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After Observing many interviews.

Finally i come up with the following questions which are mostly asked in all the Big companies including SAP Labs, Accenture, IBM , Deloitte , TCS , Infosys etc 1. Can we write the code both call transaction and session method in single program? Ans. Yes it is possible to write call transaction and session in one program. 2. Which BDC you prefer? Ans. If we want to transfer large amount of data and when we need to use more than one transaction code we prefer session method. For small or less amount of data and for single transaction use call transaction. (This is more genric answer but you can add more on to this if you have worked on BDC) 3. When u prefer LSMW? Ans. When we need to update medium amount of data we use LSMW. LSMW is also used when the person like functional consultant has less programming language. 5. Difference between .include and .append? Ans. Include structure allows to add one or more structure into structure or table.Also placed positioning anywhere. Upto 6 include structure can be used in a table. Append structure can be placed only at the end of a structure or table which also stops further insertion of fields.Only one append structure can be used 6. Preformance techniques Ans. 1. The sequence of fields must be same as per database table 2. During writing select query write all fields in sequence as per database table. 3. Never write select statements inside loop.endloop. 4. Use st05 SQL trace, se30 run time analysis, code inspector, slin,etc. 5. Use select single * statement instead of select * 6. Always use primary key 7. Use binary search but before using binary search sort that table. 7. How to debug sapscripts ? Ans. Two ways to debug sapscript . first way is goto SE 71 and from menu bar select Utilities->activate debugger .then goto SE38 execute the print program ,it automatically goes to debugging mode ..the other way is , run the program RSTXDBUG in se 38 . execute it . a message will show that debugger is activated .now open the print program in se 38 u vll notice that the print prgm is automatically diverted to debugging mode. 8. What is partner selection? Ans. This concept is mainly used in IDOC where u select the partner profile using Tcode We20 .with Tcode SM59 you create RFC(remote function call) to create communication link to a remote system. 10. What is occurs in internal table? Ans. Occurs addition to the Declaration will give initial size to that table.occur statement allocates 8kb of memory to the internal table. 11. What is page window? Ans : page window is nothing but a container of a page ,which uniquely identifies a set of data for example while creating invoice we create logo window , billing document header window , customer window , terms and condition window etc

12. What is the difference between scrolling a table horizontally and vertically..?? Ans: In table control when you scroll a table vertically presentation server needs to call application server to fetch the next record and display in the table while in case of horizontal scroll there is no need to call application server. 13. What are Field Groups? Ans: A group that combines several fields fewer than one name, at runtime, the INSERT command is used to define which data fields are assigned to which field group are called Field Groups. It should always be a HEADER field group that defines how the extracted data will be sorted; the fields grouped under the HEADER field group sort the data. 14. List the events in ABAP/4 Language? Ans: The events in ABAP/4 are load of program ,Initialization, Selection Screen, Start of Selection, End of Selection, Top of page, Line selection, User command, End, First. 15.How the values will be passed to RFC Function module PassbyValue or Passbyreference? Ans: always Pass by Value. RFC is Remote Function call so it cant access the values with Pass by reference. 16. Buffering concept usage? Ans: There are three type of buffer 1 single record 2 generic buffer 3 full buffer Buffering is use for improve performance. it improves performance 10 to 100 times more 17. Select up to 1 row and select single difference ? Ans: Select single fetches first matching record. If more than one matching records are there then only the first matching record will be considered other records will not be taken into account. Where as select up to 1 rows will fetch all the matching records from the database.(Again it will assign only One Record to the internal table/Work area) 18. What are the different buffering methods? There are two different buffering methods The system ensures that data transfer between the R/3 System and the database system is as efficient as possible. To do this, it uses the following techniques: Table buffering: The program accesses data from the buffer of the application server. Database request buffering: Individual database entries are not read or passed to the database until required by an OPEN SQL statement. 19. Different types of locks? v Read lock (shared lock) Protects read access to an object. The read lock allows other transactions read access but not write access to the locked area of the table. v o Write lock (exclusive lock) Protects write access to an object. The write lock allows other transactions neither read nor write access to the locked area of the table. v o Enhanced write lock (exclusive lock without cumulation) Works like a write lock except that the enhanced write lock also protects from further accesses from the same transaction. 20. CHAIN END CHAIN?

Ans: Chain and end chain are used for multiple field validation in Module pool programming .It is written inside the screen flow logic. 21.How to Debug RFC Function module? Ans: SE38 > Utilities > Settings > ABAP Editor > Debugging Activate the external debugging and choose the New Debugger option in ABAP debugger. Go to the particular place in the code and put break point, pop will appear then choose the HTTP break point. If you are triggering the RFC from SAP portal make sure that both the user ID should be same If the users are different then provide the XI/Portal User ID in the users field. 22.Why sapscripts are client dependent and smartforms are client independent.? Ans-: Smartforms create its own function module so it doesnt need to transport the request through SCC1.As all the Development Object are stored in client independent tables. Whereas Script doesnt generate any function module while executing so we need to transport the request number through SCC1.Sap script is stroed in side the client depended table as a sapscripts are client dependent and smartforms are client independent. 23. Difference between user exit and BADIs? Ans: User exit is for single implementation and it is procedural approach while BADIs are for multiple implementation and object oriented approach. Multiple implementation means Reusability because we use OOps Concepts for BADI. 24. Control break events in ABAP:1. AT-FIRST: This is used when we want to execute the statements before records are processed. 2. AT-LAST: This event is used when we want to execute the statements after all records are processed. 3. AT-NEW: This event is used when we want to execute the statement before group of records are processed. 4. AT-END: This event is used when we want to execute the statements after processing of group of records. 25.I am uploading 100 records out of which say 59th record has error so what will happen if i am using synchronous or asynchronous method of BDC? Can we update the database using local update mode how? 26. Suppose i am writing following code then what will be output? LOAD-OF-PROGRAM. WRITE:/HELLO. Ans: HELLO (Explain the importance of LOAD-OF-PROGRAM Event.If you dont know Tell the interviewer as this event is used in such cases when you want to clear sum buffers or something Before calling that Program) 27. What is TMG? Ans. TMG stands for Table Maintenance generator. It is a tool available in abap by which we can add or delete multiple records at a time and it is executed or triggered by the transaction code SM30. 28. Difference between select option and ranges ? Ans. The main difference between select option and ranges is that ranges implicitly or automatically creates internal table with fields like OPTION,LOW,HIGH,SIGN,etc . Where as in case of select option we have to explicitly create internal table. When u declares a select options it will implicitly declare an internal table (ranges) for you.

While using RANGES syntax u can declare internal table explicitly. The only need of declaring ranges is when you r not taking input from the user but you want make limit based selection at that time it will be use full e.g. SELECT ** from ** where MATNR in val_range. here u can use select-option or ranges : val_range. 29. is it possible to bring select option in module pool screens? Ans.Create a SELECT-OPTIONS in module pool screen using two methods as shown. Method 1:a) Create a subscreen area in your screen layout where you want to create the select options. b) In the top include of your module pool program declare a selection screen as a subscreen e.g. SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF SCREEN 100 AS SUBSCREEN. select-options s_matnr for mara-matnr. SELECTION-SCREEN END OF SCREEN. c) In the PBO and PAI of the main screen where the select options needs to be created do a call subscreen of the above screen (100). CALL SUBCREEN sub_area INCLUDING <program> <screen> This CALL SUBSCREEN statement is necessary for transport of values between screen and program. Note: All validations of the selection screen fields e.g. the s_matnr field created above should be done in selection screen events like AT SELECTION-SCREEN etc and not in PAI. These selection screen validations etc should be done in the top include only. Method 2:a) Create 2 separate fields in your screen layout one for the low value and one for the high value. Insert an icon beside the high value which will call the multiple selections popup screen on user command. Use function module COMPLEX_SELECTIONS_DIALOG to achieve this. continued struc_tab_and_field-fieldname = con_cust. KUNNR struc_tab_and_field-tablename = con_kna1. KNA1. CALL FUNCTION COMPLEX_SELECTIONS_DIALOG EXPORTING* TITLE = text = g_titl1 Customers tab_and_field = struc_tab_and_field TABLES RANGE = rng_kunnr EXCEPTIONS NO_RANGE_TAB = 1 CANCELLED = 2 INTERNAL_ERROR = 3 INVALID_FIELDNAME = 4 OTHERS = 5. IF NOT rng_kunnr[] IS INITIAL. * Read the very first entry of the range table and pass it to * dynpro screen field *READ TABLE rng_kunnr INDEX 1. IF sy-subrc = 0.

g_cust = rng_kunnr-low. ENDIF. ENDIF. You can use the return table rng_kunnr to populate your own internal range table with the values entered by the user. Basically here you are just simulating the work of a select-options parameter by module pool screen elements. we can retrive data using secondary index.explain with simple example Ans: First create secondary indexes on required fields of a particular database table. We can create one primary index and 15 secondary indexes.Once the respective secondary indexes are created write select queries and within select queries specify secondary indexes field name with where clause. 31.How can we handle table control in BDC? Ans.We can handle table control using line index Line index indicates which line of Table control is to be use for BDC transaction Ex perform bdc_field using RC29K-AUSKZ(01) Indicates 1st line of table control is going to be used for transaction which is Line index of Table Control 32. If i want to execute a BDC program only in background not in foreground is there any option for this? Ans.The sm37 transaction can be used for running a program in the background. Also in the session method while processing the session you can specify the processing type as background or foreground. 33.How Can We upload a text file having Delimiters in to Legacy System Ans.For up loading text file we use the pre-defined FM gui_upload. in that FM we have the parameter has_field_seperator for that we assign the default delimiter x. HAS_FIELD_SEPERATOR X X can provide the Whatever delim iter we used in flat file for separation. 34. What is the land scape in sap. Ans. In every organisation sap landscape involves three servers viz, Development server, Quality server and Production server. Whatever new development we do as per clients requirement is done in development server. Later to test the developed object we move it to quality server for testing and finally once everything goes clear then the object is moved to production server ,production server data is ready for final business use. 35. Workbench request are client dependent or client independent Ans. Workbench request are client independent. (Common Man Workbench request holds the Program , FM etc. How it can be Client Dependent!!!!) 36. Tell me about workbench request and customization requests. Ans.Workbench (ABAP Dev) request is client independent when you import it into one system it reflact it in all client in same system, but customized request has to import in that client perticular client where it is created, actually it is client dependent. Other Interview questions SAP SCRIPTS & FORMS 1. Can we write the code/program inside sap script? 2. How will u create sapscripts & smartforms in multiple language? 3.How to execute sap script & smart forms in Background?

4.How to do total & subtotal in scripts & forms? ================================================= DATA DICTIONARY 1.Apart from .include & .append how will u do table enhancement? 2.what r the events of table maintainence generator? 3.what will happen if i use projection view and maintainence view together? 4. I created ZEMP table now i want to add more data but prev. data should not disturb how can i do this? ===================================================== REPORTS 1.How will u print footers in alv report? 2.How will u edit fields from output list of alv? ==================================================== BDC 1.what r the fields u took during recording for mmo1,me21n? 2.If u want to do bdc for xd01 explain me how will be the flow? ================================================= user exits 1.what r enhancement points? 2.How to write customer exits? 3.what is routine? how it is different from user exits?

Most frequently asked Differences in ABAP interview

1.sapscript and smartforms

Sap script is client dependent and smart form is client independent. Smartforms has Only 1 main window while Sap script has 99 main windows You can not print labels using smart forms

2.BDC and LSMW In BDC we have to take care of field mapping whereas field mapping is taken care by sap in lsmw. BDC is mostly used for customised data upload while LSMW is used for uploading Master data. In BDC we need to write large code but in LSMW small coding is needed. 3. BADI and BAPI BADI is business add ins, it is used to customize the standard business flow BAPI is Business application programming interface. It is nothing but Remote enabled function module which can be called from outside the SAP System.

4.user exit and customer exit User exit is an include program given by SAP in that you can write your code , It needs Access key from SAP while key is not required in case of customer exit

5. Select single and select up to one row Select single will fetch only one record while select up to n row. Will fetch n rows from database

6. Normal (Classical) report and ALV report To display the output in classical report you use WRITE Statement.

To display the output in ALV we have different function modules and class like REUSE_ALV_GRID_DISPLAY , REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY and CL_SALV_TABLE. If you run the classical report in background after JOB finished you can see its output which stored in spool, While in case of ALV you need code extra to store the output as it will not generate the spool.

7. ALV list display and ALV grid display You cannot retrieve the output for the report which is displayed using ALV GRID Display.As spool Request will not be created for the same. While in case of list display Report out put will be there in spool request.

8. Classical and drill down report In classical report user cannot interact with report whereas in drill down report user can interact with report. Drill down facility is not provided in classical report while in drill down it is provided. If they ask you in detail then tell the interviewer that interact with the report means in drill down report we have one basic list and 20 secondary lists so we can directly go to 5th list or 10th list as per our requirement similarly we can come back to any list. Drill down means showing data in basic list first and when we double click on any field we get summarised list. NOTE:- to go to next list in drill down report use following syntax SY-LSIND = < list number> example: to go to 15th list SYLSIND = 15 to come to 5th list from 15th list use F3 KEY OR PRESS BACK BUTTON

9. BAPI and RFC function module BAPI is nothing but remote enabled function module BAPI is provided as a method of business objects 4.7 and ECC 6.0 SAP 4.7 is based on Web AS ECC 6.0 is based of Netweaver 7.0.

11. get cursor and hide in interactive report Get cursor will provide the location cursor position in the report While hide is use to pass the data from basic list to secondary list

12.normal function module and RFC You cannot call normal function module from outside the current system while RFC function module can be called from outside the SAP system.

13. Subroutine and function modules. Subroutine is local to the program while function module is global. To call subroutine from outside its main program you need to write its main program name in the bracket

14.At selection screen and At selection screen output. At selection screen output is called first All dynamic commands and screen modification is done in AT selection screen output. input and batch input The basic difference is validation is not done in direct input by pre defined function while in batch input it is coved.

16.synchronous and asynchronous in BDC Synchronous mode will wait until the BDC session gets over while asynchronous mode will not wait for that selection screen and at selection on field name At selection screen is used to validate the whole screen elements while at selection field is used to validate the particular field. When you display the error message in at selection on field the focus will be on that particular field while in case of At selection screen the focus will not be on any particular field.

18. PBO and PAI event in module pool Process Before Output and Process after input. PBO will be called before the screen is displayed to the user while process after input is called once user interact with screen.

19. Stop , check and exit If you use the STOP statement within an event block, the system stops processing the block Immediately. If you use the EXIT statement within an event block but not in a loop, the system stops Processing the block immediately If you use the CHECK <expr> statement within an event block but not within a loop, and the Condition <expr> is not fulfilled, the system exits the processing block immediately. <expr> can be any logical expression or the name of a selection table. If you specify a selection table and the contents of the corresponding table work are do. and refresh in internal table You can use FREE to initialize an internal table (along with header line ) and release its memory space. REFRESH will only initialize an internal table (along with header line)

21.clear and delete. The major difference is clear is used with internal table while delete is used with database table.

22. collect and sum COLLECT <line> INTO <itab>. The statement first checks whether the internal table contains an entry with the same key. If not,it acts like INSERT. If there is already a table entry with the same key, COLLECT does not inserta new line. Instead, it adds the values from the numeric fields of the work area <line> to thevalues in the corresponding fields of the existing table entry.

SUM.Can only be used in loops through internal tables. Calculates the sums of the numeric fields in alllines of the current control level and writes the results to the corresponding fields in the workarea.

23. call transaction and session method Call transaction is Synchronous Processing while session (classical) method is Asynchronous Processing In call transaction we can update the database both synchronously and asynchronously. We can specify the mode in the program. While in session method it is Synchronous Database update. In call transaction No batch input processing log is maintained while in session method details log is maintained. Call Transaction method is faster than the session method.

24. at first and at last control break event As the name suggest AT FIRST executed for the first time while AT LAST executed in last.

25. Enhancement point and Enhancement Section Both the enhancement-point and section are available for you to change standard SAP code. Difference is in fact that you use Enhancement-point to add ABAP code to standard SAP and enhancement-section to replace/extend standard SAP code. 26.end of page and top of page Top of page trigger when report encounter the first write, skip or new-line statements. End of page trigger when page size is over or report display gets over.

27. Table and structure Table has physical definition into the underline database while structure does exist physically in the data base.

28. table and views Table has data init while view does not contain data in it. Both exist in the data base. when u run the view it queries the database and gives the respective data.

29.inner joins and for all entries Inner join joins the table at database level whereas For..All..Entries joins the table at application level. In For..All..Entries when the condition gets satisfied data is fetched in one single shot from database table whereas in inner join data is fetched iteration by iteration It is always good programming practice to join tables at application level because if we join tables at database level then there might be performance issue

30. Transparent table pool table and cluster table Transparent Table: Exists with the same structure both in the dictionary and database exactly with same data and fields. its to store transaction data. Its one to one Relation table Pool tables: These are logical tables must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined. Its use to store control data. its many to one relation table

Clustered tables: these also logical tables and must be assigned to table cluster when they are defined. Its also used to store control data, temporary data or text ex., documentation. Its also many to one relation table.

31. Top of page and top of page during line selection Top of page is triggered for the basic list while top of page at line selection triggers at secondary list. 32. Start_form and End_form in sap script start_form function module is called if we want to use different forms with similar characteristics in a single spool request ,it must be closed by END_FORM function module

33. open dataset and close dataset Open dataset is use to read / write file into application server while close dataset is use to close that file.

34. data element and domains Domain gives technical details like length , decimal etc..while data elements gives description and business details

35. set screen and call screen Set screen <no> set the next screen value and temporarily override the next screen value in screen attribute. While call screen <no> jump to the screen specified in <no>.

36. Internal Session and External Session External session is nothing but the window you have opened in your screen .By Default you can open 6 external sessions( 6 windows = you can increase it via basiss setting). Internal session is created when you call any Functional module or any other task in your program. counts for internal sessions are 9.

37. Elementary and collective search help An Elementary Search help defines the flow of a standard input help. It is composed of a selection method that defines where to get the data that will make up the hit list, An interface consisting of search help parameters that define the exchange of data between the screen and the selection method and a dialog type that controls how the hit list will be displayed. A Collective Search help is a combination of several elementary search helps giving the user a different search paths. The interface parameters of the elementary search help are assigned to the parameters of the collective search. 38. What is the difference between Clustered Tables and Pooled Tables? A pooled table is used to combine several logical tables in the ABAP/4 dictionary. Pooled tables are logical tables that must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined. Cluster table are logical tables that must be assigned to a table cluster when they are defined. Cluster table can be used to store control data they can also used to store temporary data or text such as documentation.

39. user exits and customer exit. User exit is sap defined includes so to modify it we need key from SAP.while customer exit like function exit , screen exit we dont need any key.

40. sapscript smart forms and adobe forms Sapscript is client dependent whereas smartform is client independent. Main window is compulsory in scripts whereas main window not compulsory in form. Smartform output can be seen in web while in scripts it is not possible. smartform generates function module while scripts dont generate function module.

41. screen and subscreens in module pool. Screen has its own gui status while subscreen does not have any gui status.Subscreens are part of main screen.

42. standard table and hashed tables. Standard table can be accessed by key as well as index while You can only access hashed tables by specifying the key. The system has its own hash algorithm for managing the table.

ABAP Interview Questions : The Massive List

Important Question 1: What is the difference between User Exit and Function Exit?

User Exit User exit is implemented in the form of a Subroutine i.e. PERFORM xxx. Example: INCLUDE MVF5AFZZ PERFORM userexit_save_document_prepare.

Customer Exit A customer exit can be implemented as: Function exit Screen Exit Menu Exit Field Exit Example: CALL Customer function xxx INCLUDE xxx. You modify this include. You have access only to the importing, exporting, changing and tables parameter of the Function Module. So you have limited access to data. A customer exit is considered an enhancement. You do not need access key. Changes are upgrade compatible. Customer exits came later and they overcome the shortcomings of User Exit. To activate a function exit, you need to create a project in SMOD and activate the project. RFC

In case of a PERFORM, you have access to almost all the data. So you have better control, but more risk of making the system unstable. User exit is considered a modification and not an enhancement. You need Access Key for User Exit. Changes are lost in case of an upgrade. User exit is the earliest form of change option offered by SAP. No such thing is required here.
What is the difference between RFC and BAPI?


Just as Google offers Image/Chart/Map APIs OR Facebook offers APIs for Comment/Like, SAP offers APIs in the form of BAPIs. BAPI is a library of function modules released by SAP to the public so that they can interface with SAP. There is a Business Object Associated with a BAPI. So a BAPI has an Interface, Key Field, Attributes, Methods, and Events. Outside world (JAVA, VB, .Net or any Non SAP system) can connect to SAP using a BAPI. Error or Success messages are returned in a RETURN table.

RFC is nothing but a remote enabled function module. So if there is a Function Module in SAP system 1 on server X , it can be called from a SAP system 2 residing on server Y.

No Business Object is associated with a RFC.

NonSAP world cannot connect to SAP using RFC. RFC does not have a return table.

Question 3:What is the difference between SAPSCRIPT and SMARTFORM?

SAPSCRIPT SAPSCRIPT is client dependent. SAPSCRIPT does not generate any Function module. Main Window is must. SAPSCRIPT can be converted to SMARTFORMS. Use Program SF_MIGRATE. Only one Page format is possible Such thing is not possible in SCRIPT. PROTECT ENDPROTECT command is used for Page protection.

SMARTFORM SMARTFORM is client independent. SMARTFORM generates a Function Module when activated. You can create a SMARTFORM without a Main Window. SMARTFORMS cannot be converted to SCRIPT. Multiple page formats are possible. You can create multiple copies of a SMARTFORM using the Copies Window. The Protect Checkbox can be ticked for Page Protection.

The way SMARTFORM is developed and the way in which SCRIPT is developed is entirely different. Not listing down those here. That would be too much. Question 4:What is the difference between Call Transaction Method and the Session method ?

Session Method Session method id generally used when the data volume is huge.

Call Transaction Call transaction method is when the data volume is low

Session method is slow as compared to Call transaction. SAP Database is updated when you process the sessions. You need to process the sessions separately via SM35. Errors are automatically handled during the processing of the batch input session. BAPI BAPI is faster than BDC. BAPI directly updates database. No such processing options are available in BAPI. BAPI would generally used for small data uploads. For processing errors, the Return Parameters for BAPI should be used.This parameter returns exception messages or success messages to the calling program. Macro Macro can be called only in the program it is defined. Macro can have maximum 9 parameters. Macro can be called only after its definition. A macro is defined inside: DEFINE . END-OF-DEFINITION.

Call Transaction method is relatively faster than Session method. SAP Database is updated during the execution of the batch input program. Errors should be handled in the batch input program. BDC BDC is relatively slower than BAPI. BDC goes through all the screens as a normal user would do and hence it is slower. Background and Foreground processing options are available for BDC. BDCs would be preferred for large volumes of data upload since background processing option is available. Errors can be processed in SM35 for session method and in the batch input program for Call Transaction method.

Question 5: What is the difference between BDC and BAPI?

Question 6: What is the difference between macro and subroutine?

Subroutine Subroutine can be called from other programs also. Can have any number of parameters. This is not true for Subroutine. Subroutine is defined inside: FORM .. .. ENDFORM.

Macro is used when same thing is to be done in Subroutine is used for modularization. a program a number of times.
Question 7: What is the difference between SAP memory and ABAP memory?

SAP Memory When you are using the SET/GET Parameter ID command, you are using the SAP Memory. SAP Memory is User Specific. What does this mean?The data stored in SAP memory can be accesses via any session from a terminal.

ABAP Memory When you are using the EXPORT IMPORT Statements, you are using the ABAP Memory. ABAP Memory is User and Transaction Specific.What does this mean? The data stored in ABAP memory can be accessed only in one session. If you are creating another session, you cannot use ABAP memory.

Important Question 8: What is the difference between AT SELECTION-SCREEN and AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT? AT SELECTION-SCREEN is the PAI of the selection screen whereas AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT is the PBO of the selection screen. Question 9: What is the difference between SY-INDEX and SY-TABIX? Remember it this way TABIX = Table. So when you are looping over an internal table, you use SY-TABIX. When you use DO ENDDO / WHILE for looping, there is no table involved. So you use SY-INDEX. For READ statement, SY-INDEX is used. Question 10: What is the difference between VIEW and a TABLE?A table physically stores data. A view does not store any data on its own. It can contain data from multiple tables and it just accesses/reads data from those tables. Question 11: What is the difference between Customizing and Workbench request?A workbench request is client independent whereas a Customizing request is client dependent. Changes to development objects such as Reports, Function Modules, Data Dictionary objects etc. fall under Workbench requests. Changes in SPRO / IMG that define system behavior fall under customizing requests. An example would be defining number ranges in SPRO. In short, generally a developer would end up creating a Workbench request and a Functional Consultant would create a Customizing request. Question 12: What is the difference between PASS BY VALUE and PASS BY REFERENCE? These concepts are generally used for Function modules or Subroutines etc. and their meaning can be taken literally. Say we are passing a variable lv_var: CALL FUNCTION DEMO_FM EXPORTING VAR = lv_var.

When we PASS lv_var by VALUE , the actual value of lv_var is copied into VAR. When we PASS lv_var by REFERENCE , the reference or the memory address of lv_var is passed to the Function module. So VAR and lv_var will refer to the same memory address and have the same value. Question 13: What is the difference between Master data and Transaction data? Master data is data that doesnt change often and is always needed in the same way by business. Ex: One time activities like creating Company Codes, Materials, Vendors, Customers etc. Transaction data keeps on changing and deals with day to day activities carried out in business. Transactions done by or with Customers, Vendors, and Materials etc. generate Transaction Data. So data related to Sales, Purchases, Deliveries, Invoices etc. represent transaction data Some important transactions here for Master Data: Material: MM01 MM02 MM03 Vendor: XK01 , XK02 , XK03 Customer: Xd01 , XD02 , XD03 Some Important transactions for Transaction data: Purchase Order: ME21n , ME22n , ME23n Sales Order: VA01 , VA02 , VA03 Goods Receipt: MIGO Invoices: MIRO Important Question 14: What will you use SELECT SINGLE or SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS ? What will you use SELECT SINGLE or SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS ? There is great confusion over this in the SAP arena. If you Google, you will see lots of results that will say SELECT SINGLE is faster and efficient than SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS. But that is 100% incorrect. SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS is faster than SELECT SINGLE. If for a WHERE condition, only one record is present in DB, then both are more or less same. However, If for a WHERE condition multiple records are present in DB, SELECT UPTO 1 ROWS will perform better than SELECT SINGLE. Question 15: What is the difference between .Include Structure and .Append structure? I have seen ridiculous answers for this at many places on the Web. The true answer is this: Lets say you want to use the Structure X in your table Y. With .Include X, you can include this structure in multiple tables. With .Append X, you specify that structure X has been used in table Y and that this cannot be used in any other table now. So you restrict structure X only to Table Y. Important Question 16: Can you describe the events in ABAP? LOAD-OF-PROGRAM: INITIALIZATION: If you want to initialize some values before selection screen is called AT SELECTION SCREEN OUTPUT: PBO for Selection Screen AT SELECTION SCREEN: PAI for Selection Screen START-OF-SELECTION

END-OF-SELECTION TOP-OF-PAGE END-OF-PAGE AT USER-COMMAND: When user click on say buttons in application toolbar. SY-UCOMM AT LINE SELECTION: Double click by user on basic list. SY-LISEL AT PF##: When User Presses any of the Function Keys TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE SELECTION Question 17: What events do you know in Module Pool Programming? PBO: you know this . If not you should know this . Thats basic. PAI: You know this. If not you should know this . Thats basic. POV: Process on Value request i.e. when you press F4. POH: Process on help request i.e. when you press F1. Question 18: Can you show multiple ALVs on a Single Screen? Yes, there are multiple ways of doing this: If you are using OOALV, you can create multiple custom containers (cl_gui_custom_container) & put an ALV control (cl_gui_alv_grid) in each of those. You can even use a Splitter container control and place multiple ALVs in each of the split container. If you are using Normal ALV, You can use the following FMS: 1. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_INIT 2. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_APPEND 3. REUSE_ALV_BLOCK_LIST_DISPLAY Question 19: A system has two clients 100 and 500 on the same application server. If you make changes to a SAPSCRIPT on client 100, will the changes be available in client 500? No. SAPSCRIPT is client dependent. You will have to transport changes from client 100 to client 500. However, for SMARTFORMS, Changes will be made both for client 100 and client 500. Question 20: There are 1000s of IDOCs in your system and say you no longer need some of them? How will you get rid of those IDOCs? One way is to archive the IDOCs using transaction SARA. But what the interviewer was expecting was How do you change IDoc Status? There are different ways of doing this: A) Use FM IDOC_STATUS_WRITE_TO_DATABASE B) USE FMs: EDI_DOCUMENT_OPEN_FOR_PROCESS and EDI_DOCUMENT_CLOSE_PROCESS Question 21: What is the difference between CHAIN ENDCHAIN and FIELD commands in Module Pool? If you want to validate a single field in Module Pool, you use the FIELD Command. On error, this single filed is kept open for input.

If you however want to validate multiple fields, you can use the CHAIN ENDCHAIN command. You specify multiple fields between CHAIN and ENDCHAIN. On error, all fields between CHAIN ENDCHAIN are kept open for input. Question 22: What are the types of Function Modules? What is an UPDATE function module?There are three types of Function Modules: Normal , RFC , UPDATE. The aim of the Update function module is either to COMMIT all changes to database at once or to ROLLBACK all the changes. By definition, an update function module is used to bundle all the updates in your system in one LUW (logical unit of work). This FM is called whenever COMMIT WORK statement is encountered in the calling program and the way you call it is CALL FUNCTION XXX IN UPDATE TASK. Have a look at FM EDI_DOCUMENT_CLOSE_PROCESS_UPD and do a where used. This FM is used as Update FM in case you make changes to IDoc contents/status via your program. Question 23: How is the table sorted when you do not specify field name and Ascending or Descending? On what criteria will the table be sorted? Do internal table have keys? Yes, internal table have keys. The default key is made up of the non-numeric fields of the table line in the order in which they occur. Question 24: Explain what is a foreign key relationship?Explain this with the help of an example. Lets discuss about tables EKKO (PO header) and EKPO (PO line item). Can you have an entry in table EKPO without having an entry in table EKKO? In other words can you have PO line items without the PO header? How does this happen? The answer is foreign key relationship. So foreign keys come into picture when you define relationship between two tables. Foreign keys are defined at field level. Check the foreign key relation for field EBELN of table EKPO. The check table is EKKO. This just means that whenever an entry is made in EKPO, it is checked whether the entered value for EBELN already exists in EKKO. If not, entry cannot be made to EKPO table. Question 25 : What is the difference between a value table and a check table? Check table is maintained when you define foreign key relationships. For Check table, read question above. . Value table is defined and maintained at a domain level. At a domain level, you can mention allowed values in the form of: 1) Single values 2) Ranges 3) Value tableFor example, have a look at domain SHKZG. Only allowed values are S and H for Debit/Credit indicator. Whenever and wherever you use this domain, the system will force you to use only these two values: S and H. Another example is domain MATNR. For this domain the value table is MARA. So whenever and wherever, you use this domain the system will force you to use values for MATNR in table MARA. Question 26: How do you find BAPI?Approach1: You can go to Transaction BAPI and then search for your desired object.

Say you want to find a BAPI for creating users in the system, in such case you can search for the User and find the relevant BAPIs. Approach2: Another way is to find a Business Object. Say you want to find a BAPI for creating Material in SAP and you know the BO for Material is BUS1001006. You can go to Transaction SWO1 and enter the BO BUS1001006 in the BOR. Then have a look at the methods for this BO.

Important Question 27: How do you find BADI? Approach1: Go to Class CL_EXITHANDLER in SE24 > Put a breakpoint in method GET_INSTANCE.Now go and execute your transaction code for which you want to find BADI. You will find the BADI in the changing parameter exit_name: Approach 2: Go to Tcode SE84 Enhancements BADIs Definitions. Find the package for the Tcode for which you are finding the BADI. Enter it as shown and hit execute: Are we done yet ? Definitely not ! Let the questions come and lets keep on updating this blog. I will update the blog with the following questions soon: Question: Synchronous and asynchronous methods in BDC ? Question: What is the difference between inner joins and outer joins? Question: What is the difference between INSTANCE methods and STATIC methods? Question: What is the difference between Implicit Enhancements and Explicit Enhancements? Question: What is the difference between Enhancement point and Enhancement Section? Question: How do you find Function Exit? Question: How do you activate a Function Exit?

SAP ALE IDocs interview questions and answers

ALE IDocs in SAP

ALE IDocs in SAP is a lot about configuration and a lot about Tcodes . So if you have worked on at least one end to end scenario in ALE IDocs in SAP , you probably already have answers to a lot of questions. Cheers!! But if you havent , make sure you do this exercise. There are plenty of step by step guides to ALE IDocs available on the internet . Make sure you read one understand it all the way . Sending IDoc from client 800 to say client 810 on the same server is easy . If possible ,Try an exercise in which you send an IDoc from one system to another system. Lets get started . Hope you get some value in these pages

Question 1: What is ALE ? ALE stands for Application Link Enabling. As its name indicates , it links two systems. ALE is a technology that can enable exchange of data between two different Systems ( Sap Sap OR Sap Non Sap). ALE technology enables distributed yet integrated installation of SAP systems. ALE architecture comprises of 3 layers : Application layer refers to the application data ( SD , MM , FI or data for any SAP application ) . In this layer the data is collected to be distributed and then sent to the distribution layer. Distribution layer determines to whom should the data generated by the application layer has to be distributed i.e. it is in the distribution layer that the recipient is determined , the data is formatted or filtered and then an actual is created. Communication layer takes the responsibility of delivering the Idoc to the receiving system and communicates to the receiving system via tRFC , File ports , FTP or TCP/IP etc. ALE uses IDoc as a vehicle to transfer data between two systems. Question 2: What is EDI ? EDI stands for Electronic Data Interchange. It refers to the electronic exchange of business data in a structured format between two systems. The EDI subsystem generally converts the Idoc data into one of the many EDI formats and generates an EDI file in an X12 format. The middleware then translates the X12 file to an IDOC format and the IDOC is sent to the SAP system. Question 3: What is an Idoc? What is IDoc Type? What is an IDoc Extension ? An IDoc (Intermediate document) is a vehicle that is used to transfer data from one system to another. IDoc is not a technology of some sort , but it is just a container that holds data . It holds data in a structured format i.e. in the Fields of the Segments. IDoc Type vs. IDoc: An IDoc Type is nothing but a collection of one or more structures defined in a system with specific fields. It does not hold Data. However, an IDoc is something that holds the values in the fields of the structure defined by IDOC type. The transaction code to view an IDoc type (Basic and extension) is WE30. Examples: ORDERS04, DEBMAS04, MATMAS04, CREMAS04. These are all SAP standard Basic IDoc Types. You can even have an IDoc extension in which you can use the existing Basic IDoc type and add extra segments and fields to it. Usually we extend an IDoc when the standard SAP IDoc type is not able to cater to the business process. Question 4: What are the types of records in SAP ALE Idocs and where is this information stored ? There are three types of records in SAP ALE Idocs: Control Records: Control record information for an IDoc is stored in standard table EDIDC. Data Records: Control record information for an IDoc is stored in standard table EDIDD. Status Records: Control record information for an IDoc is stored in standard table EDIDS. Question 5: What is an Idoc status? What are the different types of Idoc statuses that you know ? When an IDoc is sent from one system to another , it goes through variuos stages.The IDoc status indicates the stage that the Idoc in currently in. There about 75 IDoc statuses.There is no way you can remember those all . Dont even try to ! You will probably remember only those on which you have worked . But here are a few that you should know: 0-49 indicates an Outbound IDoc and 50-75 as Inbound IDoc.

01 IDoc generated 02 Error passing data to port 03 Data passed to port OK 51 Application document not posted 52 Application document not fully posted 53 Application document posted Question 6: What is a Port ? What are the types of Ports ? A port is a communication channel through which Messages can be sent or received in SAP . The sender and the receiver both specify the port through which they will communicate. The common port types are the TRFC Port and the File Port. If both sender and receiver mention TRFC ports, data is exchanged via RFC connections. If however , a file port is mentioned , the IDOC is written in a flat file at the specified location at the sender system.Then a FTP transfer should be done from that location to the receiver system or a Middleware that will send the file to the receiver system. The transaction to maintain ports is WE21. Question 7: What is a Message type and Idoc Type ? What is the difference between Message type and an IDoc type? A Message type and an IDoc type are closely related . In fact, you will find that a Message type is always associated with an IDoc type.Whereas an IDoc type is a detailed version with all the segments and fields , a Message type is used just to specify the kind of information that a system can send or receive to or from another system. So If system SAP1 has a Partner Profile where it specifies MATMAS as an outbound message type , it just means that SAP1 can send material master data to say system SAP2. If system SAP1 has a Partner Profile where it specifies MATMAS as an inbound message type , it just means that SAP1 can receive material master data from say system SAP2. What all fields can be sent and received will be specified in the IDoc type. Some other message types: DEBMAS( Customers), CREMAS(Vendors) belong to the Master data. The link between a message Type and an IDoc type is maintained in Tcode WE82. Question 8: What is a partner profile ? What are the types of partner profiles ? To be able to communicate with a partner via an IDoc interface, each system needs to maintain a partner profile. A partner profile is a mechanism by which the system can specify what kind of messages (message types) it can send or receive. Partner profiles can be maintained in WE20. Question 9: What is a distribution model in ALE IDocs ? The distribution model describes how ALE messages flow between different logical systems. You can mention the sender and receiver logical systems, the message type to be distributed and also distribute data(IDocs) based on certain conditions by using the distribution model. The ALE layer uses the distribution model to control which systems will receive the information(IDocs) and also filter the data based on certain conditions. Distribution Models can be created and maintained in transaction BD64. Question 10: What are process codes ? I dont want to make this post too big . So, I will stop here for the time being.

More interview questions on ALE IDocs :

Question 11:How do you read data from an IDoc in a program ? Question 12:How do you send Idoc from a program ? Question 13:How do you achieve filtering in a distribution model ? Question 14:Can I create a flat file from an IDOC ? If Yes , How ? Question 15:You want to create and send an IDOC to another the moment a PO is created in your system . How will you achieve this ? Question 16:How to Reprocess Idocs in SAP? Question 17:What is a change Pointer? Question 18:What is serialization of Idocs? Question 19:Important tcodes in ALE Idocs. Question 20:Important programs in ALE Idocs:

BDC Interview Questions

What is BDC and why do we use BDC ? BDC ( Batch Data Communication ) also known as batch input is a technique by which large volumes of data can be transferred from Non Sap or Legacy systems to SAP systems.

Example: A Legacy system that is to be replaced by SAP has say 1000 Customers , 2000 vendors and 3000 materials. All this data needs to be transferred to SAP . In such cases , We can use BDC. If the old system is replaced by SAP, such a transfer is called Conversion. If the old system runs along with SAP, in that case the transfer is called an Interface. The two methods for BDC are: Session Method Call TRANSACTION Method CALL DIALOG (Outdated)

ABAP interview questions on BDC:

Important: Question 1:What is the difference between Call Transaction Method and the Session method ?

Session Method

Call Transaction

Session method id generally used when the data volume is huge. Session method is slow as compared to Call transaction. SAP Database is updated when you process the sessions. You need to process the sessions separately via SM35. Errors are automatically handled during the processing of the batch input session.

Call transaction method is when the data volume is low Call Transaction method is relatively faster than Session method. SAP Database is updated during the execution of the batch input program. Errors should be handled in the batch input program.

Important: Question 2: How do you do BDC for a table control?With other things as usual, there is a special trick that you have to use while doing BDC for table control. You need to use the BDC OKCODE =P+. Its the BCD_OKCODE for Page down that can be used for scrolling down in table control. Important: Question3: Is there any method apart from BDC for data upload to SAP? Apart from BDC and LSMW, you can use BAPIs to upload data into SAP. BAPIs should be preferred over BDCs, because they process data faster than BDC. A BAPI is faster since it updates Database directly. Whereas BDC calls transaction and goes through the whole screen sequence as any user would do.

BAPI BAPI is faster than BDC. BAPI directly updates database. No such processing options are available in BAPI. BAPI would generally used for small data uploads. For processing errors, the Return Parameters for BAPI should be used.This parameter returns exception messages or success messages to the calling program.

BDC BDC is relatively slower than BAPI. BDC goes through all the screens as a normal user would do and hence it is slower. Background and Foreground processing options are available for BDC. BDCs would be preferred for large volumes of data upload since background processing option is available. Errors can be processed in SM35 for session method and in the batch input program for Call Transaction method.

Question 4: How do you process errors in Call Transaction method ? Lets have a look at the syntax for CALL TRANSACTION method. Sample code: DATA: BEGIN OF G_T_MESSTAB OCCURS 0. INCLUDE STRUCTURE BDCMSGCOLL. DATA: END OF G_T_MESSTAB.

CALL TRANSACTION MB11 USING G_T_BDCDATA MODE E UPDATE S MESSAGES INTO G_T_MESSTAB. All the error messages will be trapped inside G_T_MESSTAB. Question 5: What is the use of program RSBDCSUB? There are two ways to process the BDC sessions: 1) Go to SM35 > Choose session > hit process. Now See Question no. 10. 2) Use program RSBDCSUB. RSBDCSUB schedules the session to be processed in background. Lets take an example to understand this. The sessions are created at one point of time and processed at other point of time and this may create a problem: For example: a BDC program creates a session for updating 1500 customers in SAP. However , before this session is processed via SM35 , a user inserts 100 customers in the system manually. In this case , the session will have at least 100 errors when the session is processed from SM35. One way to avoid this is to use the program RSBDCSUB in the batch input program itself so that the session is processed as soon as it is created. RSBDCSUB schedules the session to be processed in background. Question 6: What is the structure of the BDC table? The BDCDATA consists of the following fields: PROGRAM [CHAR 40] Online program name. DYNPRO [NUMC 4] Screen number. DYNBEGIN [CHAR 1] Flag to indicate the start of a new screen. FNAM [CHAR 132] Field name of a screen field to be filled with data. FVAL [CHAR 132] The actual value to be filled into the specified screen field. Sample Screenshot:

BDCDATA table structure

Question 7: What is the difference between BDC_OKCODE and BDC_CURSOR? BDC_OKCODE: is used for storing commands during the recording. like /00 is the command for ENTER Key. BDC_CURSOR: contains the cursor position. it contians the field in which cursor will be. Example code: perform bdc_field using BDC_CURSOR PROJ-PSPID. perform bdc_field using BDC_OKCODE =BU. Question 8: What are the 3 methods that we use in sequence in a Batch input session method ? 1) BDC_OPEN_GROUP for opening the Batch Input Session 2) BDC_INSERT for inserting the transactional data into SAP 3) BDC_CLOSE_GROUP for closing the Batch Input Session

If there are n records , the BDC_INSERT method should be called n times. BDC_OPEN_GROUP and BDC_CLOSE_GROUP are called only once. General Information about a session is stored in table APQI. Transaction data for a session is stored in table APQD. Question 9: What is your approach for writing a BDC program? Identify the Tcode and do the recording in SHDB to populate the BDCDATA.

Once the recording is done , one can Transfer it to the Batch input program.

In the batch Input program , The transactional data is read from the file to an internal table. Then one can loop over the transactional data in the internal table and start uploading the data in SAP either by CALL TRANSACTION method or by creating sessions through the batch input program. Question 10: How do you process errors in Session method ? You can go to Transaction SM35 , Choose the session name and click on Process. Question 11: What are the different modes of processing batch input sessions?

The three modes are: Foreground Display Errors Only Background

Question 12: What is the difference between Synchronous and Asynchronous Update ? In Synchronous update , the database is updated before the next transaction is taken for processing in a batch input. In Asynchronous update , the system doesnt wait for updating the database before the next transaction is taken for processing in a batch input. Question 13: What is the transaction for Recording BDC ? The Tcode is SHDB. Question 14: How do you read files from the Application server ? You can use the commands: OPEN DATASET > opens the file(dataset) either in read /write mode. READ DATASET > Read the file CLOSE DATASET > Close the dataset once the date has been read . Question 15: How do you read files from the presentation server ? You can use the Function Modules : GUI_UPLOAD > To read data from file into an internal table GUI_DOWNLOAD > To write data from internal table to a file on presentation server