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Hydrological Sciences Journal
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Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage
Sai Hin Lai & Darrien Yau Seng Mah
a a b
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia Version of record first published: 11 Jun 2012
To cite this article: Sai Hin Lai & Darrien Yau Seng Mah (2012): Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57:6, 1249-1255 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2012.692016
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Hydrological Sciences Journal – Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques. Key words drainage. Shamsudin et al.tandfonline.1080/02626667. Cheng 2008. maximum depth of 32 cm. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage.88 m3 . L’étude a porté sur la capacité d’inﬁltration de ce bassin artiﬁciel et les résultats montrent qu’il a un taux d’inﬁltration moyen de 125 mm/h et se vidange en 330 min pour une profondeur de 31 mm.my 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering. for dry ponds there is generally a lack of performance data (Hatt et al. D.S. open for discussion until 1 February 2013 Editor D. 2012. The pond has a surface area of 195 m2 .doi. stormwater. 2005.. Cet article s’intéresse aux mesures sur le terrain d’un bassin d’inﬁltration situé dans un hôpital de la ville de Taiping qui a bien fonctionné pendant cinq ans. 57 (6). These results can lead to better understanding of the system and allow duplication of such a drainage design elsewhere.88 m3 . wet ponds are reported extensively in the literature (e. Malaysia Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 16:56 01 August 2012 Received 12 April 2010. Un modèle hydrologique du domaine public a ensuite été utilisé pour simuler les hydrogrammes du bassin et du drainage. In urban stormwater management. et sa capacité de stockage de 31. ﬁeld observation.org/10. 2009). 2010. accepted 19 October 2011. temporarily hold and gradually release a volume of stormwater runoff to attenuate ﬂow and to prevent ﬂash ﬂooding (Hussain et al. Malaysia laish@um. This paper investigates ﬁeld measurement of a dry pond at Taiping Health Clinic. Harrell and Ranjithan 2003. Zakaria 2007). the results of which matched observations with 86–98% accuracy. Sarawak. Ces résultats permettent de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement du système et de concevoir ailleurs des systèmes analogues. Malaysia that has been functioning well for ﬁve years. The study focused on the inﬁltration functionality of the constructed dry pond and the results show that it has an average inﬁltration rate of 125 mm/h and dries up in 330 min after being ﬁlled to a depth of 31 mm.edu.Y. However. Frma and Waarab 2005. Hydrological Sciences Journal . It is designed to capture. bassin d’inﬁltration. and a storage capacity of 31. 2003. dry pond.H. on-site detention. observation sur le terrain. This Technical Note presents the results obtained from a ﬁeld study ISSN 0262-6667 print/ISSN 2150-3435 online © 2012 IAHS Press http://dx. S.2012. Faculty of Engineering. University of Malaya. dont les résultats correspondent aux observations avec une précision de 86 à 98%. Hancock et al. 2011). Koutsoyiannis Citation Lai. A public-domain hydrological model was then employed to simulate hydrographs of ponding and draining. Perak. 94300 Kota Samarahan. Mots clefs drainage. Faculty of Engineering. 50603 Kuala Lumpur.com . and Mah.g. Le bassin a une surface de 195 m2 . Abstract A dry pond is an urban drainage component designed to temporarily store stormwater runoff and to encourage inﬁltration of surface water to the subsurface layer. 2006. sa profondeur maximale est de 32 cm. 1249–1255. 57(6) 2012 1249 TECHNICAL NOTE Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage Sai Hin Lai1 and Darrien Yau Seng Mah2 Department of Civil Engineering.692016 http://www. Kamphorst et al. Zakaria et al. conçue pour stocker temporairement les eaux de ruissellement et pour favoriser leur inﬁltration. hydrologie urbaine 1 INTRODUCTION A dry detention pond is an on-site detention (OSD) facility that is normally dry or empty when not in operation. eaux pluviales. urban hydrology Etude de terrain d’un bassin d’inﬁltration avec stockage souterrain Résumé Un bassin d’inﬁltration est une composante du drainage urbain. site de stockage.
i. simulating the natural hydrological cycle in urban areas by combining inﬁltration.1250 Sai Hin Lai and Darrien Yau Seng Mah and computer simulations to further explore the functionality of a dry pond. designed according to the much encouraged Urban Stormwater Management Manual (SWMM) produced by the Malaysian Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID 2000).83 ha) in Larut Matang district of Perak in 2005. based on its ability to model incremental and cumulative inﬁltration founded upon physically-based soil parameters. 2. with diameter in the range 3–10 mm. 1) was constructed by the Public Works Department of the Government of Malaysia on an area of approximately 7 acres (approx. In this context. to facilitate inﬁltration of stormwater from the pond to a subsurface detention storage (see Fig. Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 16:56 01 August 2012 3 METHODOLOGY The engineering design of the dry pond concentrates on its inﬁltration ability. retarded ﬂow. as well as runoff treatment techniques. the Green-Ampt equation were selected to quantify inﬁltration in this study. 1 Dry pond in Taiping Health Clinic. response to rainfall and drying-up period. and (b) after saturation (Mein and Larson 1973). The ground surface of the pond is planted with “cow” grass. through a spillway to avoid overﬂow (see Fig. such as the Phi Index. However. NRCS Curve Number (CN) and GreenAmpt equations. The project consists of a public health clinic and a state-of-the-art environmentally friendly drainage system. the actual inﬁltration rate. 5). as shown Fig.62 m2 with a maximum storage of 31. The drainage system uses a “control at source” principle. 3) in less than 24 h. 1). is taken as constant. In the case of more intense rainfall.88 m3 (see Fig. the water in the dry pond will ﬂow directly to a grass swale nearby. . underground detention storage tanks and dry ponds (REDAC 2005). including: storage capacity. while the pond outlet consists of small aggregate (see Fig. 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA A small-scale sustainable urban drainage system (see Fig. f. are available for the computation of inﬁltration. The Green-Ampt equations compute inﬁltration in pervious units in two stages: (a) prior to saturation of the ground surface. For each time increment during which the rainfall intensity. The results may help to guide the design of such a stormwater facility by interested bodies. It has a maximum depth of 320 mm and surface area of 194. is given by: Dry pond Outlet Rainwater from building roof Grassed swale Fig. 4). variation of inﬁltration rate. Among the stormwater facilities provided by the system are: grassed swale. Horton equation. 2. a variety of mathematical methods. detention storage. The dry pond reported in this paper (see Fig. 3) is designed with a storage function both above and below ground to cater for rainfall with an average return interval (ARI) of 10 years.
epa. Generally. 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Several in situ inﬁltration tests were carried out to study the inﬁltration rate in the pond. readings at each observation point were taken initially at 1-min intervals. were collected for the analysis. In order to further explore the functionality of the dry pond. http://www. fp is inﬁltration capacity (mm/h). and Ks is the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil (mm/h). inﬁltration data using double-ring tests. including a 10-year ARI rainfall event (3 January 2010).html). necessary inputs. until the pond was emptied. from July 2009 to March 2010. was employed to execute the underlying mathematics (see Fig. a ﬁeld study was carried out to collect the following: – detailed topographic survey data of the pond and surrounding area. the recorded rainfall data have an accuracy of ±0.5 mm. if F < Fs then f = i and if i > Ks then Fs = S · IMD i KS−1 (1) and if i < Ks then No calculation for Fs if F > Fs then f = fp and fp = Ks S · IMD 1+ F (2) The rainfall and water-level data were collected for a period of 9 months. Detention storage – – On-site stormwater detention (OSD) – Outlet Fig. which included the monsoon season with frequent and heavy rainfall from November to January. In order to provide the model with necessary data. rainfall data—an automatic raingauge was installed in the compound of the study area. and then at 10 min intervals. Fs is the cumulative inﬁltration volume required for ground surface saturation (mm). 6). similar results were obtained.gov/athens/wwqtsc/html/ swmm. water levels in the dry pond (at three locations) measured with a stick gauge to an accuracy of ±0. IMD is the initial moisture deﬁcit of the soil for the rain event (mm/mm). These data are crucial to provide the model with a proper ground model.Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage 1251 Previous areas: landscape area open space Impervious areas: car park paved road Impervious areas: building Perimeter drain Energy dissipator Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 16:56 01 August 2012 Grassed swale where F is the cumulative inﬁltration volume since the beginning of the rain event (mm).5 mm. The project model being developed has a catchment area of 1430 m2 (mainly the rooftop of the clinic building). as well as to provide data for calibration and validation of results from model simulation. to an accuracy of ±0. a public-domain Stormwater Management Model. while the dry pond is considered as a storage unit. constant over the time step (mm/h). 2 Design concept of stormwater water facilities (REDAC 2005). more than ﬁve complete data sets. EPA SWMM 5 (US Environmental Protection Agency. with an equilibrium of . i is rainfall intensity. f is the inﬁltration rate (actual) (mm/h). S is capillary suction at the wetting front (mm of water). Overall.05 mm and a continuous time step of 5 min.
2 0.15 0.35 y = 195. Outlet with aggregate Inlet Fig.1252 Sai Hin Lai and Darrien Yau Seng Mah Closed turfing 1 4 4 200 450 100 100 816 100 1 3mm–10mm φ Gravel 2 × 2 Nos single module enclosed in hydronet Clean river sand Fig. 3 Cross-sectional proﬁle of selected dry pond (REDAC 2005).71x2 + 41.1 0.845x . .05 0.5766 Fig.0. 4 Storage capacity of the dry pond. Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 16:56 01 August 2012 35 30 25 Volume (m3) 20 15 10 5 0 0 –5 Water depth (m) 0. 5 Inlet and outlet of the dry pond.3 0.25 0.
with coefﬁcients of determination.50 Fig.00 2. or whether the rainfall rate is greater/lower than the inﬁltration rate. Generally. and suction head. empty in <24 h). . it is observed that the pond responds fairly well to rainfall. 8).00 0. The data for several rainfall events were obtained for analysis in this study.5 h (see Fig. can be ignored.13 mm/h. This graph shows that the inﬁltration capacity can be represented as a function of time similar to the Horton equation. with the water level achieving a peak when rainfall is at a peak. R2 in the range of 0. the pond was found to dry up through inﬁltration in 5. Among the parameters that are important in simulating the variation of water level in the dry pond are the hydraulic conductivity. while ψ is 55 mm.Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage 1253 Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 16:56 01 August 2012 Fig. fo .131e-0. K . of 3mm/h in all cases.e. of the soil type.86–0. in the range 25.783x 15 10 5 0 0. After ﬁlling to a depth of 31 cm. and initial inﬁltration rate. 7. Such a relationship is useful for the analysis of inﬁltration only if the volume of water inﬁltrated. The results closely match the observed data in most cases in terms of timing and peak depths. 7 Variation of inﬁltration rate in the dry pond. ψ . fc . An example graphical representation of the inﬁltration rate in the pond with combined top soil and river sand types is shown in Fig. 25 Infiltration rate (mm/hr) 20 y = 23. inﬁltration rate.00 Time (hr) 1.78–26.98. which satisﬁes the suggested design criteria (i. Examples of model simulation are depicted in Figs 8 (multiple events) and 9 (single event). 6 Dry pond modelling.50 1.50 2. the calibrated value of K is 125 mm/h. In this case.
1254 (a) 50 Water depth (cm) 40 30 Sai Hin Lai and Darrien Yau Seng Mah 0 5 10 20 10 0 0 50 Time (min) 100 150 Observed 15 20 350 200 250 Simulated 300 Rainfall depth (mm) R2 = 0.0 6. 8 Simulation of event on 3 January 2010: (a) observed and computed water depths with rainfall.0 1. and (b) ﬁt of water depths by steady ﬂow routing. 9 Simulation of event on 29 January 2010: (a) observed and computed water depths with rainfall.0 8.0 5.8607 (b) 35 30 25 Simulated (cm) 20 15 10 5 0 –5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Observed (cm) Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 16:56 01 August 2012 Fig.0 7.0 4. and (b) ﬁt of water depths by steady ﬂow routing.0 11.0 12. (a) 50 45 40 Water depth (cm) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time (min) 100 120 140 160 180 0.0 3. Rainfall depth (mm) Rainfall depth (mm) .98 25 20 Simulated (cm) 15 10 5 0 0 –5 5 10 15 Observed (cm) 20 25 30 Fig.0 2.0 10.0 200 Observed Simulated Rainfall depth (mm) (b) 30 R2 = 0.0 9.
K . alternatively. Maidment. C. Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater bioﬁltration systems at the ﬁeld scale. S. 2005... and River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre (REDAC) for their permission to conduct the research work in these premises and for technical assistance... Document no. Shamsudin..M..5 h.. Detention pond design and land use planning for watershed management. 19. 310–321. REDAC. International Journal of River Basin Management. Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 16:56 01 August 2012 Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the Government of Malaysia for the ﬁnancial support from Universiti Sains Malaysia through the Short Term grant no. Water Resources Research. The maximum capacity of the dry pond was found to be at 31.A. Malaysia: River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre. ISBN 978-983-861-352-1. Zakaria. 98–106. and University of Malaya through the UMRG grant no. Journal of Hydrology.S. 51–58. N. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management.A. In: Urban stormwater management manual for Malaysia. the pond dried up through inﬁltration in less than 5. A.F. Y. et al.. Perak [online].Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage 1255 5 CONCLUSIONS A public-domain hydrological model was adopted to simulate the emptying of a dry pond by inﬁltration processes.. 129 (2). 2011. and Larson. 237–251. B. 1998. 2005. river pollution and water shortage. and Darom. Chow.. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.. and Chambers. 304/REDAC/6035263.htm [Accessed 23 March 2010]. Treatment of stormwater using a detention pond and constructed ﬁlters. Sustainable urban drainage system. On-site detention. 384–394. 2007. et al.W. Determination of detention pond sediment loads using Monte Carlo simulation.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2008)134:5(606). C. 9. to continue simulations to evaluate the emptying capacity of other dry ponds. Applied hydrology. E. MN/RC-2006-43 (December). G. 2009. Mein. When the depth reached 32 cm. 2010. ASCE. N. RG126/11SUS. . Urban Water Journal. Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia. 1145–1158.A. Hussain. D. REFERENCES Cheng.T. DID (Department of Irrigation and Drainage)..my/html/projects/ ProjekTaiping/Index. A ﬁeldbased evaluation of wet retention ponds: how effective are ponds at water quantity control? Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Hatt. New York: McGraw-Hill. 62.. 134.W. ASCE. KK2. et al.R. A.E. 46 (6). solutions to ﬂash ﬂood. Rahman. Malaysia. Taiping Health Clinic.M. 2003.. 189–205.L. 1973. T. C. S. Generating 3D soil surfaces from 2D height measurements to determine depression storage. A. Fletcher. 2. Malaysia: DID. Catena. and Mays. V . R. Harrell. The authors also would like to thank the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Hydrology.. and Ranjithan. Modeling inﬁltration during steady rain.. Zakaria. 2005. and Deletic.J.G. The hydraulic conductivity. R. 1–32. Hancock. Available from http://redac.. 1–9. Holley. Water quality performance of dry detention ponds with under-drains. 2000. J. L.R.R. The R2 values obtained from measuring the accuracy of this water depth model indicate that the model represents the ﬁeld data quite well. S. 2003.. 365.eng. is 125 mm/h and suction head is 55 mm. Sediment discharge from a storm-water retention pond.. Bio-Ecological Drainage Syetem (BIOECODS) for water quantity and quality control. and Waarab. BIOECODS at Taiping.D. 2006. Kamphorst.. The model can be employed as an effective tool or. doi:10.usm. Technical reports for Minnesota Department of Transportation. 2008.C.88 m3 . L. 1 (3). Frma.
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