A ) Calculation For Earth Electrodes

I ) Design Data:a) Fault level – at 11KV – 500MVA, 1Sec ie 26240Amps
- at 3.3KV – 150MVA, 1Sec ie 26240Amp
- at 415V – 31MVA, 1Sec ie 43130Amp
b) Soil Resistivity ( ρ ) - 100ohm Mtere
c) Earthing Material – Galvanized iron
d) Duration of fault level ( t ) – 1Sec
II ) Size of conductor
As = 21.6 x I x √t circular mills
= 21.6 x 43130 x √1
= 931608 circular mills ( 1 Circular mill = 0.0005067 Sqmm )
= 472.0 Sqmm
Adding 25% extra
As = 1.25 x 472 = 590 Sq mm
Main earth conductor size chosen = 75 x 8 mm
III) Calculation of no of earth electrodes :
Dissipation of fault current = 7.57 x 10³ / ( √ ρ x √ t ) Amp / M²
Where p = 100ohm – meter and t = 1 Sec
Dissipation of fault current = 7.57 x 10³ / ( √100 x √1 ) = 757 Amp / M²
Area of Earth electrode = 43130 / 757 = 56.97 M²
Adding 10% extra = 56.97 x 1.1 = 62.67 M²
Area of 1 Pipe electrode = π x d x l
d = 3.8 cm
l = 250 cm
A = π x 3.8 x 250 = 0.2985 M²
No of Pipe electrodes = 62.67 / 0.2985 = 210 Nos
Since it is difficult to distribute such a high no of electrodes in the plant area, we will use plate electrodes for
earthing of the system

B ) Calculation for number of earth electrodes for receiving station.
a) Limiting values of Touch Potential ( Et ) and step Potential ( Es ) to be maintained as ,
Et = ( 165 + 0.25 ρ ) / √ t

and Es = ( 165 + ρ) / √ t

Where ρ = resistivity of ground in ohm meter = 47.55 ohm –m ( average value )
t = time in sec to clear the fault = 1sec
Et = ( 165 + 0.25 x 47.55 ) / √ 1 = 176.89 Volts
Es = ( 165 + 47.55 ) / √ 1 = 212.55 Volts
b ) Maximum value of attainable Step and Touch potential is given by,
Et = ( Kt x Ki x p x I ) / L

and Es = ( Ks x Ki x p x I ) / L

Where Kt = 1/2π ln ( S² / 16 d D ) + 1/π ln ( 3/4 x 5/6 x ……x (2n-3)/(2n-2)
Ks = 100/π ( 1/2D + 1 / (S +D) + 1/2S + 1/3S + …. + n terms )
S = Average distance between two parallel conductors in cm along X-axis and along Y – axis
calculated as

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S’ for Y- axis average space = (Total space length along Y-axis ) / ( No of Spaces )
= 20 / 10 = 2.00 M = 200 cm
S’ for X- axis average space = (Total space length along X axis ) / ( No of Spaces )
= 30 / 12 = 2.50 M = 250 cm
d = equivalent diameter of earth strip in cms
= 75 x 8 = π x d² / 4
d = √ ( 75 x 8 x 4 ) / ( 100 x 3.14 ) = 2.76 cm
D = depth of burial of earth strip in cms = 50 cms ( IS )
n = no of parallel conductors along X-axis / Y – axis
therefore , n = 13 in the X-axis and n = 11 in Y-axis
Ki = 0.635 + 0.172 n
ρ = Soil resistivity in ohm-m = 47.55 ohm M
I = max fault current for 11KV system
= 500 / (√3 x 11)
= 26.24KA = 26240 Amps
L = length of buried conductor in meters
= 20 x 11 + 30 x 13 = 610
Ki = 0.655 + 0.172x13 = 2.891 for grid along X – axis
And Ki = 0.655 + 0.172x11 = 2.547 for grid along Y– axis
To find out Kt we have to find out ,
Kt1 = for Y axis configuration and Kt2 = for X – axis configuration
Kt1 for Y – axis configuration,
Kt1 = 1/2π ln ( S² / 16 d D ) + 1/π ln { ( 3/4 x 5/6 x ……x (2n-3)/(2n-2)}
= 1/2π ln ( 200² / 16 x 2.76 x 50 ) + 1/π ln { ( 3/4 x 5/6 x ……x (2x11-3)/(2x11-2)}
= 1/2π ln ( 18.12 ) + 1/π ln ( 0.3524)
= 1/2π x 2.89 + 1/π ( - 1.043 )
= 0.46 – 0.33
= 0.13
Kt2 for X – axis configuration,
Kt2 = 1/2π ln ( S² / 16 d D ) + 1/π ln { ( 3/4 x 5/6 x ……x (2n-3)/(2n-2)}
= 1/2π ln ( 250² / 16 x 2.76 x 50 ) + 1/π ln { ( 3/4 x 5/6 x ……x (2x13-3)/(2x13-2)}
= 1/2π ln ( 28.306 ) + 1/π ln ( 0.3224 )
= 1/2π ( 3.343 ) + 1/π ( -1.1319 )
= 0.17
Kt = Kt1 x Kt2 = 0.13 x 0.17 = 0.022
Et1 for Y – axis configuration,

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= Kt x Ki x ρ x I / L
= 0.22 x 2.547 x 47.55 x 26240 / 650
=107.56V
Et2 for X – axis configuration,
= Kt x Ki x ρ x I / L
= 0.22 x 2.891 x 47.55 x 26240 / 650
=122.08V
Step Potential Es = Ks x Ki x ρ x I / L
Where Ks1 for X-axis configuration,
Ks1 = 1/π ( 1/2D + 1/(S+D) + 1/2S + 1/3S + ….. + 1/nS )
= 1/π ( 1/2x50 + 1/(250+50) + 1/2x250 + 1/3x250 + ….. + 1/13x250 )
= 1/π ( 0.01 + 0.003 + 0.0087 ) = 0.0069
Ks2 for Y-axis configuration,
Ks1 = 1/π ( 1/2D + 1/(S+D) + 1/2S + 1/3S + ….. + 1/nS )
= 1/π ( 1/2x50 + 1/(200+50) + 1/2x200 + 1/3x200 + ….. + 1/9x200 )
= 1/π ( 0.01 + 0.003 + 0.00044 ) = 0.0066
therefore Ks = Ks1 x Ks2
= 0.0069 x 0.0066
= 0.0000455
Es1 for X – axis = ( 0.0000455 x 2.891 x 47.55 x 26240 ) / 650
= 0.25 Volts
Similarly Es2 for Y axis = 0.22 Volts
Therefore to restrict step and touch potential within tolerance limit the no of pipes electrodes required are,
= (13+9 ) x 2 = 44
As distribution of 44 nos of pipe electrodes in substation area of 20M x 30M is not practicable
Therefore equivalent plate electrodes should be given,
Area of 44 Nos of pipe electrodes = π x d x l x 44
= 13.13 Sq M
Area of one Plate electrode = 1.2 x 1.2 x 2
= 2.88 Sq M
No of plate electrodes = 13.13 / 2.88 = 4.55
= 6Nos
6 Nos of Plate electrodes shall be given for main receiving station.
Therefore remaining 210 – 44 = 166 electrodes shall be distributed over the plant area.
Area of 166 pipe electrodes = 49.54 Sq M
Therefore no of plate electrodes required = 17.20
= 18nos
A ) Calculation of combined resistance for receiving station,
i) Resistance of Plate electrode =
R=ρ/4√(π/A)
= 47.55/4 √ ( π / 2.88)
= 11.88 x 1.044 = 12.4
therefore combined resistance of 6nos plates electrodes = 12.4 / 6 = 2.066 ohm

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ii) Resistance of earth strip
R = 100 ρ / 2 π l x ln ( 2 l² / wt )
Where ρ = 47.55 ohm-meter
l = length of strip buried = 610 x 100 cms
w = depth of buried strip = 50cms
t = width of strip = 75mm = 7.5cm
therefore R = 100x47.55 / 2 π x 610 x 100 ln ( 2 x (780x100)l² / 50 x 7.5 )
= 0.21 ohm
Combined resistance of plate and strip electrode,
1/ R comb = 1/ 2.066 + 1/0.21 = ( 2.276 + 0.21 ) / ( 2.066 x 0.21 ) = 1 / Rc
Rcomb = 0.19ohm
B) Calculation of combined Resistance of plant Area
i) Resistance of plate electrode = 12.4ohm
therefore combined resistance of 18nos of plate electrodes = 12.4 / 18 = 0.69 ohm
ii) Resistance of strip conductor
R = 100 ρ / 2 π l x ln ( 2 l² / wt )
= 100 x 100 / 2 π x 660 x 100 x ln ( 2 x ( 660 x 100) ² / 50 x 7.5 )
= 0.409 ohm
therefore combined resistance of plate and strip
Rcomb = ( 0.69 + 0.409 ) / 0.69 x 0.409 = 0.26 ohm
Distribution of electrodes over plant area,
1) Main receiving station - -------------------- --------- 6 nos
Lightning arrestor = ------------------1 no
Neutral earthing = --------------------3 nos
Equipment earthing = ----------------2 nos
2) Load Center – 1
-------------------------------- 2 nos
3) Load center –2 / load center – 6 ------ ------------ 4 nos
( Raw mill / cement mill )
4) Packing Plant - ------------------------------------- 1 nos
5) Blending Silo and Compressor House - ---------- 1 nos
6) Load Center- 3 ------------------------------------ -2 nos
7) Kiln feed / Heat exchanger --- -----------------------3 nos
8 ) Load Center- 4 - ------------------------------------2 nos
9) Cooler Department / coal mill – ----------------------2 nos
10) Coal crusher = ----------------------------------------01no
Total = -----------------------------------------------------24 nos

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