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The Study of Biology: A Life Science

BIOLOGY Biology is simply the study of life. Biology is concerned with all living things. Every one is study of a group of organism. The study of living organisms (their cellular basis, structures, energy metabolism and growth, typical activities, and genetic bases of inheritance). Some biologists also believe in Darwins theory of Evolution, but many scientists today question the validity of evolutionary mechanisms and relationships. Biology draws on its sister sciences of chemistry and physics and regularly applies the disciplines and foundational principles of these other fields of study to itself. Biology is the study of living beings i.e. life. Actually the study of life processes is called Life Science. Biology itself means the study or science of life. Life Science (Biology) studies the structural and functional organization of living organisms and their relationships to each other and the environment. There are many branches of biology. The science of biology itself can be divided into several special sub-disciplines and practical and theoretical categories:

PRACTICAL BIOLOGY: Farming, Forestry, Plant Breeding (Horticulture), Wildlife Management, Medical Science, and Zoology. THEORETICAL BIOLOGY: Physiology, Biochemistry, Ecology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Taxonomy, etc. FIELDS OF STUDY IN BIOLOGY There are many branches of biology, as it is really it covers a big part of science.
Biology is divided into several branches. This division can be made in at least three different ways. A. Main divisions of Biology

Botany - The scientific study of plants, including their growth, structure, physiology, reproduction, and pathology, as well as their economic use and cultivation by humans.

I. The Study of Biology: A Life Science Zoology The scientific study of animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals. Taxonomy the science of naming, grouping and classifying plants and animals. It is called Systematic. Genetics The scientific study of the principles of heredity and the variation of inherited traits among related organisms. Anatomy the study of gross structure of an organism as seen in dissection.

Medicine The scientific study or practice of diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases/illness/injury or disorders of the body or mind of a person or animal. Human Biology The study of man as a living organism and his relationship with other living organisms the study of man and human society comes under Anthropology. B. Principal sub-divisions of Biology in terms of special groups of organisms. Bacteriology the study of bacteria. Virology the study of viruses. Mycology the study of fungi. Entomology the study of insects. Ichthyology the study of fishes. Anthology the Study of Flowers Herpetology the study of lizards, snakes etc. Ornithology the study of birds.

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Principal sub-division of Biology in terms of approach on studying it. Angiology Deals with the Study of Blood Vascular System Anthropology the Study of Apes and Man

Morphology the study of form and structure of plants and animals. It includes essentially the understanding and interpretation of structure. Histology the study of minute structure of time bits of the body as seen with the help of a compound microscope. Study of the structure of the tissues of an organism. Cytology the study of structure and function of animal and plant cells. 2

I. The Study of Biology: A Life Science Cardiology - the study of Heart Physiology the study of functions and activities of organisms and their parts.

Embryology the study of formation and development of embryo of plants and animals. Studies the developmental patterns of organisms from zygote to birth. Dermatology the study of Skin

Ecology the study of the relationship of an organism to both its living and non living environment. Ethology the study of animal behavior Etiology the study cause of disease Floriculture the study of Flower Yielding Plants Gerontology the Study of Growing Old Gynaecology the Study of Female Reproductive Organ Haematology the study of Blood Hepatology the study of Liver Mycology the study of Fungi Myology the study of Muscles Nephrology the study of Kidneys Neurology the study of Nervous System Ophthalmology the study of Eyes Osteology the study of Bones Biogeography the study of geographical distribution of plants and animals.

Paleontology the study of prehistoric forms of life through fossils of plants and animals. Genetics the study of heredity and variations. The sciences of the transmission of body characteristics from parents to offspring. Parasitology the study of parasites, the organisms that live on or inside other organisms and draw nourishment from the hosts. 3

I. The Study of Biology: A Life Science Pathology the study of diseases of plants and animals. Pedology the study of Soils Pathology the study of Disease causing Organisms Phycoloy the study of Algae Pomology the study of fruits Serpentology the study of Snakes

Immunology the science that deals with the phenomena and causes of immunity (resistance to or defend against diseases) Eugenics the science which aims to improve the human race through controlled heredity. Biochemistry the study of chemicals and reaction that take place inside the living things. One of its numerous applications is DNA fingerprinting. Applied Biology Biology has enormous applications in other branches of science. It forms an important part of the following Agriculture raising crops and livestock (cow, buffalo etc) Apiculture the Honey Industry (Bee Keeping) Physiography the study Natural Phenomenon Veterinary Science treatment and surgery of animals. Marine Biology study of life in the sea.

Household Biology study of household animals, insects etc, including how to prevent damage to our own body and to our belongings. Horticulture science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers or ornamental plants. Sericulture technique of producing silk by raising silkworms (Culture of Silk Moth and Pupa). Silk Industry Pisciculture the technique of growing fish. Molecular Biology interpreting biological events in terms of molecules in the cell. Developmental biology the process by which organisms grow & develop

I. The Study of Biology: A Life Science Evolutionary biology concerned with the origin & descent of species

Biotechnology the application of biological processes in technology. It includes areas such as biogas production, food processing, genetic engineering, antibiotic production, extracting of extracellular enzymes used as bio-detergents in laundry washing powders, vaccine production, anti bodies, tissue culture etc. Cloning it is a rapidly advancing branch of biotechnology. Several animals have been cloned in which a body cell is used with no involvement of the male sperms. It also includes modifying crops easier to grow and improving their quality. Bioengineering which includes techniques like the making of artificial limbs, joints and other parts of the body from metals or plastic etc? It also includes modifying crops easier to grow and improving their food quality. Obstetrics the branch of Medicine Dealing with Pregnancy

Genomics the study of genomes as opposed to individual genes. Genome is the entire DNA sequence of an organism. Bioinformatics management and analysis of biological information stored in databases. Biometrics the verification of a person by his certain body features such as the patter of iris in the eye and behavioral characteristics.