

Rated Current of Alternator

= 500000/ (√3 x 415) = 695.60A = 250000/ (√3 x 415 x 0.65) = 535.08 A = (535.08 / 695.6 )2 x12 kW = 7.1 kW = 250000 / (√3 x 415 x 0.93) = 373.98A = (373.98 / 695.6 )2 x12 kW = 3.47 kW = 7.1 –3.47 kW = 3.63 kW

greater than 20% then reacor protected APFC should be used as mentioned in section 9.5. The rating of the APFC has to be selected depending upon the kw of the load connected and the minimum power factor expected in the installation.

Current at 0.65 PF

Copper loss at this current

Current at 0.93pf

Copper loss at this current

Savings in Copper loss

Note - In addition to these benefits, it is possible to achieve greater savings in fuel by the use of IntellVAr-D i.e. Dynamic compensation systems. For more details contact us.

Energy saved for 6000 hour operation

= 3.63 x 6000 kWh = 21780 kWh = 3 kWh / litre of HSD = 21780/3 = 7260 litres per year = 1,08,900 per year

DG set Yield Potential savings in HSD fuel Potential savings in Rs. @ Rs. 15/ litre

10.3. Method of P.F improvement Conventional fixed capacitors should not be used with DG sets. This is because by using fixed capacitors there is a danger that the PF can become leading under lightly loaded condition which is highly undesirable in DG set operation. Hence only Automatic Power Factor Correction system (APFC) should be used with DG sets. The target power factor can be set to 0.93 to 0.95 for optimum performance. 10.4. APFC Selection The appropriate APFC system can be selected based upon the Harmonic content of the load. If the Harmonic generating load is less than 20%, the APFC should be used as mentioned in section-8. If the Harmonic load is APFC system (Rear View)

APFC system

60

11. USEFUL FORMULAE AND TABLES
11.1 Capacitance in Parallel C = C 1 + C2 + C3 Where C = effective capacitance of parallel circuit 11.2 Capacitance in Series 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 C C1 C2 C 3 Where C = effective capacitance of Series circuit 11.3 Calculation of Capacitor kVAr Required for Power-Factor Improvement Capacitor kV Ar = kw (tanφ1 - tanφ 2) kVAr 2 C 3 Vph = V

11.5 For a Balanced Three Phase Delta Connected Capacitors 1 IL

v

V

C

C

Vph

where ø 1 ø2

= Cos (PF1) and = Cos-1(PF2)

-1

PF1 and PF2 are initial and final power factor respectively
11.4 For Single Phase Capacitor

C=

CM 1.5

in µF

CM is the measured capacitance across any two terminals with the other terminal left open circuited. X C / Ph = 10 6 2 π fc 2 π fcV 2 X3 10 9

v

1

IL V

C

2

XC =

10

6

3 - Ph kVAr =

2 π fc
3 I L = 3ph kVAr x 10 √3V

2 kVAr = 2 π fcV 10 9

where XC

3 I C = kVAr x 10 V

= CM in µF (Measured capaci tance across terminals 1 & 2) where XC = Capacitive Reactance in ohms V = Voltage in volts kVAr = Rated output of capacitor lC = Capacitor Current in Amps. C

= Capacitive Reactance/ per phase in ohms V = Voltage (line to line) in volts kVAr = Rated output of capacitor lL = Line current in Amps.

61

11.6 For a Balanced Three Phase Star Connected Capacitors

11.7 Inrush transient current 11.7.1 Switching in single capacitor

11.8 Discharge Resistance in Single-phase Unit or in One Phase of polyphase Units. t K C log e V n√2 VR

v

1

lL

IP = lr √2 Vph

X 10 √ MVA kVAr
SC C

3

R<

(

)

C V

Where Ip

Ir C 2 3 Vph = V √3 kVArc C = 2CM in µF CM is the measured capacitance across any two terminals with the other terminal left open circuited. 10 6 2 π fc 2 π fcV 2 ph 10 9
3

C MVASC

= the crest value of Inrush Capacitor current in Amps = the rated capacitor current (rms) in Amps = the short circuit power in MVA at the point where the capacitor is connected = kVAr of the capacitor

where t

R C Vn

VR K

11.7.2 Switching of capacitors in parallel with energized capacitor IP = √2 V √3 √ XCXL

X C / Ph =

= time to discharge from Vn √ 2 to VR seconds = Discharge resistance value in MΩ = Rated Capacitance per phase in (µF) = Rated Voltage of capacitor unit in volts. = Permissible residual voltage in volts. = Coefficient depend ing on the method of connection of the resistors to the capacitor units. (Refer 11.9 for value of K)

where l P

3 - Ph kVAr =

X3

V Xc

I L = 3ph kVAr x 10 √3 V where XC

XL

= Capacitive Reactance/ per phase in ohms V = Voltage (line to line) in volts kVAr = Rated output of capacitor lL = Line current in Amps.

= the crest value of Capacitor inrush current in Amps = Rated voltage in volts (line to line) = Capacitive Reactance per phase in (ohms) = the inductive reactance per phase between the capacitors in (ohms)

Note: See clause 22 of IEC 831-1, 1988 for limits of t & VR.

11.7.3 Frequency of Inrush Current f S = fN

√X X

C L

where fS fN XC

XL

= the frequency of inrush current in Hz = the Rated frequency in Hz = Capacitive Reactance per phase in (ohms) = the inductive reactance per phase between the capacitors in (ohms)

62

11.8 Value of Coefficient ‘K’ R K=1 C 1(a)

.
c
R K=1

C

.
1(b)

.

.
1(e)

R

1 K=— 3

.
R

.
R K=1 C K=3

.

.
C 1(c)

.

.
1(f)

.

.
R C K=1 R C

. .
1(g) K=3

.
1(d)

.

.

.

63

11.9 Tables The tables shown below gives line current, perphase capacitance (C∆) and the capacitance measured ( CM ) across phases with other phase open circuited or short circuited for standard capacitor units. 2 3 Fig (a) CM = measured capacitance in µF Table - 11.1 (Voltage rating 415V)
C∆ = capacitance per phase in µF

Balanced 3 phase Delta connected capacitors 1 1

C∆

C∆ 2 C∆

CM

C∆

C∆

C∆ 3 Fig (b)

when isolated from other terminals
Measured capacitance (CM ) across any two terminals with the other terminal kept open circuited (in µF) Refer fig (a) 9.24 18.48 27.72 36.96 46.21 69.31 92.41 115.51 138.62 184.82 231.03 Measured capacitance (CM ) across any two terminals with the third terminal short circuited to any one of the other two terminals (in µF) Refer fig (b) 12.32 24.64 36.96 49.29 61.61 92.41 123.21 154.02 184.82 246.43 308.04

kV AR kVA

Line current in Amps

C∆ (in µF)

1 2 3 4 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 20 25

1.39 2.78 4.17 5.56 6.96 10.43 13.91 17.39 20.87 27.82 34.78

6.16 12.32 18.48 24.64 30.80 46.21 61.61 77.01 92.41 123.21 154.02

Table - 11.2 ( Voltage rating 440V)

kV AR kVA

Line current in Amps

C∆ (in µF)

Measured capacitance (CM ) across any two terminals with the other terminal kept open circuited (in µF) Refer fig (a) 8.22 16.44 24.66 32.88 41.10 61.66 82.21 102.76 123.31 164.42 205.52

Measured capacitance (CM ) across any two terminals with the third terminal short circuited to any one of the other two terminals (in µF) Refer fig (b) 10.96 21.92 32.88 43.84 54.81 82.21 109.61 137.01 164.42 219.22 274.03

1 2 3 4 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 20 25

1.31 2.62 3.94 5.25 6.56 9.84 13.12 16.40 19.68 26.24 32.80

5.48 10.96 16.44 21.92 27.40 41.10 54.81 68.51 82.21 109.61 137.01

64

NOTES

65

NOTES

66

NOTES

67

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