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European Commission Directorate-General Justice

VI IN OL TR EN AN CE SI T
VIOLENCE IN TRANSIT
FINAL REPORT
RESULTS AND GUIDELINES ON PREVENTION! OF YOUTH VIOLENCE IN TRANSIT AREAS

SPACE AND TIME FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MODEL OF URBAN SAFETY


"VIOLENCE IN TRANSIT": A PARADIGM OF SPACE-TIME WELFARE
BY VINCENZO CASTELLI

The project Violence in Transit tries to compete on youth violence in the areas of transit and ow, such as railway stations. The project offers a great opportunity to plan and test actions on space and time as essential and indispensable vectors to build social inclusion policies in different contexts and for well-dened target groups. First, a special attention should be paid to ethnography of social space. Very little ethnographic work has been done on the factor of space architecture, how space can determine relational aggregative or disaggregative similarities or dissonance, whether they build community processes or barriers of social exclusion. Spatiality is a dynamic process that interferes with segments of everyday life and that is why it must be equipped not only with effective and efcient volumes, but also with segments and spatial indicators to describe what characterizes the experiences of everyday life (places to meet, spaces of leisure and entertainment, spatial geometry, nd the quiet and tranquillity, etc...). Furthermore, we are faced with diversied space (vertical vs. horizontal; full vs. empty; subjective vs. objective;

accessible vs. inaccessible) that alter the meaning and prospects; public space with its areas of scrolling, transit, transport, rest/relax, waiting, storage spaces; nally, the private space delimits the boundaries of individual privacy. From the above, we should read the variable of space as a place (home/country/district/town) able to determine the sense of territorial belonging (identity process), the dimension of home, space communication among those living deeply their own territory, who recognize themselves from it, and rooting their essence in those spatial links. Unfortunately, there is also space as a "non-place" (to use Marc Augs word): the space that does not have and does not create social identity, which is not conducive to relationships between social actors in a context. This conception of space (but often implementation of space) designs and determines the boundaries between groups and individuals, dening the limits between normal and deviance, creates the margin (and its marginality), and ultimately builds the social stigma. In this laceration, fragmentation, degradation, and explosion of sensible space, we must take a strong action of space regeneration and
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redevelopment, a reconstruction of harmonic space covering at the same time social heterogeneity, urban-architectural variety, multifunctionality, conditions for participation, concrete ways of daily life, organization of services as an organization of public spaces, the population dimension, the recovery of district centre, boundaries, connections, networks, and transports. In a historical situation in which physical space is facing extinction (submerged by virtual space), epistemological importance must be given to spatiality re-conceived within a kind of Village Design Statement (with variables of place, identity, and social governance rules) characterized by description, interpretation, quantitative and functional topographic representation of space, a facsimile of identity Atlas (territorial, environmental, and socio-cultural values), environmental (physical geography), socio-economic, and cultural (socialeconomic geography) heritage, and new social practices (political geography). It is also necessary to reformulate here Michel Foucaults concept of Heterotopia, which is able to reformulate those spaces that have the special feature of being connected with all the other spaces, but in such a way as to suspend, neutralize, or reverse the set of relations that they designate, mirror, or reect. Only this operation allows us to say that the space is us (Myself/ space relationship): our psychological sense has a spatial dimension that we recognize in our feelings of comfort/discomfort in relation to the places that we visit or where we live.

Secondly, a strong consideration should be made on ethnography of time. Time, from its origin, has always had deep meanings: sacred time vs. profane time, full time vs. empty, and time vs. work (with the birth of free time and holidays). Perhaps little work has been done on the construction of social time, its correlation with speeding up of time (and its consequent interference on social phenomena), its dehistoricization (and its consequent interference on the possible loss of historical memory), and defuturization (and its consequent persistence of "extended present time", which actually replaces the future). In particular, no social value was given to the correlation between time and construction of social policies: daytime policies have been structured for social groups living during the night (young people and teenagers); a Fordist policy has been built (with the commandment to never lose time) with those (deviant social groups) who always lose time in their daily life (and so how are we going to work with these groups other than learning how to "waste time"?). Hence the importance of taking the time of the social groups we work with, the centrality of modelling time in a harmonious way to give quality to everyday life, the ability to integrate spatial policies with temporal policies (spatialize time and temporalize space) . From this space/time harmonic correlation, epistemological segments for space/time construction of security emerge, to which the project Violence in Transit was inspired. We refer in particular to considering space from the perspective of welfare, considering time of social groups, the implementation of community care to build urban security, the promotion of peer education to give balance to the context, the contribution of social networks to the construction of urban
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security, nally the choice of non-repressive and dialogic methodologies (street work, harm reduction, entertainment, education, mediation, participatory planning...). The idea of the project Violence in Transit started from this knowledge, methodologies, and practices. The idea originated from longnavigation experience, such as the street entertainment actions in Europe (in relation to prostitution, addictions, poverty, wandering youth); in Latin America (acting on callerizacion," on maras, structuring of street businesses, etc...); in the areas of transit and ow (spaces of immediate acceptance in the ports of the AdriaticDanube area in Europe and in Central America, on the borders of Central American and Andean area, etc...); actions in favour of the involvement of young people in the use of assets conscated from the Maa in Italy; actions for urban regeneration (see EU Programmes of the European Fund for Regional Development, Urban, Quartier en crise, UN-Habitat programmes...) in suburban areas; education actions in contexts of violence (see the experiences of street teachers in Naples; schools of peace spread in Europe; the programme Eurosocial 1 involving Italy, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Costa Rica); and community welfare and social mediation in marginal neighbourhoods (see the ECO2 model and "Barrios terapeuticos" of the Federal District of Mexico City; the project "Bologna Sicura" (safe Bologna); promotores sociales (social promoters) of Managua, rural areas of the Department of Potos in Bolivia; the Project "Mediamente" of Urb-AL 5, etc...). It is also worth mentioning the actions on time of daily living (rites, myths, symbols, parties, events, etc...); timing of social groups (time of children, young people, and women); the world of the night and leisure (see projects "Azienda Notte (Night Company), "Social Entertainment Service", and "Notte Brava" (Wild Night) of Consorzio Nova).

Violence in Transit capitalizes and hoards all this and at the same time raises the challenge of a space/time welfare to be implemented on a specic ow area (railway stations) in favour of emerging social groups (teenagers and young people) who often live and inhabit these places in conictive and dissonant ways. To these protagonists (often marginalized) of our time we devote some beautiful fragments of the sociologist M. Foucault If you think that, after all, a boat is a floating piece of space, a place without place and that is entrusted at the same time to the infinity of the sea and that, from port to port, ... from a brothel to another, goes so far as to colonies to look for the most valuable things they conceal in their gardens, you will understand why the boat was for our culture not only the greatest tool of economic development, but also the largest reserve of imagination. The ship is the heterotopia par excellence. In civilizations without boats, dreams dry up, espionage replaces adventure, and the police replace the pirates.! M. Foucault,!Le parole e le cose, Milan, Rizzoli

PROJECT OVERVIEW
by Fabio Sorgoni - On the Road ONLUS The Violence in Transit project, started in June, 2011, with a two-year duration and nanced by the Daphne III programme, originated from the desire of the project partners to single out intervention practices which could be used in response to a general problem, which takes on diverse forms and connotations according to

its places of origin: the presence of episodes of violence, social exclusion and marginalization involving the young, inside and in the vicinity of places destined to the transit of people (in particular railway stations, subways, bus stations, but also ports, airports and frontier zones).

THE PROJECTS AIMS


The projects general aim was therefore the identication of means of intervention useful to tackle these phenomena and to improve the situation in the investigated areas and of all those who pass through, live or work there. To achieve this general objective the project identied the following specic aims: Increase the knowledge on juvenile violence in railway areas on a European level. Reinforce multi-agency participation and the approach oriented toward spatial welfare in activities aimed at juvenile violence and promote rehabilitation processes through experimental social interventions with juveniles who risk involvement in violent episodes (both as victims and as perpetrators of violent acts). Create models of social intervention practices in transit areas. Disseminate and transfer intervention models to other areas with similar characteristics which meet similar risks tied to violence: ports and frontiers.

BACKGROUND
Experience in the eld by project partners and associates, as well as the study of variations in the ways juvenile discomfort and deviation emerge and their manifestations in various urban situations have shown how realities such as drug dealing and use, prostitution, the presence of socially excluded persons in situations of serious economic, health, psychological suffering (persons with psychiatric problems, homeless, alcoholics () have shown several transformations in the past twenty/thirty years. One of the most signicant changes has involved the place in which they emerge. The zero tolerance policies applied in many cities in order to clean up the most utilized urban spaces have, in fact, pushed many subjects towards more marginal localities, in which, however, it was possible to meet other social actors with whom to interact in the aim of satisfying personal needs. In this de-centralization process, places of transit have taken on a growing role, and it is today possible to identify in them areas in which to meet a diversied target, multi-dimensional in terms of suffering and potentiality of recovery, areas which are at the same time privileged observers of modern forms of social exclusion as well as chosen places for experiments of interventions aimed at prevention, harm reduction, conict mediation, pedagogy of marginality, participation, rehabilitation and social re-insertion.

PROJECT ACTIONS WORK STREAMS


To achieve its objectives the project has been organized in four macro-actions called Work Streams (WS): WS 1 Research WS 2 Experimentation of social and community interventions
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WS 3 Creation of intervention models and study of transferability WS 4 Dissemination and mainstreaming of the project results

PROJECT PARTNERSHIP
The project partnership has been formed on the basis of various elements: positive experiences of previous collaboration, sharing of the problem analysis, convergence between the partners project mission and institutional activities, joint aim to identify, in the eld, possible intervention models which could be transferred and tried out in other localities. Since the projects initial formulation, the partners have shared the desire to start up a process of continuous collaboration and synergy among civil society organizations which are involved in the realization of social interventions and in the cultural debate on the interpretation of exclusion phenomena (specically NGOs, associations, foundations, cooperatives, nNational and international networks), public and private institutions which have a role in the management of spaces and structures examined in the intervention (in the rst place those who manage railway and underground stations), public institutions charged with programming public social interventions and policies (therefore local, regional, national and international bodies), and, last but not least, the social actors who inhabit those places: workers in transit areas, residents of neighbouring zones, travellers who pass through daily. The project partnership has involved the On the Road Onlus (non prot) Association (Italy project coordination); the Portuguese organization European Anti-Poverty Network (EAPN Portugal); the APIP-ACAM Foundation (Spain), and the Europe Consulting Social Cooperative (Italy).

The rst three organizations have developed activities in direct contact with the target (WS1, Research and WS2 Experimental Interventions) in some transit areas: the Pescara Central Railway Station area, the Sao Bento Station in Porto, Portugal, and the northern bus station area in Barcelona, Spain. The fourth project partner, the Europe Consulting Social Cooperative (Italy), furnished its know-how in accompanying the social research and experimental activities and has a preeminent role in the diffusion of the project results. The project further sees the participation, as associate bodies, of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane (Italian State Railways) and the antitrafcking ofce of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The participation of these two bodies has ensured a signicant contribution in the denition of intervention models (WS3), their transferability to other transit areas, the diffusion and mainstreaming of the results (WS4). Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane has, since some years, developed within its own framework a sector that promotes and realizes interventions aimed at people in difculty (particularly the homeless). It is, furthermore, part of Gare Europenne et Solidarit, a European Network of railway companies that collaborate in the planning and realization of social interventions. The OSCE anti-trafcking ofce is particularly interested in strengthening the identication process and initial support to victims of trafcking. Transit areas, both within the countries and in border areas (stations, ports, airports) represent a space in which it is possible to contact such people and offer assistance.

PROJECT RESULTS
WS 1 - Research

In the projects initial phase the partners developed a joint research plan which would allow them to acquire more information on the phenomenon in which they wished to intervene. Three on the eld research activities were undertaken, focusing upon the above mentioned areas. Each of these also entailed deeper analysis of scientic literature existing on the national level (in Italy, Spain and Portugal), of juvenile violence and transit areas. The research technique chosen was ethnographic, as such favouring direct observation and utilizing instruments such as diaries and observation grids. In the case of the Italian research the particular pre-existing situation (the On the Road Association already worked with the homeless in Pescaras central station, one of the research targets and its operators-researchers were already known in the target area) caused the methodological choice to fall upon the technique of action-research, while in the Portuguese and Spanish research activities the method chosen included a non participating observation phase. Subsequently, in all three phases people belonging to the reference targets were contacted (young and non-young belonging to marginal categories: people who prostitute themselves, homeless, addicts) as well as privileged witnesses, institutional stakeholders and social actors who gravitate to the examined areas. The National Research Reports have been published in the national languages of the countries in which they took place and can be downloaded from the project site.

Sharing the research model also had the purpose of making the results comparable and useful for a transversal reading of them. The project, in fact, produced a Compared Transnational Research Report (published in English and available on the project site), in which, besides lengthy excerpts from the original source researches, also comparative analysis works are illustrated. The results of the researches have been presented in national seminars in the three countries and in a trans-national seminar held in Barcelona in April, 2013. The results of national and local researches have allowed the denition of ad hoc social intervention experimentation and also allowed the national teams to come into contact with potential local partners (organizations that operate in the station areas) and with the interventions nal target (young people at risk of being involved in violent situations or who live considerably marginal situations) as well as with other social actors present in the station.

WS2 Experimentation of interventions and WS3 Creation of models and transferability

This publication devotes a large section to the results of these two project actions: models are in fact presented which summarize the experimentations carried out in Pescara, Barcelona and Porto, introduced by a brief overview on the work undertaken in the indicated areas and suggest the creation of models of the interventions stressing their potential transferability to other contexts which preset similar phenomenological situations.

WS4 Dissemination and mainstreaming of project results

The project has invested much in the dissemination of results, both in progress and denitive, creating an instrument, the website, which has allowed the networking of products created by the partners, up-to-date agendas of appointments connected with the project and has produced newsletters addressed to the partners networks in order to bring potential stakeholders constantly up-to-date on the projects evolution. We have put on line multimedia products produced in the course of experimental activities in WS2 (photo exhibitions, video box, videos of theatrical events, products from the creative writing workshops) as well as agendas of awareness-raising and in depth study appointments, undertaken in the cities involved in the project (with resident citizens, local authorities, with other NGOs involved in the territory in parallel or converging sectors). The resulting dissemination activity has been accompanied by a will to involve local, national and international political and institutional decision-makers to enhance this projects value as a locale for comparison and production of policies and interventions aimed both at the main target (marginalized young people at risk from violence and social exclusion) and at the areas chosen for the activities: the transit areas. The project has been presented at the International Conference on Crime Observatories! organized by the International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC) in Cartagena De Indias, Colombia, 22-23 August 2013. Relevant institutional and political gures and representatives of those bodies that manage stations, railways and subways in the various countries were invited to the national meetings and to the projects nal conference.

In conclusion, the project showed that places of transit, often seen as areas of concentration of risks for those working there, those living in the neighbourhood, and those passing through for travel purposes, can, on the contrary, become locations for the production of sense, spaces of creativity where it is possible to create bridges of reciprocal understanding among citizens, workers, travellers and people who, although in a marginalized or underprivileged position have managed to become, through participation in the activities suggested or realized by the project, protagonists and catalysers of positive stimuli. The project has obtained unexpected results in terms of product quality (often clear examples of urban art) and has surely furnished instruments and stimuli to re-think the transit areas as places of expression and personal development for people all too often suffering because of forms of discrimination more often tied to stigmatization processes than to actual social danger.

Conference in Pescara 18 September 2013

ON THE ROAD
Synthesis of experimentations

There is beauty and there are the humiliated. Whatever may be the difficulties of the undertaking, I should like never to be unfaithful either to one or to the others. Albert Camus

In order to grasp these realities and to nd other languages to encourage their active protagonism, the following activities were implemented: structural outreach interventions aimed at mapping and reaching individuals and diverse youth group (marginal or not) present in the Pescara central Station area; a creative writing workshop; a workshop of visual/photographic anthropology; a lm retrospective (cinema forum) from which a theatre workshop originated. The undertaken experiments, which will further be illustrated in the individual description sheets, are operationally based on certain interconnected methodological-cultural principles, fundamentally based on: 1. The renewed, convinced, proposal of intervention techniques related to the paradigm of proximity in its three traditional declinations: Damage Reduction, Street Animation, Street Education, in the deep persuasion that in the contemporary urban panorama the street with its basic dichotomies, meeting and relationship place and non-locality of perdition and marginalization, has to regain the centre of social intervention. It is, however, also the location in which to play up relationships, construct sense, plan proposals, welcome the other, mediate tensions. Street work is perhaps the only approach in social intervention which can seize the extreme uidity of the present time, its actors and processes, acknowledgeing its complexity and multidimensional character.
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The area of the Pescara Central Station, analyzed in the research, is a place of transit for a multiform gamut of juvenile populations who cross through it, such as, for example: young Italian drug addicts and/or homeless, youthful Italian former prison inmates, young Romanians or from Central-Eastern Europe either of Roma ethnicity or not (Gad!o, i.e. non-Roma) and youth from the Maghreb in conditions of great marginality and of precarious living conditions, given to activities with strong exploitation risk, such as begging and male prostitution, young people involved in predatory crimes. To these there have to be added informal groups of Pescara youth tied to the dimension of the hip-hop sub-culture, who gravitate as an informal group in the area under examination of this researchintervention and who, even though they do not belong to the worlds of structural hardship, are, like the others, the object of a negative social image on the part of the urban social-territorial context. Social realities, actors, existential paths, which go through the station-space crossing one anothers destinies often paying the price of a condition of cultural isolation, a condition which often morphs into a suffered lack of motivation, like a request of sense and references that remains unanswered. Presences often stigmatized, victims and perpetrators of violent acts, products of times which are hard, fragmented, constitutionally aggressive.

2.

Another background element, connected to the rst, is the idea that culture, creativity, expressive instruments and the sharing of connected processes represent formidable motivational tools for individual and social rehabilitation, and that all this produces a more secure social context, security lived in the fullness of its articulations and not only in its more conformist-repressive version. An idea of security also constructed on the basis of shared, horizontal, participated culture which moves in the direction of inclusion and relationships, and instead of counting on the deterrence of sanctions, aims to be founded on a pedagogy of hope.

3.

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Pescara Train Station

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JUNE 2012 MAY 2013

OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

Hypothesis deriving from the research In the depot area of the Pescara station several youths, identiable in various typologies are present, also belonging to the world of extreme marginality. Particularly Romanian Roma and migrants originating from the Maghreb countries, who prostitute themselves or practise begging. These young people could be subject to exploitation on the part of adults. Furthermore, episodes of aggressive begging have been reported (particularly on the part of young Italian addicts), of aggression toward clients of minor/juvenile male prostitution, aggression against women and transsexuals who prostitute themselves in the area.
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A further phenomenon observed concerns groups of youths tied to the hip hop culture, who produce spontaneous animation activities (break dance) in the Pescara Station's forecourt. Although they do not exhibit any anti-social attitudes, they are perceived as dangerous by the local population. Some can be tied to the world of the socalled writers (messages and drawings on the walls). The presence of signicant components of the juvenile population, and their substantial estrangement, or, at least, structural difdence (perhaps for access to the basic services) in relation to existing services (be they aimed at the drug-addicts, such as the Sert, or more generalized) reinforces the motivation to undertake outreach activities, on the road activity, initial contact, offer of attention and assistance to people who would not ask for it otherwise, in the framework of a new proposal of practices which discern inspirational parameters in proximity and the construction of signicant relationship. These groups, notwithstanding their different nature, share some common features as a strong stigmatization against them.

tivities with a strong risk of exploitation, such as begging and male prostitution, and predatory criminal acts. Pescara youth tied to the hip hop sub-culture, who gravitate as an informal group in the area under examination by this researchintervention and who, although not belonging to the worlds of structural hardship like the others are the victims of a negative social representation on the part of the urban social-territorial context.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Multifunctional Centre for the homeless Train de Vie and Drop-in assistance service for victims of trafcking in the rst place the On the Road Association. Furthermore, following contacts and identication of needs, services have been activated on the territory, such as basic health services and private consulting areas, Municipal social services, Third sector Catholic and secular organizations (Caritas, Avvocati di Strada) as well as the Police Department, Immigration Service.

Location of the intervention Downgraded area in the Pescara Station. Activities carried out The outreach activity is considered in two typologies on the basis of well differentiated user-targets for which programming the intervention in two dimensions has become necessary: ACTIVITIES 1 OUTREACH (proximity interventions with young people involved in prostitution/ begging and in highly precarious living conditions).
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Target group involved Young Italian drug-addicts and/or homeless. Youthful Italian former prison inmates. Young Romanians both of Roma ethnicity and not (Gad"o, i.e. non-Roma) and young from the Maghreb in strong conditions of marginality, of precarious living conditions involved in ac-

Aims: Reduce the conicts and violent acts (aggressions, robberies, group conicts) which take place in the station Offer the possibility of escape from exploitation circuits Offer social reintegration possibilities through empowerment processes

Sent on to On the Road services: 18, two young boys from the Maghreb were included in assistance programmes according to Article 13, Law 228/2003. Sent to network organizations: 10.

ACTIVITIES 2 OUTREACH (proximity interventions with young Pescara breakers present in the station area).

Activities: On the road work, outreach, construction of signicant relationships Offer to listen and collect needs, creating a relationship of trust Invite the target to make use of the services offered by On the road in the station (train de vie/drop in anti-trafcking) Involve the target in social-cultural animation activities (writing workshop, lm retrospective/theatre workshop, photography workshop) Aims: To reduce conicts between the target and other social actors present in the station To enhance the targets abilities and involve them in structured activities To give representation to the young protagonists and improve their relationship with the station and the neighbouring territory To educate in relationships Some quantitative data : Tot. missions: 80 Tot. contacted persons: 32 Tot. contacts : 1340 Activities: Outreach, on the road work, contact and attention Animation in the station (exhibition of break dance) Creation and implementation of a social-cultural animation event within the station area
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Some quantitative data: Tot missions : 25 Tot contacted persons: 15 Tot contacts: 262 Tot informal meetings at Train de Vie: 8

228/2003 in their quality of victims of exploitation. With respect to the group of breakers and writers, the intervention activated forms of constructive social protagonism, re-conrming the importance of attention to the spaces and their social content. The work of the operators also served to widen the horizons of these young people, anchored to a strongly identity-oriented sub-culture.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE Educational proximity presences spread in the urban space in places such as trafc areas represent protective locations and social mediation operators, and, therefore, shared security. In their eminently educational function, in striving in the direction of a process of de-stigmatization, they operate towards a solution and prevention of conicts. Disseminated educational presences represent guardians of legality and emancipation. Street Work based services and interventions often represent the only episodes of social action which takes into account the uidity shown by many individuals and groups who do not establish a relationship with Territorial Services and who often fail to come to light. This is all the more true when considered in the light of the exasperated fragmentation of the contemporary social panorama, where liquid-evanescent presences crowd our streets. The continuous intervention, structured, not episodic, in the light of proximity and of relationships, allows to reveal the street world to the world of local service networks. This is even more important when it allows to know, penetrate, interrogate realities often connected to the world of deviation (enough to consider juvenile male prostitution, pickpocketing) which seem unrecognizable, impenetrable except for the totally repressive intervention of Police and Security Forces.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Increase in knowledge and awareness of personal conditions, increase in capacity for relationships and for conict-resolution, for young people who live in conditions of great marginality the encounter with street operators has allowed them to come into contact with the drop-in and the social secretariat counter of the Train de Vie Centre. In two cases of young people known and contacted in the course of these activities, it has been possible to set up individual assistance programmes and the application of Article 13 of Law

SKILLS ACQUIRED Concerning the Train de Vie team: the outreach activity has allowed contact with realities of the juvenile world such as informal groups like the breakers/writers, who are not considered as part of the extremely marginalized world which usually attracts the attention of the
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operators, allowing the cultivation of diverse languages, to analyze cultural processes and to know realities more directly connected to the juvenile world.

to the paradigm of street animation and education, when in our Country, by now, outreach substantially comes to coincide with harm-control activities carried out in the context of well specied and stabilized marginal targets (prostitutes, drug addicts).

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED The methodologies used are those typical of the street work with juvenile targets in informal settings and based on active attention, overcoming prescriptive and admonitory approaches in favour of work which promotes knowledge, awareness, liberty and choice. Work on the empowerment of social abilities through the creation of signicant relationships with informal juvenile groups and acting as a bridge among other groups, needs and social actors. Use of creativity in an expressive and motivation-oriented key. As the activities took place, all three the modes of street work came to light, due also to the diversication of the targets: street animation, education and harm control. Investment in young peoples resilience. Calendar of activities ACTIVITIES 1 Implementation period: June 2012 May 2013 Operators go out on average twice a week at different timetables and contact young people They compile contact forms in which they insert data such as age, gender, nationality, description of discomfort/exploitation situation. They compile personal user forms in which they insert progress achieved with individual users and eventual entrance of users into the above described services or other service networks. ACTIVITIES 2 Implementation period October 2012 May 2013 ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION The implementation of this type of intervention certainly represents an element of methodological-operational innovation in the context of interventions operated in the transit areas. The innovation resides not so much in the methodological foundation (street work has, by now, a thirty year tradition even though it is still, supercially, perceived and narrated as being innovative) as in the context, the Station area, in which it is carried out and the renewal of activities tied The operators go out once a week and make contact with young people. Once contact has been established, through outreach initiatives, formal meetings are organized at the Train de Vie centre and they are involved in the development of a public cultural animation event to be shown in the Station. The stabilization and the deeper approach to the relationship allow consolidation of trust within the group. The young breakers, who do not belong to the marginal world, are involved in activities and services aimed at the homeless.
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Actual educational moments are organized concerning themes such as legality, exploitation, extreme poverty, human rights. Every contact mission and every encounter with young people is inserted in a contact form (day, hour, undertaken activity, contacts taken, notes). Every meeting organized with young people for the organization of animation activities is reported in an encounter note.

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OCTOBER 2012 - APRIL 2013

THEATRE WORKSHOP

Hypothesis deriving from the research Through research we have been able to map/identify juvenile presences (marginal or not) which crowd the station space. Variegated presences, social realities that go from the young Italian drug-addict to foreign homeless, young migrants who operate in the prostitution market and are at risk of exploitation, to young people of Pescara and from neighbouring towns who move and live in the area of the station which, in Pescara, is an urban crossroad. In order to establish relationships with these worlds, outreach actions were implemented to create an initial contact and signicant relationships also through the proposal/creation of workshop activities to be carried out in the spaces of the Multifunctional Centre Train de Vie.
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Location of the intervention Multifunctional centre for the homeless Train de Vie

PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL THEATRE WORKSHOP The workshop lays down the basis for the creation and production of a show.

Target groups involved Young people, male and female aged from 15 to 31, present in the railway transit area and, in particular: Young drug-addicts young people given to prostitution young homeless youthful former prison inmates students engaged in training internships young migrants, young people from the city and province of Pescara involved in the theatrical activities of the cultural association Errori di Trasmissione.

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE Move/mobilize young people from the transit areas into a collective and sharing space furnish alternative areas, but in proximity of the transit areas. Recover strongly stigmatized areas, such as the Station, through relationships and creativity. A further important element, worthy of mention, is the effect, on the concept of security, provoked by areas that encourage relationships among different subjects, often bearers of conict issues (Italians/ foreigners).

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Help centre Train de Vie Theatrical association Errori di Trasmissione Di Marzio High School , Cultural Association Errori di Trasmissione.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Activities carried out FILM RETROSPECTIVE (CINEMA FORUM) on the themes of violence, social inclusion, addiction, bullying, adolescence, exploitation, homelessness, illegality, intercultural integration, homophobia, racism. Increasing the level of knowledge and understanding of episodes of violence, awareness-raising and use of an adequate bodylanguage, distancing from personal rigid modes of behaviour, fostering an inter-group and intra-group cooperation based on trust and intimacy, favouring an inter-cultural knowledge aimed at overcoming of stereotyped images and inter-ethnic conicts. Creation of relationships among individuals and groups who, normally, do not communicate with one another except through reciprocal stigmatization.
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Impact on networks Make aware and inform the public on social problems inherent to issues connected to the juvenile condition, and more specically, to juvenile violence. Operate toward the widening of networks and overcoming their self-serving tendencies through involvement and collaboration among realities inherent to these networks which usually do not communicate with one another.

ual but, instead, are shown, by the lm, to be common to many others. On the basis of the principle of Learning by seeing and doing, it is suggested to the young people to change their status from Spectators to Actors through the activation of a theatre workshop. In this context the theatre becomes the moment of social and cultural coming together. In this space it is hoped that experiences will be met and shared, energies activated. Theatre activities are entrusted to those who are willing to appear or to experiment as an actor, director, writer, musician, all may enter the workshop and construct their own portion of performance/theatre. The central idea of this social theatre is that it is the will and the work of ordinary non professional people, often on the margins, who nally have the possibility to make their own voices heard. It is a form of theatre which returns to its original cultural and social function. Theatre seen as an encounter of lives, in which ordinary persons give life to a spectacle in which they are the true protagonists, in their roles as actors, directors or writers. It is the theatre that can belong to all of us.

SKILLS ACQUIRED Social, relational and interpersonal competences, attention, artistic competences and development of expressive resources.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED With regard to the Film retrospective, there is expectation that the young person involved may start a path of personal development, inspired by the lm but also that it may favour an area of joint educational and recreational reection. It immediately appears evident how, in the screening of a lm, an intense emotional sharing of some of the contents takes place, which, however, leave an opening for a personal understanding of the plot and of the described events. To guide, discuss and work out spectator's involvement, reveal phantasms which represent conicts and resources, and offer a valid opportunity to overcome and change. Indeed, the exposure to lms which relate to real life problems stimulates reection and discussion on the emotions and sentiments provoked by the lm, on dysfunctional behaviour and attitudes which the spectators recognize as their own, on motivations and emotions which seem merely individ-

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED Both the Film retrospective and the theatre workshop appear as sustainable instruments. The appointment with the Film retrospective is, by now, stabilized and offered to all the Centres guests. The theatre workshop which was formed by the collaboration with actors and directors of the Errori di Trasmissione Association is at the base of the imagination and production of theatrical texts, which can be22

come opportunities to produce material resources besides being a eld for the strengthening of the involved young peoples social capabilities. ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Regarding the term "innovation", it is worth mentioning some central elements, already partially explained: In our country, there is a long tradition of using artistic and expressive instruments for social inclusion purposes, and the theatre workshop is an example. Yet, in most cases such practices take place in high threshold services and structures, i.e. rehabilitation centers for drug addiction, penitentiaries, etc. We have realized them in the framework of a low threshold intervention, instead, in the path of socio-cultural animation activities, which aim at revamp proximity- and empowerment-based methodologies, against the wider use of an approach based on conformism, repression and mere assistance. In second place, in the territories, services dedicated to extreme poverty cases are realities which offer solutions to the primary needs of individuals (dormitories and canteens) and, however essential, have difculty in facing, accepting and accompanying the extraordinary complexity and multi-dimensionality of the targets and of the users, also juvenile, which at this time populate the dimension of marginality. A Low Threshold Day-Time Centre which also offers an educational-workshop incentive, next to the standard services such as laundry, breakfast, showers, etc. is clearly innovative and answers (or attempts to answer) the multidimensional aspect of the social problems and of the presences met in the contemporary scenario.

Furthermore to enhance the innovative character of these activities there is the attempt to create a relationship among juvenile (and non-juvenile) worlds which usually do not communicate but lead parallel existences in time and space. Our society, if ordinarily described as an information society, on the other hand shows deep fragmentation which causes single generation groups to live in reciprocal isolation. If this appears to be generally true it is even more visible in the Marginality/Normality dichotomy. The Film retrospective and, above all, the theatre workshop which has seen the cooperation with a local cultural association have allowed relationships and encounters among young people who belong to worlds which perceive themselves, and usually are, distant and alternative.

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Art in Transit

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I venditori di patate

http://www.violenceintransit.org/videos/venditori-di-patate
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OCTOBER 2012 TO FEBRUARY 2013

CREATIVE WRITING WORKSHOPS

Hypothesis deriving from the research The area of the Pescara Central Station is a place of transit for a multiform gamut of juvenile populations, both marginal youths (drug addicts, homeless, young people involved in prostitution, young irregular migrants) and youths from mainstream contexts such as travelling students or young people living nearby. These groups share the space of the station and experience forms of mutual stigmatization. They are all engaged in the same hopeless quest for meaning and express the need for reference points and relationships.
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Through proximity and cultural animation activities it is possible to produce inclusion and to build common languages starting from the places in which these groups live, thus improving the condition of the station area.

Activities carried out Creative writing workshops on the following themes: Considerations on juvenile deviation phenomena; Considerations on transit areas and in particular on railway stations, and their perception in relation to personal experience; Considerations on various types of violence either perpetrated or suffered; Considerations on ethnic and racial prejudice;

Location of the intervention The street library of the Multifunctional Centre for the homeless Train de Vie, On The Road Association

Target groups involved Young people, male and female aged between 15 and 31, present in the rail transit area, and, in particular: young drug addicts young people prostituting themselves young homeless young former prison inmates young travellers, high school students young migrants.

Considerations on personal resources; Considerations on emotions and on the emotional relationship and acts; Considerations on bullying; Considerations on ones own relationships; Awareness and development of various writing techniques (poetry, creative story writing);

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Multifunctional Centre for the Homeless Train de Vie, On The Road Association Theatrical Association Broadcasting Errors Di Marzio High School. In the public event Reading I write, therefore I am: Municipality of Pescara - Social Policies Department, Young entrepreneurs of Conndustria, Pescara.

Group readings; Moments of face-to-face didactic confrontation.

Averadgely from 12 to 15 people, belonging to the above mentioned groups, took part to the 2-hours workshops sessions.

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Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE Activities of this type represent a workshop of new social relations, of alternative means of living together, of new social abilities (Bauman, 2004). At a micro level (the station area): to favour the encounter among social actors who are different and often aficted with conicts both on the level of discomfort and of reciprocal stigmatization, as well as among target groups (marginalized world) and between the marginalized and the mainstream worlds. To create proximity educational spaces, in the context of the station, where reection and knowledge can be produced as precursors to the construction of forms of shared security. A city which has educational areas of proximity is a more inclusive city and a more inclusive city is also a more secure one. On a macro level (territory city): in general, the workshop, through the implementation of the public event, intends to bring the citys attention to the theme of the homeless and of extreme marginality through the positive lter of creativity, in order to offer to the citizens a different manner to consider discomfort and marginality. To recognize within this world persons and not dangers, to understand that the other can be a resource and a carrier of abilities and not (only and for ever) a producer of insecurity.

edge, inter-cultural relations and knowledge, develop greater creativity, a greater awareness of ones own problems and resources, educate the young to recognize violence and physical and psychological abuses, favour a reflection on alternative solutions to perpetrated or suffered violence, favour personal empowerment strategies starting with the overcoming of self-stigmatization forms, construct horizontal forms of solidarity and break forms of ethnic and racial conflict.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS At an individual level, the workshop is a secure space in which it is possible to organize socio-cultural events, among which a literarypoetic reading with material produced within the creative writing workshops with the aim of promoting a dialogue with the citizens and of favouring a greater knowledge and sensitivity regarding the phenomenon of marginality in the areas of transit, to reduce stigmatization and negative social images. Activation of widened networks not exclusively limited to the world of social intervention, such as, for example, realities in cultural associations, and school institutions charged with the training of future social workers, representatives of which have participated both in the workshop phase and in the organization and production of the Public Event. The leading daily in Abruzzo, Il Centro has dedicated an in depth coverage to the Reading, also publishing some texts.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Interaction of various youth sub-groups in a manner which favours an exchange of alternative viewpoints, a greater inter-group knowl-

SKILLS ACQUIRED Greater social and relationship capacity, development of writing ability in the target group, greater self-awareness of ones own limits/ discomfort and resources, greater problem-solving and conict28

management capacity. For foreign youth the writing workshop represents an occasion to improve knowledge of the Italian language.

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED The writing workshop is by now stabilized in the context of the services offered by the multi-functional centre Train de Vie.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED The workshop takes place within a low threshold service and with extremely diverse ethnic and social origins and cultural prerequisites. Therefore any activity must be built on an informal setting, to avoid that too complex methods are perceived as coercitive and discourage participation. The methodology applied is thus participative and favors the mutual knowledge and strengthening of ties among the various groups, granting the necessary attention to individualities. The workshop aims at being an educational space where to create a signicant and deep relationship among youths who live in a condition of egocentric isolation, often full of rage, by enhancing the sense of "us" instead of "me". The mutual trust and the solidarity among the groups are then the pillars of the initial phases. Description of the session: during the session themes chosen from time to time by the moderator-conductor are presented and described while the chairs in the theatre are placed in a circle. The participant has 20-30 minutes to express his/her arguments in writing (with the greatest freedom regarding the type of text), which will then be read in turn by the moderator-conductor. The text are then commented and analyzed by the group under the conductors supervision. It is important to stress that the workshop is not considered a therapeutic event. Subsequently specic methods of creative writing will be used, adapted to the purpose of the target group. ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Promotion of educational activities in the context of proximity interventions in the areas of transit. Interventions which pregure the involvement of diversied users, bearers of multi-dimensional problems, a holistic-integrated approach at the base of activities which have involved distant (parallel) realities, such as, for example the worlds of high school and homeless youth. Renewed proposal of the Cultural Dimension considered in its broadest sense in the service of social inclusion and of the individual empowerment, an accessible non-elitist and de-institutionalized form of culture.

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Calendar of activities Creative writing workshops (18 workshops) at weekly intervals (Wednesday mornings from 9:30 to 11:00) from October 2012 to February 2013; Public dissemination event : Poetic literary reading I write, therefore I am, 1 March 2013 held at the Aurum facility in Pescara, under the patronage of the Pescara Municipality. Further creative writing workshops (9 workshops) at weekly intervals (Wednesday mornings from 9:30 to 11:00) from March to May 2013.

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I write therefore I am

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EAPN PORTUGAL
Synthesis of experimentations

Within the framework of the Violence in Transit project, the vision of the intervention phase fostered by EAPN Portugal was identied as being the promotion of the sociological potential of S. Bento station and its surroundings, it being a strategic area of awareness raising in the ght against social exclusion, in order to turn it from a place of arrival to the city to a place of social inclusion in the city. In the light of such vision, the social experimentation phase was divided into two macro-activities, the rst including planning, discussion and reection and the second consisting of experimentation activities which were directly implemented on the ground. The rst macro-activity was subdivided into two phases. First, the entire Action Plan that was developed in synergy with strategic agents operating on the ground and in the intervention areas under consideration: around 40 working meetings and a workshop for the reporting of results and gathering of proposals were held, and the project was spread around through the participation to city events. The second phase consisted in three key moments of debate and reection around topics that have a strong impact on the S. Bento area (prostitution, alcoholism, homeless population, drug addiction, immigration, AIDS, grafti, etc.) As to the second macro-activity, which goes under the title Not all lines are parallel, a set of actions was developed in order to raise awareness and prevent risk behaviour, to promote and strengthen networking practices and the active participation of vulnerable groups. Such activities included: Dance class, workshops on urban cultures and photography implemented by local entities that involved vulnerable youths of Portos historical district. Thanks to that, the youngsters familiarized with

different and alternative forms of art, all of which were directly related to the rejection of violence as a form of expression and the afrmation of the identities expressed by the movement and by the arts as a form of active participation in the community. Photographic exhibition entitled Os que cam (Those who stay), where 5 citizens share their lives, including stories that depict the other side of S. Bento station, the one marked by experiences of alcoholism, prostitution, homelessness, drug addiction and immigration, which nonetheless did not crush the dreams of those who lived them. Theatre debate Viagem entre culturas (Travel among cultures), that started from personal experiences collected through logbooks distributed to the S. Bento travelling public, about conicts with immigrant groups, analysing the way in which each of us leads with the encounter with a foreign citizen through the description of oppression conditions, with the intent of exploring and developing solutions together with all participants. Social fair of 2 days with the participation of 18 local social organizations partners of the project that used the hall of S. Bento station as the space par excellance for raising awareness and to inform the public about their daily work. The station also hosted various musical, dance and theatre performances along the 2 days, as well as awareness campaigns carried out by the project partners. This initiative extended to the streets surrounding the station thanks to two Mobile Units that! provided Health issues insight to vulnerable groups. Finally, reference should be made to the nal survey and assessment meeting held with the strategic players, whose contributions
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highlighted a clear fullment of the expectations related to the Violence in Transit project, especially as regards the strengthening of networking practices and the active participation of vulnerable groups, as well as the interaction level, the awareness-raising activities and involvement of the community into social exclusion issues.

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Sao Bento Train Station

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22 OCTOBER 2012

RETURN OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND ACTION PLANNING WORKSHOP

Hypothesis deriving from the research This workshop aims at the dissemination of the research results and the drafting of a joint social intervention plan of the project. This jointly built plan is an assumption present in the results of this research that highlight the importance of networking and the planning of actions with the actors of the territory in order to achieve their true involvement.

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Location of the intervention Auditrio dos Mercadores, Porto Portugal (an auditorium of a local development Foundation in a process of closing down)

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE There were positive references regarding the space in which the forum took place, because this means that citizens could take advantage of a non-used space, making it a place of debate and social inclusion. The importance of a shared and jointly built plan of social experimentation that is envisaged to be developed in the territory, which, through this methodology will have contents with which local authorities recognize themselves in them assuming a greater commitment and therefore contributing to a greater local impact.

Target groups involved Social organizations; security, educational and cultural entities. The target group included mainly entities with a mediation relationship with vulnerable groups identied at the research and also entities that can be involved in the social interventions. Networking (contacted and involved organizations) 50 organizations have been contacted but only 30 have participated. (ACISJF; APF; Arrimo; Associao Abrao; Associao de Bares da Zona Histrica do Porto; Benca e Previdente; Cais Caritas Porto; CASO; Centro Social da S Catedral do Porto; Centro Social Paroquial de S Nicolau; Centro Social Paroquial N Sra da Vitria; CP; Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa Porto; Direo Geral de Reinsero Social; Fundao Portuguesa Comunidade contra a Sida; IDT, IP; Instituto Multimdia; Liga Portuguesa da Prolaxia Social; Mdicos do Mundo; Norte Vida; PSP; REFER; Santa Casa da Misericrdia do Porto; UCC Baixa do Porto).

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Through the workshop it was possible to transmit the results of the research project introducing them to discussion and assuming them as the basis for discussion of the action plan intended to be a participatory process

IMPACT ON NETWORKS There were established commitments by the participant organizations in social intervention activities of the Violence in Transit project and their availability to integrate the VT project in their own activities. After the workshop, organizations intervening in healthcare have chosen to be a working group in the sense of joint planning of an action considered relevant by all. This group gathered 4 organizations: Mdicos do Mundo, APF, UCC Baixa do Porto and Arrimo.
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Activities carried out Violence in Transit in Porto Return of Research Results and Action Planning Workshop.

SKILLS ACQUIRED Concerning the evaluation made by the participants, the positive features stated on the research were the following: a holistic characterization of the social exclusion phenomena; the inclusion of the majority of key actors, the returning of results and an increased knowledge of the territory. Concerning with the social intervention plan it was stated the following: a good planning; a large range of activities; the importance of discussion and reection activities; the initiatives including vulnerable populations; a concern for young people and their lifestyles related with risk behaviours; the intervention in a problematic territory; the collecting inputs for action with all key actors and the involvement of different actors of the territory promoting their networking. As less positive was mentioned the following: the lack of nancial resources; a scarce time for intervention, the difculty in gathering vulnerable people into activities; a potential discrimination of exposure of social exclusion phenomena; a difculty in dening goals and needs for the networking proposal.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Return of Research Results and Action Planning Workshop - Exposition and sharing of contents proposed and open debate around them.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Return of results and planning of an instrument for experimentation in a context of plural publics, involving social organizations; security, educational and cultural entities, thus ensuring a greater potential of a participatory and multidisciplinary approach.
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11-12 DECEMBER 2012

DISSEMINATION OF THE PROJECT AT ARCA DE NATAL

Hypothesis deriving from the research The S. Bento Railway Station as a space of mobility located in the heart of the Porto city and also due to its high level of historical heritage and sociological value, it should be a strategic spot of social awareness among the civil society for social problems identied in the territory.

Location of the intervention S. Bento Station.


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Target group involved Social organizations, vulnerable people, passengers, staff and shops inside the station.

The enforcement of the S. Bento Station as a strategic site of social awareness.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Networking (contacted and involved organizations) In the Christmas Arc event, promoted by the municipality of Porto, participated the social organizations by displaying and selling products made by their clients during the Christmas season. In order to participate in this initiative, the VT team previously arranged meetings with the event promoters as well the CP and REFER to get permission to disseminate the project and have the logos in the leaets. Once our participation assured, it was established a face to face contact with the participant organizations. The involvement and participation of vulnerable groups in the activities of the project mainly the forums and the photographic scrip and report: Trilhos do Olhar; The dissemination of the activities of the VT project by vulnerable groups among their colleagues and partners.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS Feedback of the project activities among social and cultural organizations with whom we have previously arranged meetings; initiated contacts with organizations who are members of EAPN Portugal , from which the VT project was unknown and they revelled interest in involving their clients (mainly youngsters) in the VT activities; Strengthened links and partnerships in an informal setting with the target group.

Activities carried out Dissemination of the draft programme of social intervention by delivering brochures (one with the aims of the project VT and another with the draft programme).

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE Two hundred leaets of the project VT and draft programme of social intervention delivered to the main target group in the intervention place (in loco);

SKILLS ACQUIRED The strong awareness of the team project to promote the S. Bento Station as an inclusive and strategic spot to bring social awareness and avoid reinforcement the stigma as a problematic place.

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METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED The dissemination of the project by a brief contextualization of the team project and the delivering of leaets/brochures.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION The dissemination of the project allowed a face to face contact with target group and to ask them to make suggestions to the programme by e-mail or by phone.

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29 JANUARY 2013

FORUM FACES AND PROFILES OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION

Hypothesis deriving from the research As the preliminary stage shows, S. Bento and its surroundings were assumed as the departure and arrival place to the heart of the city, a place full of opportunities because of its historic and cultural heritage and sociological value. At the same time its an impressive place for the existence of a social mosaic that shows several poverty and exclusion phenomena, similar to other places of the city but with their own specicities, related to the surrounding shifts, such as: alcoholism, drug abuse, prostitution (male and female) and homeless population.

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Location of the intervention Porto, S. Bento train station meeting room unoccupied

Target group involved Local entities working with issues as alcoholism, drug abuse, prostitution (female and male) and homeless and their vulnerable publics. Students and researchers interested in the areas on discussion.

The Forum counted with 56 participants, mainly social organisations involved with the themes discussed, and also its vulnerable publics. The organizations present were: ACISJF; AMI; APF; ARS Norte, Associao C.A.I.S.; AutoEstima Braga - Programa de sade Ars Norte; Bragahabit, E.M.; CASO; Centro S P de NS da Vitria; Centro Social Paroquial S. Nicolau; Exrcito de Salvao- Porto; Fundao AMI; GAS Porto; Junta Freguesia de Cedofeita; Mdicos do Mundo - Representao Norte; Montanha de afectos; O Companheiro (IPSS) e UCC Baixa de Porto Among the participants there were also students and researchers from The Universidade Lusfona e Faculdade de Psicologia e Cincias da Educao.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Refer, CP and Porto Lazer (municipal company) which support the provision of the space and equipment. The projects presented at the panel of the forum were involved in the investigation and intervention of alcoholism, drug addiction and homeless. The institutions involved were: Unidade de Alcoologia do Norte, represented by Dr. Margarida Soliz; Projeto 3R (reduce risks and reintegrate) promoted by Espao Pessoa; Associao de Planeamento Familiar, represented by its coordinator Dr. Leandro Soares and NPISA of Porto (Core Planning and Intervention with Homeless People) represented by Dr. Paula Frana. We highlight the absence of the topic approach of prostitution due to the impossibility of attendance of the representative of the project Indoors and Porto G from APDES. Dr. Sergio Aires, as the Violence in Transit project coordinator, moderated the meeting.

Activities carried out Forum Faces and proles of social exclusion.

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE There were positive references regarding the space in which the forum took place, because this means that citizens could take advantage on a non used space, making it a place of debate and social inclusion. The conclusions pointed to S. Bento as an important information point and to raise awareness, assuming it as a cultural hub in which we hope to take advantage of a public space, namely to reduce risks approaching the young people that arrive or departure.

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The forum emphasizes the need to invigorate the surrounding area of S. Bento with social-cultural activities suggested by citizens and organisations.

Switch language in order to remind we all are at risk of facing a homeless situation. Promote a conscience leadership. Promote a citizen/equality attitude in which there is no distance between them and us. Porto is a city of corners that promotes hiding the public phenomena through integration measures. Regarding this situation, its necessary to change the city political conception and assume the city as an agent of change. Value the areas that are not recognized as priorities and dont receive any resources. political models

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP The debate pointed to guarantee the participation of vulnerable groups, namely homeless people, in the coordination of projects by including their decisions/suggestions about their integration process. In the evaluation of the forum, the participants pointed out the importance of promoting this time/space to share experiences between organisations and their publics, reinforcing the need to continue the reections promoted.
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2.
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The importance of the European political dimension, its acceptance and adoption in the interventions. The homeless integration programme strategy as a public policy that should be assumed by all citizens. On one side prevails the common agreement to reach a goal, but on the other side, everybody is looking for their own interests. In this sense, its necessary to build minimum parameters. The community intervention cant be politically manipulated. The project and their funding entities. There were presented specic cases in which the nancing reduction had a negative impact on the projects. The urge to make a difference between social answers and social policy and the pursuit of citizen participation.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS The conclusions pointed out to the signicance of integrated social solutions in the areas discussed, instead of sectorial solutions that just accomplish institutional goals. This means to follow an integrated logic, in wich prevails a cooperative social intervention using the available resources to develop an active and critical increasing participation.

SKILLS ACQUIRED The conclusions of the forum pointed out to 3 areas: 1. advantages and challenges in the ght for equality for the vulnerable groups
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3.
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prevention strategies facing the growing youth vulnerability The importance of education and its specialization. There is no prevention without education and it must be spread out with clear and accessible language. The importance to promote an education culture thought the streets (meeting places by excellence). Encourage autonomy its a difcult process. The playful activities are important and interesting but in the status quo that we are living its urgent to create jobs. Preventive intervention must be the rst step.

The importance of assessment and the need to constantly make diagnoses.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Discussion around the idea to promote the use of public spaces highly trafcked, as places to show the talents of disadvantaged people and to prove that institutions work is essential by showing results with people that receive and/or received supports.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Exposition and sharing of experiences/programmes in the analysed areas and open debate around a questions guide launched by the facilitator.

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED
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Networking as an essential practice. Value the risk reduction as an intervention approach. Its important to know risk reduction as the rst degree of intervention work through education, facing, namely, the rise of new drugs and the increase of drug abuse. Promote the active participation of the citizens.

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22 FEBRUARY 2013

TRAINING WORKSHOP THE HEALTH CARE ACCESS FOR VULNERABLE GROUPS

Hypothesis deriving from the research During the planning stage of the Violence in Transit activities, resulted the constitution of a work group in the health area. One of the common needs that was identied during the investigation, was the difcult health care access that vulnerable groups have for several reasons, such as: being in illegal situations, living in state pensions, stereotypes and prejudice. Location of the intervention Porto, S. Bento train station meeting room unoccupied.

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Target group involved Local entities working with health care, namely provided to vulnerable groups and the vulnerable publics in themselves. Students and researchers interested in the areas on discussion.

colau; MdM- Mdicos do Mundo; Programa Auto-Estima; Santa Casa da Misericrdia do Porto; UCC Baixa do Porto. Within the participants there were also students and researchers from Universidade Lusfona.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Refer, CP e Porto Lazer (municipal company) suport in the provision of space and equipment. The projects represented at the panel of the forum were involved in the area of health care, namely with vulnerable groups. The institutions present were: Agrupamento dos Centros de Sade do Porto Ocidental, represented by Rui Medon; Grupo Portugus de Ativistas sobre Tratamentos de VIH/SIDA represented by Lus Mendo; Albergues Noturnos do Porto represented by Sara Cruz; Espao Pessoa Associao de Planeamento Familiar, represented by his director Jorge Martins; Associao CASO represented by the president Srgio Rodrigues. Sergio Aires, as the Violence in Transit project coordinator, moderated the workshop. The Forum counted with 32 participants, mainly social organisations involved with the themes discussed, and also its vulnerable publics. The organisations present were: APF; Arrimo, CRL Associao para o desenvolvimento Social e Comunitrio; ARS Norte; CAD VIH/SIDA em Porto- ARS Porto- ACES Porto Ocidental; CASO; Centro Social e Paroquial de S. Nicolau; Centro Social e Paroquial N Sra da Vitria, Centro Social Barredo, Protocolo RSI; Fundao A comunidade contra a SIDA; Fundao AMI; Hospital So Joo; IDT- Ncleo de Apoio Tcnico; Instituto da Segurana Social; Junta de Freguesia de S Ni-

Activities carried out Training workshop the health care access for vulnerable groups.

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE There were positive references regarding the space in which the forum took place, because this means that citizens could take advantage of a non-used space, making it a place of debate and social inclusion.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP The main recommendation is to take into account the active participation of the vulnerable people in solving their problems of access to health.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS
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Sharing of the difculties faced by social organizations in healthcare working with vulnerable groups.

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Commitment / invitation of the Director of ACES to social organizations to discuss common problems and solutions and inform the Ministry of Health. Promote a better articulation/networking between the social organizations (which more than cooperate, compete with each other and with the State.

Despite the infection of HIV and tuberculosis integrate the National Health Services, patients with HIV / AIDS continue to have barriers to screening and primary prevention. Ordinance 198/2011 of May 18 ACSS has allowed continued access to these rights, especially in access to prevention and early screening , which means a contradiction in the law that need to be addressed; The need to implement positive measures among vulnerable groups, for instance, to set up a health center as a specic response, without bureaucracy for citizens with highly mobility ("nomads") and who are in very vulnerable situations. The working hours of social organizations do not answer to the needs of vulnerable groups and the health centers are closed on weekends; The willingness of social workers are confronted by obstacles procedures for which the formal health services must be readjust to ght against the stigma of HIV / AIDS; The social workers need more training and capacity in responding to vulnerable groups Health workers illiteracy regard to vulnerable populations, mainly prejudices, exacerbates the stiffness of the protocols; Related to vulnerable groups present have also been identied some of their difculties, including: Illiteracy / lack of information of vulnerable groups; The consumption of psychoactive substances and mental illness increases cycles of multi - exclusions which in turn worsen the isolation and self-exclusion;
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SKILLS ACQUIRED The main conclusions achieved are concerning with weaknesses/ difculties by the formal structures of health care and social organizations in order to answer to the access of vulnerable people to health care: The lack of assessment of projects and policies implemented; Some organizations on the ground are against Risk Reduction and reality requires a minimum effort to nd consensus in primary prevention and risk reduction (drug and HIV) , namely because it also saves money to the country; Those organisations who work with vulnerable groups are doing it on the edge of borders, which increases the difculties of social intervention with vulnerable groups. There are major difculties of articulation/networking among the social organizations and therefore they compete among themselves and with the State instead of cooperate. The numbers of HIV / AIDS recently released by the OECD put Portugal at the last place in the EU leading to ghettoization of this sector by private and public entities;

The lack of condom use in the spread of contagious diseases in the population at risk. It makes all the difference to take into account the ative participation of the vulnerable people in solving the problems of access to health.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Reection and debate among social organizations and the responsible for a local healthcare service on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups and fostering participation of the latter and his invitation to continue working on this reection and diagnosis to nd common solutions to addressed and acknowledged by higher health authorities.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Exposition and sharing of experiences/programs in the analysed areas and open debate in order to elaborate a document of conclusions that will be sent to the Ministry of Health in Portugal.

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED
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Shared diagnosis needs for access to healthcare by vulnerable groups from social organizations and health services; Despite the difculties identied there is also the recognition of the progress achieved: reducing bureaucracy of health services and their openness to the community; Strategies for reducing inequalities in access to health for vulnerable groups through the role of projects of social organizations, as well as the adjustment of health responses / role of social organizations and the empowerment of vulnerable groups The positive developments in the use of condom from risk population (more empowered and aware of the risks);

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21 MARCH 2013

FORUM GRAFFITI: AN (AP)ART MATTER?

Hypothesis deriving from the research During the Violence in Transit project investigation process, youth vandalism has been mostly associated with the grafti street vandalism and illegal painting on walls and structures (commonly named Bombing). Assuming this issue, its important to reect about the difference between grafti as a vandalism practice and grafti as an art intervention in public spaces. Location of the intervention Porto, S. Bento train station meeting room unoccupied.

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Target group involved Security responsibles and Communication and Image responsibles from management entities of the railway stations. Local security forces. Members of the City Hall responsible from the public space. Young people interested in grafti (positive and negative perspectives). Students and researchers interested in the areas on discussion.

The Forum had 52 participants, with different interests including mainly young people with art interests, namely grafti artists, some from vulnerable contexts and others volunteers from the anti-grafti brigade. There were also representation from the security forces (PSP, Security Team from Combios de Portugal), communication and image responsible from REFER, social organisations (Centro social do Barredo, Fundao AMI, ARS Norte) and also students and researchers from Universidade Lusfona and ESAP.

Activities carried out FORUM GRAFFITI: AN (AP)ART MATTER?

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Refer, CP e Porto Lazer (municipal company) support in the provision of space and equipment. Results obtained IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT/PLACE
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The projects that were part of the panel were involved in the area of security and image and communication intervention in railway stations. The panel counted also with the representation of a city hall anti-grafti project and 2 plastic artists involved with investigation on grafti art. The entities present were: Refer, represented by Susana Fernandes, responsible for the grafti/youth campaign Linha a seguir; Combios de Portugal represented by Artur Cerejo; AntiGrafti Brigade of the Municipality of Porto represented by Joana Soares; ESAP (Superior School of Arts of Porto) represented by Raul Rabaa (teacher) and Aurora Brochado (resident artist). Sergio Aires, as the Violence in Transit project coordinator, was the forum facilitator.

Through the speakers inputs was presented the logic and context of the importance and why grafti manifest with intensity in transit spaces. As meeting point, the forum served to demonstrate the importance of integrating grafti in the spaces of the station. All the thinking developed along the forum subsequently resulted in the involvement of REFER in the painting of a wall using the grafti art integrated in the project Violence in Transit in partnership with the ESAP. Afterwards, the painting of this mural came to be prevented by IGESPAR given the classication of the Station Building as world heritage. However, this refusal did not nullify an entire set of contacts and partnerships that were established and who recognized the potential of urban art, when properly
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framed, for the recovery of a space station as the S. Bento Station, where up till now this art was only seen as an act of vandalism.
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IMPACT ON NETWORKS By organizing this get-together partnerships were established between REFER, the ESAP and EAPN Portugal towards the promotion of future outreach initiatives, based on urban art, occurring in other railway stations, nationwide integrating some young writers present (Confront with Impact on context/place).

The discussion between grafti as art or vandalism, came also to highlight the importance of a municipal valuation attitude of public art as a way of promoting public space, recognizing that this stimulation may itself be a promoter of safe public space, by direct interventions such as the lighting of spaces and attraction to the movement of a greater number of people. This municipal approach proved to be essential, particularly from the point of view of the proposed recognition of synergies with municipal structures such as the Ofce of Urban Art of Lisbon Municipality, in which urban art has taken a prominent role.

SKILLS ACQUIRED
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From its historical origins that the grafti is assumed as art and cultural expression of the peoples. The educational framework in the area of grafti is assumed to be of maximum signicance, especially in the sense of an integrated arts approach by arts academies of the aesthetics and ethics issue of grafti, based on the logic of respect for private property and historical monuments. It is important to perform an analysis of the notion of grafti as vandalism in a reexive sense. The grafti will meet people in places not foreseen, often spreading messages of dispute / reection and not resignation. Through an image is generated potential for changing attitudes. The grafti on its version of bombing, particularly in railway spaces and on private property, means a signicant economic cost, particularly concerning its removal. This supports the importance of distinguishing between grafti as art in its own spaces, which should be increasingly made available, and the grafti as crime and damage.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP


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The City Council was confronted with the importance of providing legal spaces for artistic expression in the area of grafti and simultaneously young writers felt themselves challenged to present proposals for action in the city. The management bodies of public/ semi-public space, such as REFER, gained awareness of the potential of inclusive urban grafti as art, later adopting a more participatory and receptive attitude towards the development of activities involving this type of art. Historical and context knowledge of grafti generated greater understanding, particularly for police and security forces, of the reasons of many of the contours of the illegality of grafti.

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Initiatives such as the brigade anti graphite are assumed as reactive measures against the grafti and its vandal perception. The discussion focused on the importance of the development of preventive measures, based on a very logical and pedagogical integration / call of grafti as public art and space available in public areas. This issue of the availability of spaces for grafti is transversal across this social gathering, not only in the debate but also in the opinions left by participants on measures for prevention of grafti as vandalism and recognition of an interventional urban art. The "evolution" for this inclusive approach to grafti should bear in mind the slowness of this process, as indeed reinforce examples discussed such as the ones of New York. The grafti brings together a lot of different potential, namely tourism potential as art that conveys colour, dynamism, personality and life to places, attracting certain tourist proles seeking alternative routes (e.g. the Ephemeral Museum in Lisbon).

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED
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Starting a process of dialogue between the different stakeholders attending the forum, representing agents with different but complementary perspectives on grafti. Assuming the difcult distinction between the line art and grafti vandalism, one can conclude the importance of complementing the ght against vandalism with the promotion of the art, that is, reconciling urban cleanness interventions such as those undertaken by the brigade anti-grafti by providing legal spaces to paint and promoting combined efforts in the eld of public art. The public art as a way of promoting processes of active citizenship, to serve as a tool for social inclusion, immediately assuming it as the result of a truly participatory and consultation process of the citizens. Although not being a direct result of this initiative or the project Violence in Transit, namely due to nancial constraints, the CP Portugal showed more openness to the establishment of initiatives in the area of grafti, being an example of these the project "Windows" that was developed with the support of Imochan and the artistic direction of the Association P28.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Exposition and sharing of experiences/programs in the analysed areas and open debate. Exhibition of photographs, examples of urban art, during the coffee break.

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ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION The forum generated a moment of encounter and dialogue between perspectives which initially revealed totally antagonistic but upon which they built consensus. This public meeting gathered publics that usually do not share their perspectives, particularly on urban art police, young writers, bodies with intervention in public and semipublic spaces. Through this combination was enhanced the exchange of knowledge and ideas that contributed to more balanced views of both sides. On the one hand, raising the awareness of the young writers to the greatest potential of its intervention when complemented with a proper articulation and framing. On the other hand, demonstrating to the police authorities and managers of public and semi-public spaces, the potential for intervention and inclusive urban redevelopment that an art like grafti might mean.

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14 -15 MARCH 2013

TRAIN LOGBOOKS

Hypothesis deriving from the research The S. Bento Railway Station and its trains should be a strategic spot of active citizenship and social awareness among civil society for social problems identied in the territory.

Location of the intervention Trains with departure and arrival at S. Bento Station to the following destinations: Ermesinde, Trofa and Espinho

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Target group involved Passengers in the trains to or from S. Bento Station

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Refer and CP support with approval for free circulation in trains and train station. Important moment to contact citizens and disseminate the aims of the Violence in Transit project.

were women and 81 men; the average age was 35 years, inquiring passengers from the 16 to 87 years, with a predominance of respondents between 20 and 40 years (83). Most passengers surveyed attend the Station regularly (120 compared to 68 who do it occasionally), in their way to work (44), to school (132), for leisure (144), or merely as space circulation for various reasons (121). In the contact with the passengers, a signicant number of references to situations involving immigrant citizens, often stating their Romanian citizenship, have led some passengers to reect on their attitudes in contact with different cultures, admitting to have discriminatory attitudes. When asked about the feeling of insecurity, the passengers ended up assuming that it often is associated with the development of prejudices against certain vulnerable groups who circulate in the station, given the fact that the direct experience of violence situations proves to be low. We can thus assume an impact on the awareness of the participants face to attitudes that discriminate against immigrant communities and vulnerable groups such as beggars, drug abusers and prostitutes.

Activities carried out Train Logbooks

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE The impact in the context concerns immediately with the collection of a set of suggestions to apply in the space station, its surroundings and on the trains themselves, which are mentioned below in the knowledge gained. These suggestions will be returned to the station management in order to be evaluated as suggestions to be streamlined.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS The circulation on trains contacting directly the passengers and wanting to hear their opinions, allowed a proximity logic that spread the project Violence in Transit and its objectives among citizens, getting it to be known by a signicant number of people.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP A total of inquiries 204 were applied, of which only 189 were validated in the absence of other information. Of the respondents, 107

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In the preparation process of the activity, some logistic difculties were raised up the by managers of the rail station that revealed little experience of listening to their customers. This contact with the initiative is likely to be a promoter of synergies in this regard,

both in the station and in the surrounding environment and trains, is one of the issues mostly mentioned thus demonstrating a possible analysis in a logic of moral panics that matter to deconstruct. In terms of further suggestions, there is a clear view of the importance of promoting the station, its trains and surrounding area, including through cultural and entertainment events, more attractive commercial premises, its nightlife, increasing information available and the growth of its tourist potential. Reference is also made to the need of structural improvements, particularly with regard to urban regeneration of the surrounding area given its advanced degradation and abandonment, pointing also to issues relating to the inner space station, namely the improvement of their waiting rooms. Also in the context of the suggestions, there were made some references to the level of social work, with particular reference to support the population in a situation of homelessness, drug addiction and prostitution. It is noteworthy that among the suggestions for support there were also opinions from the standpoint of the relocation of the phenomena of this territory, from the perspective of discrimination against these vulnerable groups. It was stressed the deepening of reported episodes in relation to conflicts with immigrants from Eastern Europe that occurred in trains. This acquired knowledge formed the basis for later work done in designing a theatre debate on immigrant communities.

SKILLS ACQUIRED The level of knowledge acquired the results from the surveys point to both positive and negative profile that passengers have of the station. Regarding the first one, there is an emphasis on valuing the historical and cultural heritage of the space (44), highlighting its architectural value and decorative tiles (38). The centrality of the station (23) and its surroundings (29) are also highlighted as well as its touristic potential (24). In relation to the negative profile the focus is on the insecurity at night (36), the movement of beggars (37), poverty of the environment (33), the occurrence of robberies (20) and delinquent behaviours (17), the latter with references to graffiti. There is also a significant emphasis on the degradation of the surrounding buildings (18) the low movement of people during the night (13) and the low lighting (9). At the level of the problems most referred by passengers are: the consumption and drug trafficking (19), prostitution (14), immigration from Eastern European countries (14) and alcoholism (8). Given this drawn profile, passengers expressed their views on the feeling of insecurity they experience over the territory of the station with the majority (146) saying not experiencing this feeling, compared to 41 respondents who said that they felt unsafe. Despite this statement, the suggestions, enhancing security and policing,

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Questionnaire with open questions implemented by the staff project to the passengers.

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Analysis of contents of the results and application of some contents into an oppressed theatre play.

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED
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Networking as an essential practice. Promote practices of auscultation. Motivate the active participation of the citizens, through a process of collecting opinions and suggestions.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Promotion of a citizenship initiative in the context of the active movement and transit do not usually taken as a space for reection. Application of acquired knowledge with the methodology of the theatre of the oppressed (teatro do oprimido methodology).

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MARCH AND APRIL 2013

PHOTOGRAPHIC TRAILS TRILHOS DO OLHAR AND EXHIBITION

Hypothesis deriving from the research S. Bento is by excellence the touristic aim territory. The workshops aim to give back the space to their citizens by inviting them to share their views of the surrounding area. Our purpose is to turn habitus into tourists and lead them to reect about what they have experienced in those places, namely through their life experiences tied to the alcoholism, drug abuse, homelessness, immigration and prostitution.

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Location of the intervention The exhibition took place at S Bento station hall. The trails were made by the participants and the photographers at the train station and its surrounding area, but also in different city spots central to the life stories of the participants.

Plural entities contacted in order to found a physical support for the exhibition, which nally was facilitated by ESAP (Superior Arts School of Porto) REFER with the authorization for the exhibition within the station area Activities carried out Photographic Trails_ Trilhos do Olhar and its exhibition.

Target group involved We contacted a strategic person (a peer educator working a long time in the area), who made a better approach to the territory, and together identied 5 main characters whose lives are tied to alcoholism, drug abuse, homelessness, immigration and prostitution. Civil society who interact with the exhibition. Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE The exhibition in the entrance of the station proved to be a dynamic element turning it into a space for reection. Thousands of people, throughout the day, stopped by the exhibition and could see its informative content. Through these contacts, there were many comments that were heard in the sense of the importance of using the station with initiatives that streamline and put into practice its potential to raise awareness and promote social inclusion through the transmission of knowledge of the phenomena (attached poster presentation of the exhibition and respective subtitles and article published in the national newspaper on the launching of the exhibition).

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) 4 professional photojournalists 1 journalist of a national newspaper (Pblico) Peer educator from Espao Pessoa Casa da Rua Host institution of the majority of the participants that provided the meeting venue. City places important to the participants lives stories in order to allow the photographs, knowing by this way the project Hospital Veterinrio do Porto e Rdio Nova

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Increase of self-esteem and motivation for the social activism among the participants vulnerable groups. Increased network of contacts and support of participants vulnerable groups.

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IMPACT ON NETWORKS Deepening of relationships with a team of photojournalists who proved to be available for future cooperation and increased their involvement and social activism. Continuation on the monitoring by the journalist participant of some of the individual stories in carrying out specific news reports, particularly in the area of immigration (attached) and prostitution (not completed yet). Contact for later display of the exhibition within an International Photography Festival to be held in 2014 in Porto.

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED The promotion of photography as a vehicle for reection on the phenomenon of social exclusion. The active participation of vulnerable groups in the transmission of their stories as a mean to social activism.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Showing the other side of S. Bento train station and its surrounding area, beyond what tourists can see. The importance of a Social Esthetical logic, in which, through the image appeal we capture the look and reection of citizens around the pluralistic phenomena of social exclusion.

SKILLS ACQUIRED The reinforcement the importance of peer education as a means of promoting the active participation of vulnerable groups. The importance of active listening in increasing the integration of vulnerable groups. The combination of multiple factors of vulnerability in living situations of exclusion (life stories that combine prostitution with drugaddiction, crime, homelessness associated with consumption of alcohol and drugs).

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Photographic Trails with a life story objective Interviews for a national journal Photographic exhibition

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Photographic Trails Trilhos do Olhar and exhibition

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18 - 19 MARCH; 17 - 18 APRIL; MAY 2013

YOUTH PHOTOGRAPHIC WORKSHOP TRILHOS DO OLHAR

Hypothesis deriving from the research S. Bento is by excellence a touristic target territory. The workshops intended to give back the space to the citizens, especially the young people, by encouraging them to share their views of the surrounding area. In this workshop the young participants had the opportunity to be tourists in their own city and reect about what this place represents to them while they learn some photography skills.

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Location of the intervention The photographic workshops were held in two rounds through the Historic Centre of Porto chosen by its young participants. These routes included sites such as: Avenida dos Aliados, S. Bento Station, Porto Cathedral, Cordoaria, Miradouro da Vitria, Escadas da Vitria, Jardim do Infante and Praa da Ribeira Square. Paths between these points included several link streets.

Activities carried out Youth Photographic Workshop _ Trilhos Juvenis do Olhar. Photographic Exhibition in video format (showed at Sao Bento station) and in printing format (Escola rvore).

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE

The exhibition of the results was done on video during the social display in the lobby of the S. Bento Station and printed in paper, displayed in the library of the Escola rvore during May.

Knowledge of the territory by its young inhabitants that in the routes sketched by themselves reveal difculties in the appropriation of public space as a space of sociability. Increased appreciation of the historical and cultural heritage of the territory by the young participants, promoting greater respect in the contact with it.

Target group involved 20 young people aged between 10 and 16 years in a context of vulnerability accompanied by local associations of the historic center of Porto. Local art school (5 young photographers in training).

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Sharing among young participants, with everyone involved, their visions of the territory, promoting an attitude of active citizenship. Increase their knowledge of the historic and heritage value of the territory they live in. Acquisition of basic skills of photography, which aroused in some participants creative skills in the occupation of their leisure time.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Signalling entities of the youth participants - Centro Social Paroquial de S Nicolau / Centro Social Paroquial N Sra da Vitria. Escola Artstica e Prossional rvore (students and teacheres of the 2nd year of the Multimedia Course).

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IMPACT ON NETWORKS Increasing the involvement of a professional artistic school with the local social surroundings.

the period of the exhibition of photographs on the school, the young participants of the workshops were invited to a school tour through which they met its spaces and the projects developed, including projects at European level that work the issue of the role of the arts in the development of the territories.

SKILLS ACQUIRED The possibility to increase partnerships to develop the social fabric of the historic center of Porto, in particular the contact and cooperation with art schools in local development. The importance of increasing the use of public space as a space of sociability. The contact with youth participants, as mentioned above, have revealed diminished appropriation of public space, which is important to work giving back the place to its inhabitants and overcoming a unique viewpoint of touristic alignment of the territory. ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION The importance of Social Esthetical logic, in which through the appealing image we capture the look and reection of citizens around a territory and its problems. The appropriation of public space as an area of sociability in a territorial context in which progress from the point of view of tourism development have generated a alienation towards the territory from its actual residents, as is the case of the young participants in the activity.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Photographic workshops. Photographic exhibition.

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED The promotion of photography as a tool of creative occupation of free time of vulnerable youngsters. The involvement of stakeholders in different dynamics of local development. This involvement happened directly by the effective participation of The Escola rvore and its students referenced throughout the development of the activity. It should be highlighted, that during
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Youth Photographic Trails

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Trilhos do Olhar Juvenis

http://www.violenceintransit.org/videos/trilhos-do-olhar-juvenis
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27 MARCH 2013

DANCE CLASS

Hypothesis deriving from the research The research phase characterized the surrounding area of the S. Bento Station while marked by a set of social vulnerabilities. The issue of youth delinquency was addressed, especially by its relation to a question of its identity assertion. There are several studies that demonstrate the potential of the arts as a positive way of identity expression, including the arts of movement and dance.

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Location of the intervention Gym of a local school near S. Bento Station (Escola EB2/3 de Miragaia).

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE Increase of community development through an initiative totally based on partnership by which a local entity (Escola EB 2/3) provides its internal resource area for the intervention of external resources (collective dance) whose objectives are aimed at community audiences (young participants).

Target group involved 26 young people in the context of vulnerability accompanied by the local associations of the historic center of Porto.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Local institutions working with vulnerable young people (Centro Social Paroquial de S Nicolau / Centro Social Paroquial N Sra da Vitria). Local School (Escola EB2/3 de Miragaia) support in the provision of facilities. The dance group Ragga Soul organized and carried out this activity (a group with experience in several urban dances and on working with vulnerable groups, namely because the group itself involves young people from complex social contexts). Acquisition of basic skills in the eld of urban dances, which aroused in some participants' creative skills in the occupation of their leisure time.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS Local organisations have to daily face the lack of several conditions for sports in the historic center of Porto. This activity came take advantage of the contact with a group dance which is available for future cooperation, creating contact points essential to the promotion of local development, especially in its component of active inclusion of young people through art.

Activities carried out Dance Class.

SKILLS ACQUIRED The possibility to promote partnerships to develop the social tissue of the historic center of Porto, in particular with regard to the contact and input by artistic collectives in local development.

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The dance as an expression of a positive identity of youth, as an art of movement, as opposed to violent behaviour. Culture that integrates dance hip hop the violent behaviours are transported to a symbolic sphere in which each part expresses itself, revealing their artistic skills.

such as that which characterizes the historic center of Porto. This valuation, in logic of Social Aesthetics, can contribute to the promotion of the territory and its people, to the extent that the transmission of artistic languages often excluded and in the outskirts of a territory, can function as a plural attracting investment.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Dance Class in urban styles (hip hop, ragga dancehall , house dance e b-boying).

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED The promotion of dance as a tool for creative occupation of free time of young vulnerable groups and identity assertion. Involvement of stakeholders in plural dynamic local development. This involvement manifested itself directly in the effective participation of the collective Raggasoul throughout the activity. It should be highlighted that during the class period each of the elements of the collective presented a brief history of the musical style represented, always reinforcing the potential of dance as a corporal expression and artistic alternative to violent behaviour and the artistic value of cultural expressions considered marginal.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION In the content transmitted by the collective Raggasoul during the class, they emphasized the argument strengthening the appreciation of the cultural richness of the most vulnerable social contexts,
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Dance Class

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23, 26, 27 MARCH; 14 APRIL; 22 MAY 2013

DEBATE THEATER

Hypothesis deriving from the research Traveling on a train, often means travel between cultures. In this project, there were been reported conict / culture clashs with immigrant citizens on trains circulating in S. Bento. Given that fact, its important to understand the reasons why there are train passengers who agree with the actions of the security forces on immigrant citizens and others who speak out against them. In broaden approach, we intended to analyse how each of us deals when contacting with a foreign citizen.

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Location of the intervention Porto, S. Bento train station meeting room unoccupied _ activity integrated the initiative Nem todas as linhas so paralelas. Exhibition at Escola Superior de Educao.

Kalina Association (association of immigrants from Eastern Europe that identied 1 of the 6 participants at the debate theatre). SOS Racismo (association combating racism that promotes a local educational project with young people from Porto Historical center, which identied 2 of the 6 participants at the debate theatre). Peer educator from Espao Pessoa.

Target group involved Vulnerable immigrants, security forces with intervention at the territory, civil society who interact with the exhibition, and social sciences students. We contact 2 associations (SOS Racismo and Kalina) and a strategic person (Romanian immigrant), who make a better approach to the territory, and together identify 6 direct participants that represented the debate theatre, 2 of them vulnerable immigrants and the others young people with interests at the oppressed theatre and social activism. The rst presentation at S. Bento station had 20 participants and the second, in the context of the Escola de Eudcao, was attended by 45 students.

1 Romanian immigrant. Fundao para o Desenvolvimento da Zona Histrica (provided the venue for the rst rehearsal). Refer and Porto Lazer (municipal company) support in the provision of facilities and equipment for the 1st presentation. Escola Superior de Educao (entity that promoted the second presentation with students of Social Sciences).

Activities carried out Set up of an exhibition using the methodology of the oppressed theatre, specically forum theatre. Presentation and debate about the exhibition in different contexts.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) CP support with the authorization for the free circulation in trains doing the train logbooks which results were used as material to reect at the debate theatre. Tartaruga Falante young company of oppressed theatre. Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE From a space in which discrimination situations occur against immigrants and in which they are only targeted with a securitarian
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approach, S. Bento Station turns into a place of reection on the living conditions of these communities and the causes behind the reported episodes of conict with them.

rior School of Education), providing a point of contact with the school context reality with vulnerable groups such as those expressed in the presentation.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Enhancing the potential of social integration of the 2 immigrant participants by contact with associations which they were unaware and started to collaborate. Continuity of involvement of 6 participants in subsequent actions related to Theater of the Oppressed, thus promoting their role as active citizens. The "publics" of the actions seen reinforced their knowledge about the living conditions of immigrant communities, knowing realities as the human trafcking and with them increasing their ability to deconstruct prejudices.

SKILLS ACQUIRED As already mentioned, the presentation made was based on direct experience of two Eastern European immigrants in Portugal, as well as the set of testimonies that were collected from passenger trains with activity "Train Logbooks" (activity 6). The experiences shared / "staged" was the motto of a debate organized around the causes of situations that represent a multifaceted exclusion experienced by immigrants from Eastern Europe, as well as a cultural clash with portuguese citizens. The growing movement of immigrants from Eastern Europe on trains, including Romanians, is represented as a cultural shock, in which outstanding portuguese citizens comment hygiene and behavioral issues from the immigrants. For this specic situation, the debate takes place around the representations of society towards immigrant communities, which rely heavily on a lack of knowledge of the life conditions of these communities, as well as cultural assumptions unknown, such as the signicant provenience of Romanian immigrants from rural origins, endowed with a very distinct culture of orality, in which the collective life experience creates a need to express loud. In this eld of representations of immigrant communities, the role of the media assumes prominence because it is often through it that stereotypes are strengthened in the extent that it exacerbates certain specic conict situations that society absorbs generalizing and excluding all the immigrant population.
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IMPACT ON NETWORKS The entire organization of the initiative is supported in the establishment of networks involving all actors mentioned above. As already indicated, the participants in the initiative saw their network of contacts extended, encouraging the contact with immigrant associations and subsequent involvement with the Association of Theatre of the Oppressed "Tartaruga Falante." Through the rst exhibition, integrated in the S. Bento train station in a event scheduled by the project, arose the fullled challenge of a presentation in school context for students in the social area (Supe-

Behind this question of representations of immigrant communities, the presentation and discussion sought to examine the issue of living conditions of these people and why they search Portugal. The rst argument emerging was the poverty globalization. Today there is a movement of people from poor countries and labor exploitation reveals it as something transversal. In times of crisis like the present, xenophobia tends to widen, precisely for this transversality of exploitation and scarcity of labour. In this sense, immigrant communities come to Portugal in search for survival conditions, including an employment contract, and face barriers from different dimensions, in which the stronger is the question of legalization. As is stated in, you need an employment contract for legalization and, in turn, the legalization is required to obtain an employment contract. In this sense, the unfulfilled promises of work places immigrants in extreme exclusion situations. The illegality of immigrant communities is an element that counts in the context of labor exploitation and is, in many situations, a directly and intrinsically related phenomena of human trafficking and organized crime. The integration of immigrants who experience these contexts is very complex by the constant feeling of insecurity and fear in which they live. This feeling puts away from them, namely, a support mechanism which could result from immigrant associations, which we challenged more to disclose more its role along these contexts. Thus, the situations discussed demonstrate the importance of legislation to be more appropriate in terms of immigration, particularly on labour, whats essential to ensure access to decent living conditions. In this area also the role of the embassies should be strengthened and clarified by requiring from them more effective action. Simultaneously, these situations highlight the importance of greater dissemination of information on human traf-

ficking (Observatory of Human Trafficking). When a Portuguese citizen is confronted with a situation of cultural shock before an immigrant, he will tend to be more tolerant and inclusive if knows he may be dealing with a situation of human trafficking. The issue of immigrant communities is, in the context of this activity, also much discussed from the point of view of safety. In this area it reveals strategic to promote awareness and information among security forces, as well as the complaint by the civil society of situations of discrimination that are witnessed. In short, behind delinquency behaviors by immigrant communities and, above all, behind their exclusion by society, is a basis of misinformation. In this sense, the debate bet signicantly in awareness and education as a basic principle for the work around inclusion. It is important to carry out work with schools (children, parents and teachers) and with citizens in order to deconstruct prejudices, educating for global citizenship. These citizenship actions should be the basis, working in parallel with the encouragement of the creation of reception conditions for immigrant communities, which also motivate them to their integration.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Debate theater methodology integrated in the "Tree" of theater of the oppressed. It is noteworthy that some of the content of the situations presented are results of content analysis of surveys realized in the format logbooks (compare activity 6) applied to passenger trains.

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PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED The promotion of the theater of the oppressed as a vehicle for reection on the phenomenon of social exclusion. The importance of awareness and information in plural contexts related to the living conditions of immigrant communities coupled with the exercise of political lobbying, assuming these areas as a basis for strengthening the conditions for the reception of immigrant communities. Stimulation of contact of immigrants with associations that defend their rights and which they dont know the existence.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION The importance of a Social Esthetical logic, in which, through a participatory and inclusive art as the Theatre of the Oppressed we capture the look and reection of citizens around the pluralistic phenomena of social exclusion, involving both oppressed and oppressors (highlight our attempt to the direct involvement of security forces in the methodology of the performance but it was only possible their participation at the assistance.

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Debate Theatre

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17 - 18 APRIL 2013

VIDEOBOX

Hypothesis deriving from the research The S. Bento Railway Station should be a strategic spot of active citizenship were citizens are incentivized to express opinion around the problems and the resources of the territory.

Location of the intervention Porto, S. Bento train station hall _ activity integrated at the initiative Not all lines are parallel.

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Target group involved Users from S. Bento Station. Local Artistic School (Escola Superior de Artes do Porto): Students and teachers from the Architecture Class (construction of the structure] and the Cinema and Audiovisual Class (recording and editing of the testimonies).

suggestions will be returned to the management responsibles of the station in order to be evaluated as suggestions to streamline.

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Having been contacted a wide range of users of the station, only 20 of these have enabled the recording of their testimony expressing their opinions. This reduced adhesion to the activity is immediately signicant from the point of view of the absence of a strong participatory culture among citizens, being this activity an opportunity to encourage initiative and commitment into this culture, as it is an opportunity to reect on a territory, its problems and their resources. However, the reduced compliance is also inherent to some organization issues. Being integrated within the "Not all lines are parallel", the activity lost, somehow, adhesion potential, given the reduced temporal possibility of project team to mobilize participants or even the preparation of young present volunteers to this mobilization. The structure itself of the Videobox, designed and developed by ESAP showed no strong attraction to potential participants. In this sense, it has come also an opportunity for reection among young students participating towards the development of concerns on inclusive work. Some of the testimonies are collected from local residents in situations of poverty and social exclusion, so their involvement in active citizenship practices proves to be a contribution towards their empowerment.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) REFER support with the authorization for the installation of the videobox at the hall of S. Bento Station. Local Artistic School (Escola Superior de Artes do Porto): Students and teachers from the Architecture Class (construction of the structure] and the Cinema and Audiovisual Class (recording and editing of the testimonies).

Activities carried out Collection of testimonies from citizens using S Bento Station around positive and negative aspects of the territory

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE The impact in the context concerns immediately with the collection of a set of suggestions to apply into the station space and its surroundings, which are refered below at the knowledge gained. These

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IMPACT ON NETWORKS The presence at the station directly contacting their passengers, earing and shooting their opinions, allowed a proximity logic that spread the project Violence in Transit and its objectives among citizens, getting it to be known by a signicant number of people. Increase the involvement of a professional local artistic school in a practice of active citizenship directly related to the development of its territory implementation, enhancing its role as an agent of development. Stand out the fact that this activity has allowed mediating contact between ESAP and REFER, opening possibilities for collaboration (hampered to the date) in future at the space of S. Bento station.

of green spaces and an excessive car trafc at the space in question. As an important area of accessibility and centrality S Bento station fulls its functions of circulation space but doesnt include conditions that motivate staying in the space and its use beyond occasional (reference to the payment of WC's). These conditions turn out to be essential in dening its potential as inclusive space. Relatively to the social exclusion phenomena identied at the territory, the rst reference is to the territory itself assumed as a place of poverty and social exclusion. The testimonies also refer to the issue of prostitution (territorially linked to Loureiro Street) and the issue of drug addiction. The phenomenon of insecurity expressed in the occurrence of robberies, is referred at the testimonies as a reality, although in a smaller proportion but still requiring the need for greater involvement of policing. Finally, the expression of this territory as an ideal territory refers to a set of aspirations for it:
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SKILLS ACQUIRED Regarding the relationship of the participants with the territory, this was essentially dened as a transit route and movement of people, but also as a space of familiarity for those who inhabit it longstanding, either as residents or as persons who work with the issue of drug addiction, phenomenon of prominent presence. There are also references to the centrality of the territory and its historical and artistic potential. With regard to the positive and negative aspects of the territory is immediately referred the historic character, the architectural potential and the tourist potential of the area which however is also rated as slightly monetized due to a process of rehabilitation of the surrounding buildings still negligible as well as a lacunar bet in issues of urban sanitation and investment in public space, namely with the lack

Increased promotion of activities in the territory, making it more attractive, particularly through its cultural dynamics in various dimensions and its potential use for occupational activities for young. Bet on the urban rehabilitation of the buildings and improved management of the surrounding public space (green spaces, street cleaning, road trafc control, parking). Stimulation of the potential of the space as a living space, given its attractive features beyond its circulation function.
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As a touristic space, S. Bento station is what many who visit Portugal take as our image, assuming that is important to bet in its innovative development, maintaining a certain cultural identity, namely by encouraging the extension of tours to its surroundings, which are full of unknown "corners". Promotion of the station and its surroundings as a territory of social inclusion, dynamizing a culture of solidarity and active citizenship, namelly assuming it as a space for volunteer activities and intervention in the existing phenomena of social exclusion. Increase the security of the territory, not just policing but mostly through the promotion of the space.

Motivate the active participation of the citizens, through a process of collecting opinions and suggestions.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION Promotion of a citizenship initiative in the context of the active movement and transit do not usually taken as a space for reection.

Although we collected the consent of all participants to the use of their image and testimonies we chose not to use the video as a nal content of the project, assuming that this activity lacked a more signicant bet, particularly with regard to greater explicitness of its goals. Effectively, the contents collected show us that even acknowledging the weaknesses of their territory, those who inhabit it tend to present it through a positive identity and also a generalized and consensual one. In this sense, the non-submission of the nal video is an option, since we understood that the result of the activity proved to have a more journalistic character than a sociological one.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Semistructured interviews with recording testimonies.

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED Promote practices of auscultation.

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17 - 18 APRIL 2013

SOCIAL EXHIBITION

Hypothesis deriving from the research The S. Bento Railway Station and its trains should be a strategic spot of active citizenship and social awareness among civil society for social problems identied in the territory and to promote the visibility of social work (services and resources) by social organizations to civil society and also reinforce the networking among themselves.

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Location of the intervention Porto, S. Bento train station hall - Activity integrated on the initiative Not all lines are parallel.

Activities carried out 2 days of social exhibition, from 10:00 am to 20:00 pm, gathered 19 social organizations which social intervention in social problematic identied during research period. 12 performances on the animation programme of the activity. 3 informative sessions (sex education for young people; Domestic Violence and safety for elderly people). 2 mobile units in the health care in surrounding area (counselling and HIV tests, nursing appointments concerning with alcohol screening and brief intervention and also cardiovascular screening).

Target group involved. Civil society; passengers, tourists; social organizations with participation in the event and vulnerable people.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations)


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Refer and CP support with approval to promote the social exibition in the hall of S. Bento Station. City Hall of Porto support with approval in public space of mobile health unit. The participation of social organizations with intervention on the social problems identied during the research phase. The participation of vulnerable people in the informative sessions (sexual education; domestic violence and seniors safety) and also by performing some cultural ativities/animation programme and by participating in the stands of social exhibition. The participation of the cultural and social entities in the animation programme. Important moment to contact citizens and disseminate the aims of the Violence in Transit project.

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE During the social exhibition, the S. Bento Railway Station became a strategic spot of active citizenship and social awareness among civil society for social problems identied in the territory due to the visibility of social work (services and resources) showed by social organizations. Reinforced the relevance of the space as a cultural strategic spot by performance the animation programme, and other activities like the delivering of balloons with messages about human rights by young people dressed as clowns to passengers / tourists and police.

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IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP Total of 19 participating organizations at the social exhibition. 114 attendances at the mobile units in the health area (47 counselling appointments and HIV tests + 67 nursing appointments - 14 alcohol screening and brief intervention + 53 cardiovascular screening). 12 performances on the animation programme of the activity. 49 participants at the informative sessions (23_sex education for young people; 14_Domestic Violence; 12_Safety to elderly people).

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED
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3 meetings to prepare the initiative directly evolving the social organizations in the animation programme and also in the stands decoration and in the document on the regulation of the initiative. Distribution of different organizations in the hall of S. Bento Station joining together those organizations with a direct response towards vulnerable people and those with a informative and research level of intervention in the areas under discussion. The animation programme allowed to concentrate different publics to get contact with the work of social organizations. The informative sessions enable to answer questions from participants of social organizations and reinforce the networking of police security in the local community by promoting the sessions of Domestic Violence and Safety to elderly people. The informative sessions were well assessed by the participants regarding with useful information to their daily lifes. Nonetheless they should by large noticed to a major public in order to have more participants. The application of a questionnaire for global assessment of all initiatives promoted by social experimentation allowed gathering some suggestions to improve future initiatives.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS It bring together a diverse range of organizations from social, cultural, health, security, local authority and the railway company around to the same propose: make civil society more awareness to the exclude and vulnerable people; and strength the networking between themselves; knowing better what each other does specially realising that some works with same vulnerable people. The relevance of this initiative was highlighted by social organizations to once a year to perform a similar event.
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SKILLS ACQUIRED
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The promotion of networking and partnership between different organizations. The increase awareness of social workers who participate in this kind of iniciatives to have a more proactive role interacting with citizens and vulnerable people.

Practices consolidated
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The awareness to promote more similar initiatives at S. Bento Station to consolidate the networking among social organizations.
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The recognition of REFER and CP (rail transports) to promote such initiatives in S. Bento Station and in other local stations. The recognised leadership of EAPN Portugal to promote this kind of initiative according to its mission and role ghting against social exclusion and poverty.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION
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The initiative proved to be an asset in promoting partnership between diverse entities from civil society, business, health services and schools. It was just an opportunity to disseminate their work, creating synergies and leveraging resources, as well as contributing to the strengthening of personal and social skills of vulnerable groups that follow. The public access to the rooms S. Bento Station- without use as a privileged space in the heart of the city during the informative sessions contributed to rethink the role of space as a forum of active citizenship. The absence of budget to promote the diverse tasks reinforced the participation of large scope of actors.

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Social Exhibition

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8 - 18 APRIL; 6 JUNE 2013

URBAN CULTURE WORKSHOPS

Hypothesis deriving from the research The report of the research project Violence in Transit point as a sign of youth delinquency in S Bento Station and its surroundings, the existence of brands that are known as bombing, which means quickly grafti associated with the illegality and expressed with simple letters. It is usually seen in places of high visibility and rapid transit. In this sense, the present activities tend to involve local youth, offering them an alternative leisure, placing them in the art world in a major urban context of differentiation between vandalism and graphic art forms that require knowledge

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and skills to carry them out . Ultimately, we intend to bring the debate to the revitalization of public space through urban art. Location of the intervention Superior School Of Arts of Porto (stencil workshop). Porto, S. Bento train station hall [videobox structure] (exhibition of some results of the stencil workshop). Headquarters of the project Catapulta (Project Escolhas wich works with children and young people from Porto Historical Center in situations of exclusion) [Informative session on grafti).

ESAP (Superior School of Arts of Porto) (faculty and students of Visual Arts and Intermedia, facilitators of the stencil workshop).

Despite not having been carried out, were streamlined a set of procedures towards the development of a grafti wall at S. Bento station being important to some networks of contacts: REFER (communication and image responsibles, security responsibles and direction). CP (security responsibles). Gare (nightlife and cultural proximity space).

Target group involved (stencil workshop) 15 young people between 14 and 20 years with an expression of interest in grafti. (informative session on grafti) 25 young people between 10 and 16 years in the context of vulnerability accompanied by local institutions of the historic center of Porto.

Porto City Hall. IGESPAR (entity managing the World Heritage brand that evaluated the refusal of the project). Idiot Mag _ Urban Culture and Trends (online magazine contacted for coverage of the initiative). Abrao and APDES (associations contacted in order to boost a campaign parallel to the opening of the wall, around youth risk behaviors, at the level of health and consumptions). Logistics Contacts (scaffolding and paints companies, management company of the station parking where it would be held the wall).

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Signalling entities of the youth participants - Project Catapulta and Associao de Solidariedade da Zona das Fontanhas (working with children and young people from the Historical Center in situations of exclusion) and Escola Artstica e Prossional rvore (artistc art school). Grafti Artist (Natz).

Activities carried out Stencil workshop (12 hours).


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Informative session on grafti. Planning to develop a mural on S Bento station however not approved.

Acquisition of ethical, conceptual and technical instruments (stencil) for active and responsible participation of young people participating in the community in which they live, awakening creative skills in the occupation of their leisure time. Access to knowledge of urban art contributes to building a positive youth identity

Results obtained IMPACT ON CONTEXT/PLACE Transverse to these set of activities is a rst step towards urban intervention initiatives which intend to change the environments that surround us in a creative and inclusive way, encouraging the use of public space through urban art, enhancing its potential for positive identities in complex social contexts. The "ght against grafti means, for the territory in question, a very high economic cost. Given that fact, there are increasingly examples of countries and areas where grafti has been taken as legitimate art, providing legally authorized spaces to paint. The set of activities conducted in this direction, motivating both entities to seek alternative paths from criminalization and "eradication" of grafti, such as appealing to young people by their sense of civility and respect for private property. Attempt to develop an initiative of urban revitalization (station wall) through grafti.

IMPACT ON NETWORKS Strengthening the involvement of a professional local art school and a grafti artist with the social environment, fostering later contacts and collaborations, particularly in the promotion of occupational workshops and even in creating a dynamic partnership in fostering activities of revitalization of equipments (including infrastructure institutions) through urban art. In planning the grafti wall we set up partnerships between REFER, ESAP, Idiot Mag and EAPN Portugal towards the promotion of future outreach initiatives, based on urban art, occurring in other railway stations, in a national context. Contact with Gare (nightlife and cultural proximity space) allowed us to establish a mediation between this space, REFER and the managing entity of the car park towards the promotion of some safety measures (lighting in shared spaces).

IMPACT ON TARGET GROUP The grafti appears to be a means par excellence of identity in complex social contexts, promoting the integration of young people often excluded or at risk of exclusion, as some of the participants in these actions. SKILLS ACQUIRED In this set of activities, effectively, the remaining results referenced in this template, lining up mostly the character of acquired knowledge.
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Possible increase in partnerships to develop the territory, especially with respect to the contact and the contributions played by art schools and social institutions, attached to a plural set of actors in local development. This increase is seen facilitated by a more proactive and opening view that some larger administrative entities assumed. The inclusive and dening identity potential of urban art, especially assuming the development of skills that underpin an ethical stance towards the local expression of this art.

ELEMENTS OF INNOVATION The importance of a Social Esthetical logic, in which, through the image appeal we capture the look and reection of citizens around the pluralistic phenomena of social exclusion. Transmission of a perspective of grafti as street art which also takes place in educational settings, working, particularly as a tool for potential inclusion and integration in school curricula that not only alternative.

METHODOLOGIES IMPLEMENTED Stencil workshop (theorical transmission of the cultural grassroots behind the stencil and practice of the technique, whose results were subsequently exposed at the videobox structure at S. Bento station). Informative session on grafti (exposition and sharing of grafti artist experience and of examples from legal grafti)

PRACTICES CONSOLIDATED The urban art as a way of promoting processes of active citizenship, serving as a tool for social inclusion. The promotion of urban art as a tool for creative and responsible occupation of free time of vulnerable young people. Involvement of stakeholders in plural dynamic local development, calling for the revitalization of the territory with the participation of its agents and through an art that tends to be assumed as marginal.

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Urban Art Workshops

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27 MAY 2013

EVALUATION MEETING OF THE INITIATIVE NOT ALL LINES ARE PARALLEL

Location of the intervention EAPN Portugal Auditorium.

Target group involved Survey sent to 43 organizations / people participating in the initiative. Reception of 18 completed surveys. Meeting attended by 18 participants, representing 13 organizations.

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Results obtained This evaluation meeting concerns to a set of activities that include the social experimentation phase. So, it seems to us, important to leave the relevant register of the main results of the consultation by the categories collected and not by the categories proposed for the analysis. Stand out that the evaluation survey used the following scale: 1 = Insufcient 2 = Enough 3 = Good 4 = Very Good

Social Exhibition (including Expository Space, Mobile Units on Health Issues, Informative sessions and animation program)

The structure of the evaluation survey has a rst component with a quantitative format followed by a qualitative domain with open questions. The main contents are shown below.

Quantitative evaluation Evaluation of partnership indicators In terms of partnership indicators, for the set of activities, the evaluation was tendentiously positive (3) and very positive (4).

This evaluation meeting and the survey in which it was based were send to all entities and partners involved in the initiative Not all lines are Parallel. Because of the diversity of the initiative (open week format), the evaluation assessed the different activities that integrated the week, namely: Photographic Trails Trilhos do Olhar and its exhibition Photographic Workshops "Trilhos Juvenis do Olhar" Debate Theater on immigrant communities Workshop on Urban Cultures - stencil Videobox

Evaluation of divulgation indicators In terms of divulgation indicators to the complete set of activities, the evaluation was tendentiously positive (3). Stand out from the data analysis that the workshops "Trilhos Juvenis do Olhar" divulgation was deemed insufcient by 2 respondents in the dimensions of the layout and clarity of information. To the social exhibition the divulgation was assumed insufcient by 3 respondents in view of the means used, period, and clarity of information. At this level of divulgation, its important to highlight that the project organization team of Violence in Transit only had the authorization for the open divulgation of the initiative on the prior day to its realization. Until then the divulgation was only internal, for the plural set of entities involved, but without the possibility of release to the outside, clearly affecting the indicators of inputs and reporting period. A highlight is the positive
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evaluation of the layout of the divulgation, which was performed by young students of a local professional art school (Escola rvore), Filipe Fonte and Rui Marques, as part of a work subject to competition.

clear fulllment of expectations to the level of the awareness objective. Some answers point to expectations exceeded, especially in terms of increased self-esteem of vulnerable public participants (photographic trails Trilhos do Olhar).

Indicators of overall assessment In terms of indicators of overall assessment for the all set of activities, Planning and Organization of activities and the local of the initiative were mostly rated as very good (4). Logistical conditions tend to an evaluation of sufcient (2). The organization in general tends to be rated as good. Regarding the impact of the initiative on the surrounding community and vulnerable groups the tendency is to a sufcient assessment (2). Finally the innovative character of the initiatives tends to be rated as good (3) and very good (4).

Compliance with the objective Promoting partnership work and a participatory approach through the development of interventions of social experimentation, activating and mobilizing the community to combat poverty and social exclusion.

17 respondents in a total of 18 answered afrmatively the fulllment of the purpose of the initiative "Not all lines are parallel". The initiative proved to be an asset in promoting partnership between entities as diverse as civil society, business, health services and schools. Regarding the mobilization of vulnerable groups (taking into account the assumed strategie of a mediated contact with them through the organizations with a more direct presence on the ground, and thus a major possibility to a follow-up) the organizations report that mobilization was reduced. The goal was fullled also at the level of visibility and dissemination of knowledge of social issues to the general community as well as the fact that it has revealed an initiative that served as an example to important (and essentially possible) dynamics of participatory local development.

Qualitative assessment Fulllment of expectations 17 respondents in a total of 18 answered afrmatively regarding the fulllment of their expectations about the initiative "Not all lines are parallel" In the comments collected in the survey and in the meeting the claims are held around a clear experience of an opportunity to publicize the work of organizations in a number of social problems around the community in general, and a time of sharing between organizations, creating synergies and enhancing resources as well as contributing to the strengthening of personal and social skills of the vulnerable groups that they work with. This opportunity led thus a

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Highlighting once again the human issue in working with vulnerable groups, in relation to the experience of the photographic trails Trilhos do Olhar, participation by vulnerable groups was seen by themselves as a challenge, acting as an incentive to continue their work towards their full integration .

Possibility of participation of vulnerable groups in diverse activities Initiative Organization (5) Commitment of the organization Aggregation at the same initiative of different areas of intervention Publicizing the work of the participating entities (5)

Positive Aspects In terms of positive aspects referenced we systematize the results in 6 categories, highlighting the contents below:

Initiative Local (5)

Negative Aspects Networking (17) Integration of new social agents in work networks Holistic Perspective on improving responses to the needs of the target population, through working in partnership Sharing knowledge of the work done by all Promotion of interinstitutional cohesion Awareness and involvement of the target audience (17) Interaction, mobilization and awareness of the general community Strengthening the work of active participation of vulnerable groups Activities from the Initiative (7) Reference to specic activities European integration In terms of negative aspects referenced we systematize the results in 7 categories, highlighting the contents below: Participation / Involvement (5) Little intervention by target audience (informative sessions at Social Exhibition) Passive approach from institutions in the context of Social Exhibition Development of the activities (5) Shortage of activities that provide the meeting of vulnerable groups with the community Litlle Inovation of the initiative Reduced number of photographs displayed [workshops Trilhos Juvenis do Olhar] Display of the photographic exhibition [Exhibition Trilhos do Olhar]
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Initiative Local (5) [Social Exhibition] place of transit implying limited availability of people to approach Impact of the initiative (5) Animation of the initiative (1) More animation moments needed to attract attention and people Initiative Divulgation (2) Financial constraints (1) It is noted that during the meeting it was also highlighted a limitation on the reduced temporal duration of the project in its phase of social experimentation.

clusion. This continuity is however considered into a perspective in which the greater prominence is given to the presentation of the actions taken by the organisations and not to organisations themselves, avoiding a passive attitude (behind a panel presentation) and putting the technicians and the vulnerable groups in more direct contact with citizens, leaving their comfort zone" and assuming an effective demonstration of community work. Also in this area emerged a proposal to hold an initiative within the Theatre of the Oppressed, directed at social workers, working the issue of their pro-active attitude . Initiatives such as the debate theatre, the exhibition Trilhos do Olhar, the workshops Trilhos Juvenis do Olhar, followed their paths and continue to be present in other contexts and to more public. From the point of view of the evaluation from the vulnerable groups involved, some of them stand a very positive assessment, in particular with regard to the extension of their social networking contacts. There were created actually human relationships that endure, especially on the experience of the photographic trails. Relation to work with young people, we highlight a comment left by the local artistic school (Escola rvore) " At the XXI century is essential to eradicate poverty in all its forms, and the best way is to change attitudes, especially among young people because they are our future, showing them "other looks" and other "tracks" from outside their comfort zone and allowing them to take a new look at the other ".

Perspectives of continuity All respondents of the survey and attendants of the meeting answered positively about their prospects for continued collaboration. As the way they pretend to collaborate, the comments go towards providing human resources (technicians and clients) and their own mobilization to similar format initiatives. Realizing some proposals, its transversal the question of continuity and strengthening networking between organizations and institutions that work with vulnerable populations. At this level, references are made to the realization of an annual event on a Social Exhibition format as a space for sharing working methods of active involvement of vulnerable publics and a moment par excellence to raise awareness around issues of poverty and social ex-

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EAPN Portugal, as organisation entity, concludes with a commitment to promotion of more initiatives to combat prejudice and stigma at various levels, collecting more times the forces that came together and left on the ground, in organizations that work directly on it, the arising contributions.

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Not all lines are parallel

http://www.violenceintransit.org/videos/not-all-lines-are-parallel
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FUNDACIN APIP-ACAM
Synthesis of experimentations

The project Violence in transit in Barcelona has focused on two types of activity: awareness building and community actions. The former actions are to make the population aware of the relevance of social problems in and around transport infrastructures, affecting rst and foremost the youth population. The latter actions are adapted to the needs and characteristics of the target population, marginalised and mainly homeless youngsters, based on an inclusive strategy. Below is a list of the actions undertaken. Awareness-building actions include the lm restrospective (cinema forum), videobox, community festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc and workshops and seminars. Social actions include the urban art exhibition, gardening and language-learning meetings. The photographic exhibition is both a social action and an awareness-building action.

the area. Local youngsters are the real protagonists of these actions. 5. Gardening event Let the neighbourhood grow!: homeless youngsters and local residents discover the local community garden and basic gardening techniques. Language learning meeting How do we talk in our Neighbourhood?: local residents, some marginalised and others not, meet to discover other cultures and languages spoken in the area. Community Festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc: a fun way to encourage social participation and cohesion in the local community through two initiatives, Lets make a school, lets make a neighbourhood, and Paper Flowers-Books for Sant Jordi. Discussion: Do we talk about the Neighbourhood?: debate among neighbourhood representatives about the key issues of the project, the problems of violence and social exclusion of youngsters in the Estaci del Nord area.

6.

7.

8. 1. Cinema forum Realidad-Es (Realities): lms focusing on social vulnerability, followed by a debate. Photography exhibition Our Neighbourhood: homeless youngsters are behind the camera, photographing their surroundings, guided by photography students. A number of displays have been organised to show their work. Urban art exhibition Art in the Neighbourhood!: a mural painted on a run-down wall of the neighbourhood, an artist guiding the work of marginalised youngsters with the collaboration of the local school. Videobox Talk about the Neighbourhood: recording the thoughts of local residents in a video on the neighbourhood, Estaci del Nord, and the state of social exclusion experienced in

2.

3.

4.

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Barcelona Estaci del Nord

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Estaci del Nord

http://www.violenceintransit.org/videos/estacio-del-nord
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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

VIDEO FORUM

Hypothesis deriving from the research This activity arose from the need to highlight the various social problems in the area and give the community at large the chance to reect on the fact that structural violence is one of the causes of said problems. The cinema forum activity was rst and foremost an opportunity to make people aware of the various social problems present in the neighbourhood. The main theme chosen was the social vulnerability felt by many members of society caused by current socio-economic conditions. In this way, the participation of local
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residents makes them realise that anyone is in danger of social exclusion not just because of personal histories.

Metamor-Eje.Ideas Apip-Acam Foundation: Daphne team

Location of the intervention Parc Sandaru Community Centre.

Activities carried out CINEMA FORUM: 1. Drifting Clouds by director Aki Kaurismki (04/04/2013)

Target group involved Direct target is the local community of the Fort Pienc neighbourhood. Indirect targets are vulnerable people at risk of social exclusion, making both targets aware of the problem, requiring compromise and the need for shared social responsibility.

2. The End of Poverty? by director Philippe Diaz (11/04/2013) 3. Bus 174 by director Jose Padilha (18/04/2013) 4. Project documents: I venditori di Patate (Potato Sellers) made by the Association On the Road, partner of the Violence in transit project in Pescara, and two specially made audiovisual products: a video gathering views as part of the videobox activity Talk about the Neighbourhood, and a video about the making of the photography workshop Our Neighbourhood with homeless people. (02/05/2013)

Networking (contacted and involved organizations)

Parc Sandaru Community Centre Fort Pienc AMPA (Junior school Parents Association) IES Fort Pius AMPA (Secondary school Parents Association) IES Fort Pius pupils (ESO third and fourth years) JGR Design (audiovisual production company) Instituto de Estudios Fotogracos de Catalua Photography school Fort Pienc Community Garden Results obtained Twenty-ve people in total were involved. The video forum debates were an opportunity to talk about the structural causes of various social problems. The rst innovative aspect was to use unpublished or original documents, such as The Potato Sellers. Producing two specic videos - Talk about the Neighbourhood and Our neighbourhood for the meeting was an innovative element,
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which also helped to achieve set goals, involving more directly local organisations and producing unique and awareness-building materials. The fact that school pupils and their parents through AMPA were directly involved in the video Talk about the Neighbourhood facilitated the beginning of a debate about homeless people moving beyond the usual prejudices and stereotypes. In the same way, getting third and fourth year ESO students to take part has provided them with a tool to work on questions relating to the neighbourhood and allowed youngsters to take part in this awareness building campaign, inviting them to think about and discuss the social problems present in their district. The production of video documents has also made contacts easier between the organisations involved, especially on the day of the idea-sharing session. Activity was performed at the Parc Sandaru Community Centre as a way of boosting participation in the cinema forums, organised at the centre but which attracted small audiences. A participatory method was adopted, with group activity based on dialogue and idea sharing. A wide variety of views and stances were collected in relation to the same reality. The activity has the educational aim of encouraging critical and analytical reections on different realities present in the neighbourhood by means of critical dialogue in order to facilitate social change. Calls were made to encourage joint responsibility and the involvement of citizens. All of this naturally entails the discovery of new perspectives since the sharing of ideas always enriches ones personal outlook.

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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

PHOTOGRAPHY WORKSHOP OUR NEIGHBOURHOOD

Hypothesis deriving from the research The digital photography workshop aimed at homeless people was staged to allow these people, through their taking photos of the neighbourhood they live in, to air their view of their surroundings and of the people they meet there. In this way, the views of the chosen target can be transmitted to the rest of the community. The activity allows homeless people to be involved in an action in their immediate vicinity. There are two aims for this activity: to make local residents more aware, and to give marginalised people a means of expression, bearing in mind that they have few opportunities to make their
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voices heard. The need to highlight these social problems is a theme common to all the projects proposed actions. The study shows that these people are invisible due to their position in society, but in any case they are considered as part of the neighbourhood population.

SIS (street-workers) Assis residential centre for the homeless. IEFC (Instituto de Estudios Fotogracos de Catalua). JGR Design (audiovisual support). Metamor-Eje.Ideas Parc Sandaru community centre. TMB (Barcelona underground transport company). Apip-Acam Foundation: Non-custodial sentences programme (community work) and DAPHNE team

Location of the intervention Fort Pienc (in Eixample district) and El Parc-La Llacuna (in Sant Marti district).

Target group involved Direct target:

Activities carried out

Homeless people (three people). Students of Instituto de Estudios fotogracos de Catalua (four people).

Indirect target:

Four individual 4-hour sessions were staged in the Fort Pienc district in order to create a relaxed atmosphere, with each user having at his disposal the advice and support of an IEFC student. Each student was in charge of a photographic session (four students). Their task was to steer the session, in both technical and artistic terms, held on 4, 8 and 16/04/2013. A total of 269 photos were taken.

The community in general (Exhibition 1: fty / hundred people. Exhibition 2: hundred and twenty / two hundred) IEFC students (four) Pupils of Fort Pienc junior school People given non-custodial sentences (community work) Networking (contacted and involved organizations)

In each session there was one user, one IEFC student, Julio Gomez from JGR Design as audiovisual expert and members of the ApipAcam Foundation (Jose Sanchez and Anna Espin).

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Recording of sessions and production of the video Our neighbourhood by JGR Design.

Two sessions were staged to edit and select Exhibition photos. Twenty-nine photos were picked, the number determined by the physical space available and by coherence criteria. EXHIBITION 1: Parc Sandaru Community Centre: 2 - 16 May 2013. EXHIBITION 2: Metro TMB, plaza Universitat: 17 - 22 May 2013.

In the same way, the pupils and teachers of the IEFC expressed a very positive opinion of the initiative, seeing it as a useful and positive way of raising awareness in both the professional and personal spheres. They understood the complexity of the need not to produce from the photograph a clichd image full of prejudices, which does not help to inform local residents but merely reafrms the platitude. The innovative element of this activity is the possibility of criticising traditional awareness-building campaigns and involving participants as actual creators of the campaign. Citizens change places, from that of subject of the lens to the lens itself. This allows the possibility of constructing a story about oneself, becoming an active agent when informing the community as a whole. These groups live in the neighbourhood, so their point of view can also help to build a perception of the urban space of Fort Pienc, and show up aspects that are practically ignored by other residents. Another innovative aspect is the involvement of a photography school that trains professionals in the sector in this social initiative. On the one hand, the dimension is studied with these future professionals, on the other activities are offered that ensure a high level of know-how and quality. Furthermore, the involvement of the school points up the aesthetic dimension of actions in the social sphere. The workshop also showed that when homeless people refer to their neighbourhood they make no administrative distinction, and circulate in both the Fort Pienc and El ParcLa Llacuna neighbourhoods. This points up the need to forge a dialogue between both districts in order to tackle the various social phenomena affecting both of them.

Results obtained PHOTOGRAPHY WORKSHOP The homeless people involved showed a great interest in the activity, and spoke on many occasions about the need for ways of explaining their situation to fellow citizens. They felt like the protagonists of the awareness-building campaign, and as such active participants in the process of deconstructing the stereotypical image they are branded with. During the sessions they learned how to use a camera, but even more useful was the contact made with students and work on social skills (compromises, team work, dialogue and active participation in a neighbourhood action). The method was dialogue-based and participatory. The workshop entailed a simple explanation of basic photography techniques. Work was performed in pairs, with an attempt made to form a favourable pairing with the homeless person taking part, in order to favour dialogue, knowledge and personal recognition, and to facilitate organisation. The main theme of the photographs was: What is your experience of the neighbourhood?

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EXHIBITION The travelling Exhibition has made it possible to show the point of view of the participants to a high percentage of the population, being used as an awareness-building tool. Two exhibitions have been staged, and a third is being planned at the IEFC. The Exhibition is also an educational tool to look at the question of homeless people in schools. In this case it should be noted that as a result of the rst Exhibition the AMPA of Fort Pienc school is interested in hosting the Exhibition in its centre in order to use it to raise awareness among its pupils.

cic activity. Their task was to take care of photographic materials and promote the project. The exhibitions form part of the set of activities that includes the festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc, created with the collaboration of Metamor-Eje.Ideas. The views of visitors to the exhibition were collected, as an evaluation tool for both the exhibition and the impact they have had on the viewing public. Views could be written down and anonymously placed in a box prepared for that purpose.

VIDEO The video is also a useful tool for disseminating information, albeit in a more supercial way. It also highlights the dynamics of the activity and the method adopted. The creation of the video also made it possible to link up the activity of the cinema forum Realidad-es with photographic activity and the Exhibition. The activity put into contact the various actors involved. Very positive was the contact between JGR Design and the IEFC, as they have established possible future collaboration, and between these two organisations and Parc Sandaru Community Centre, as a possible venue for future exhibitions and lm projections. It also favoured contact being made between JGR Design and Metamor-Eje.Ideas. The Exhibition in the underground also served to involve people that are doing community work with the Department of Justice of the Catalan Government in Barcelona. It provided offenders with a spe109

Our Neighbourhood exhibition

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My Neighbourhood

http://www.violenceintransit.org/videos/my-neighbourhood
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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

URBAN ART: ART IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD!

Hypothesis deriving from the research The proposal sought to promote the participation of youngsters at risk of social exclusion through actions aimed at enhancing some areas of the neighbourhood, at the same time attempting to arouse a sense of being rooted to the locality. Another aim was to create a meeting place for youngsters at risk of social exclusion in the neighbourhoods of Fort Pienc and El Parc-La Llacuna del Poblenou. This action is based on the need to improve the state of the districts walls, that give the impression of being non-places in some areas and imply a physical and symbolic barrier that adversely affects the way space is used. This improvement can be ob112

tained through urban art initiatives. This activity thus meets the need of giving youngsters an active part to play in the neighbourhood, so that they can feel like actors capable of effecting change. First contact with urban art is gained through a guided workshop. The study identied a conict between youngsters that paint grafti and the management of Estacio del Nord (BSM). This action has allowed youngsters to learn more about this art form and convinced public institutions to offer more spaces for its development.

Practical training Personal development: group dynamics, social skills, etc. The activity performed forms part of the third type of action.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) REBOBINART. Association of urban art. Fran Gimenez (Puke) and Roger Serret. Artists. APC (A Peu de Carrer in Catalan, A pie de calle in Spanish) Eixample and APC Sant Marti. APC is a social and educational project that uses public spaces as a stage, and is performed by streetworkers. APC sets out to uncover situations where there is a risk of social exclusion and to act as mediator between local residents and the organisations and/or resources available in the area. Fort Pius Secondary School: Elisabet Pous. Head of Studies. Apip-Acam Foundation: People given non-custodial sentences (community work)and DAPHNE team LOCAL ADMINISTRATION OF BARCELONA Ferran Turmo: Officer of Public Services Department, District of Sant Marti. Visitacin Tarilonte: Local ofcer for Vila Olimpica and El Parc i La Llacuna del Poblenou.

Location of the intervention Calle Pamplona Calle Tnger. El Parc-La Llacuna de Poblenou neighbourhood. District of Sant Marti.

Target group involved Eleven third and fourth-year pupils (14 to 16 years of age) from ESO of the Instituto Fort Pius of the Open Classes group. OPEN CLASSES. Curricular diversity groups for second-cycle students of the ESO. This class is aimed at pupils with learning difculties and problems adapting to the school environment, resulting in high levels of absenteeism. Practical activities are taught so that the pupil can acquire minimum skills to obtain a compulsory Secondary Education Certicate.

These classes offer three types of action: Basic training

Local Services department District of Sant Marti.

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Activities carried out Regeneration of a damaged wall through a mural painting. Initial design by Fran Gimenez, changes and additions by young participants. Alterations came from the contribution of ideas, decisions were taken which would be implemented in the mural through dialogue and consensus. The artists involved agreed to add the nal touches and details for a quality result. The start-up of activity was planned for the 25th, but work actually commenced on 26 April due to rain the day before. As it is an outdoor activity, using plastic materials, it is impossible to work in the rain. This meant that the work scheduled for the 25th had to be put back to Monday the 29th, but on that day too it rained and work was again suspended. The group tutor was very interested in spending a whole day with the class group on the 26th (agreed to by pupils), but the IES Fort Pius school was not of the same opinion, since investing so much time meant losing a lot of normal class time. For this reason the tutor agreed to teach the group outside normal teaching hours. The change of dates meant that the seven people contacted by APC Sant Marti (APC del Eixample did not nd anybody that was interested) were unable to take part, as they said they were available only on a Thursday. In this case the rain was a serious obstacle, however it was accepted by those involved.

Results obtained The activity entailed an aesthetic improvement in the space being regenerated. Local residents perceived the change and spoke about it. They suggested that the same be done on adjacent walls. Youngsters were pleased to take an active part in the activity. They felt part of a neighbourhood action and protagonists when taking decisions about the result of the mural. The impact on participants could be seen by the creation of the mural and the prior work performed together with the group tutor. To make the mural it was rst necessary to work with those who wanted to draw and to reect on why it was being done, in relation to the neighbourhood context. The activity was performed in a group, based on dialogue and group dynamics. The group was guided artistically by Fran Gimenez and in terms of decision taking and discussion of the subject by the contact teacher and the Apip-Acam Foundation team. The prior relations with Rebobinart made it possible to appreciate the complexity of the administrative efforts required to perform the action. The activity did not however go ahead with Rebobinart due to a dispute about the premise. In any case Rebobinart, being an Association open to everyone with projects aimed at youngsters, remained a future option for youngsters taking part that were interested in carrying on making mural art.

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Collaboration with IES Fort Pius made it possible to make plans outside the school and in the neighbourhood, and served as a precedent for APC Eixample the district where IES Fort Pius is situated for possible activities to be performed with the school. Although youngsters convened by APC Sant Marti were unable to take part for the reason given above, the contact was positive. Street-workers said that although they could not take part they were interested in doing so if the activity took place on another occasion, and that it had been useful for knowing how many of its users were interested in artistic actions of the kind.

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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

VIDEOBOX: TALK ABOUT THE NEIGHBOURHOOD!

Hypothesis deriving from the research This activity arises from the need to give youngsters a means of expression. This is also a study tool that nds out about the views and perceptions of a different group prole regarding the analysed context. The activity also seeks to implement strategies that encourage reection among local residents about the neighbourhood in order to begin to promote, through citizen participation, network activity involving different local organisations and actors.

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It was seen in the study that the neighbourhood had a fragmented fabric, with little collaboration among organisations and associations. This activity forms part of a strategy responding to this identied need. The activity was an awareness-building tool and a product for critical reection on otherness, when results were shown during the video forum Realidad-es. It was also a study tool to be shared with the population involved. This activity was useful for giving the local community a means of expression. Above all it was important to see the neighbourhood from youngsters point of view, rstly because they are used to being the subject of debate, but are rarely asked to give their views, and secondly to give an airing to discussions held with younger generations.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) The activity is included in the Community Festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc (created with Metamor-eje) in which different organisations collaborated, such as IES Fort Pius, Fort Pienc School and AMPA, JGR Design and Parc Sandaru Community Centre.

Activities carried out Three videobox sessions were held, open to local residents in detailed scenarios, having a duration of 6 hours each. Another onehour session was held in order to allow IES Fort Pius to participate. All sessions collected the contributions of one hundred and twenty witnesses, from whom a selection was made for a representative exhibition, with the production of a seventeen-minute video.

Location of the intervention Fort Pienc neighbourhood: Plaza de Fort Pienc Calle de Ribes Auditorium Entrance to underground station (TMB) Arc de Triomf Results obtained Video materials giving the experience of witnesses serve to better understand the reality being lived in the neighbourhood and to build awareness about the possibility of conict arising from the presence of groups in society at risk of social exclusion. The initiative made it easier to achieve the goals shared with the group Metamor-Eje.Ideas and to bring into the project the local Junior School and the Fort Pienc Ampa (School Parents Association), and the Fort Pius Secondary School. It is considered as a useful tool for getting the junior and secondary schools involved in neighbourhood activity, and a strategy to forge closer ties among them and with other actors, such as the Parc Sandaru Community Centre,
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Target group involved Local residents in general. In particular the youth population.

which until the project was practically unknown to most teachers and pupils of IES Fort Pius. The watching of the documentary video led to contacts between JGR Design and the Parc Sandaru Community Centre, resulting in collaboration with the documentary project for the next term. The Teaching Faculty of the University of Barcelona has asked for the documentary for its possible use in Social Education classes as a study tool.

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Lets talk about your neigbourhood!

http://www.violenceintransit.org/videos/lets-talk-about-your-neigbourhood
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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

MEETING IN COMMUNITY GARDEN: GROW THE NEIGHBOURHOOD!

Hypothesis deriving from the research This activity was organised and performed to create a meeting place for people at risk of social exclusion -youngsters in general and homeless youngsters in particular and people enjoying a more stable social situation, since for there to be social inclusion there must be spaces where interaction can go ahead. The activity also meets the need for the various organisations and resources in place in the area to make contact with local residents, creating places for social interaction. The meeting served to make the place known to all involved.
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Location of the intervention Fort Pienc Community Garden.

Target group involved Youngsters in the neighbourhood. Homeless people.

sters interested in nding out about the activity. The proposal gave importance not so much to the content of the meeting as to the fact that people would be able to nd out about the space. During the meeting the garden curators told participants about the space and taught them about some gardening upkeep tasks. Time was also taken to handle the paper owers created by pupils from the Fort Pienc school for one of the activities of the Community Festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc.

Results obtained Networking (contacted and involved organizations) The activity is included in the Community Festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc created with Metamor-Eje.Ideas. It produced collaboration among the various organisations involved, including the Fort Pienc Community Garden. The Fort Pienc Community Garden project was publicised at the Assis Residential Centre, which works to help homeless people and is developing a project to give these people urban farming skills. The Community Garden was seen as offering a place to practice what has been learned, or as an opportunity to develop forms of collaboration in the future. The Assis Residential Centre was also considered as a place of referral. The activity served to make the Fort Pienc Community Garden better known in the neighbourhood through the dissemination of the activity and its link to the local festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc. The proposal also served to forge ties between the gardens curators and other local organisations or Associations and to facilitate links between them. Through this meeting the Metamor-Eje. Ideas group, Fort Pienc school AMPA and JGR Design met the gardens curators. Contacts for possible future collaboration were also made between the garden and Assis Residential Centre, working to help homeless people and developing a project to provide users with skills in the area of urban farming. Together with garden curators, plans were made for a set of actions for the upkeep of the garden, with the participation of all involved, so that the meeting would be an evening of leisure activity. The innovative aspect of this activity is involvement in a self-run community project the community garden making use of the projects
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Activities carried out On 19 April a three-hour meeting was held in the local Community Garden, attended by members of the community and local young-

and resources available in the area. The place was chosen above other municipal gardens for its community nature and its location. Another innovation is the creation of an activity open to all, facilitating the participation of target groups without it being conceived solely for them. The performance of actions also involving local residents is considered as an inclusion strategy, since for there to be inclusion there must be spaces where interaction can go ahead. The meeting was attended by few people of the target population. Bearing in mind the factors described in the general assessment, we need to be self-critical and to redene the activity or change the way in which homeless people can take part. Even so, the goals pursued by the gardens curators, including the opening of the space to the neighbourhood, were certainly achieved. The place and its activities were made known to local residents, in the hope that projects will arise from the social fabric of the neighbourhood. The dissemination of the proposal began by contacting the organisations mentioned above, mainly in the months of February and March 2013 with the use of ad hoc pamphlets. These leaets were handed out to the target population present in the area. The activity was also publicised in informal meetings and by street-workers. Assis also pledged to provide this information to its users. The proposal was also disseminated through the website www.violenceintransit.org, the facebook page of the project in Barcelona, with emails to all established contacts, through the facebook page and blog of the Fort Pienc Community Garden and through the poster created to publicise the Community Festival Experience a lively Fort Pienc.

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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

LANGUAGE SHARING MEETING: HOW DO WE TALK ABOUT THE NEIGHBOURHOOD?

Hypothesis deriving from the research The study highlighted the fact that there was no communication between the various cultural groups in the district. The strategy adopted was thus to create a multicultural meeting place to facilitate a mutual understanding among the cultural groups present in the neighbourhood. An attempt was made to uncover anxieties and arouse curiosity with the discovery of a new language and a new culture.

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Location of the intervention Ateneu Fort Pienc Community Centre.

Results obtained The activity was not a complete success, and two of the four meetings had to be cancelled. Even so, the rst meeting was a success, allowing participants to get to know one another and to gain an idea of the various languages spoken in the neighbourhood. The presence of homeless people also served to refute clichs based on a lack of education or knowledge. Without it being a direct objective, the meeting served for people to share an evening and a coffee, getting to know one another and removing the prejudices with which they are usually branded. The objective of involving other organisations was not achieved. Unlike other districts of Barcelona, here there are no organisations or associations representing cultural groups. This made dissemination and contacts with different groups more difcult. If this activity were done again, it would be necessary to devote more time and more communication to the initiative.

Target group involved Community as a whole, belonging to different cultural groups, encouraging the participation of homeless people.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Fort Pienc Community Centre Fort Pienc Library Traders Association Apip-Acam Foundation: Daphne team

Activities carried out Four fun-based language learning meetings were planned, based on linguistic exchanges, with the presentation of a foreign language spoken in the neighbourhood. The intention was to encourage the frequentation of places where different cultural groups can interact. The rst of the four planned meetings took place successfully. At this meeting seven people presented their mother tongue, four of them were homeless.

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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

COMMUNITY FESTIVAL: EXPERIENCE A LIVELY FORT PIENC

Hypothesis deriving from the research The study revealed that the local area was fragmented, and that it was necessary to pursue strategies to encourage social participation and facilitate cohesion of the social fabric, helping to create a neighbourhood identity.

Location of the intervention Fort Pienc neighbourhood.

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Target group involved Local community as a whole. Homeless people. Local youngsters belonging to different youth groups. Parents of Fort Pienc junior school. Pupils of Fort Pienc primary school and junior school.

nity participation, acquisition of urban areas and indirectly the participation of homeless people in the neighbourhood. PAPER FLOWERS/BOOKS for Sant Jordi: Schoolchildren made paper owers to decorate the neighbourhood, which were placed by youngsters, the Schools AMPA and other local residents during the Sant Jordi festival day. This is an important data in Catalonia, with the rose being one of the symbols of the patron saint, and books symbolising the death of Cervantes and Shakespeare. It is traditional to give roses and books to loved ones. With this action the school was an actor involved in neighbourhood activities, with the promotion of a strategy favouring collaboration and contacts among the various organisations present in the area.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Fort Pienc AMPA Fort Pienc junior school Metamor-Eje.Ideas Fort Pienc Community Garden Casal La Resposta Youth Group Apip-Acam Foundation: People given non-custodial sentences (community work) and Daphne team

Results obtained Actions pursued a strategy to facilitate social participation as a tool to build a neighbourhood identity, and made a big impact on the area. The neighbourhood changed its look and feel during the festival period, and the materials used invited residents to take an active part in the things going on around them. Junior school pupils were given the chance to decide how to improve the neighbourhood and take relative actions. Actions were an excuse to be able to work with pupils on the identity of the area around them. Homeless people were involved in the local park, and showed creativity in the area around them, helping to refute the usual clichs regarding them.

Activities carried out LETS MAKE THE SCHOOL, LETS MAKE THE NEIGHBOURHOOD: Preparation of eleven ower boxes made out of recycled material to enhance the neighbourhood and designed to be looked after by neighbours and passers-by, including homeless people living in the area. The activity sets out to promote commu-

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Youngsters in the neighbourhood showed a willingness to get involved in projects centring on social promotion and the acquisition of urban areas, participating more than any other age group in both actions and taking most responsibility. This went against the image of youngsters as a group indifferent to what is happening around them, showing that they will get involved when they can have a say in the actions that affect them. The activity shows that it is necessary to promote and enable creativity and youth motivation in order to create a cohesive social fabric. The community becomes involved directly if they are given a say in things. In this sense, one of the needs detected in the study is reected here: to create the conditions needed for the participation of youngsters in their neighbourhood and to disprove the clichs being bandied around about them. Actions fostered contacts and joint collaborations among organisations and local actors, among whom permanent cooperation ties were forged to improve cohesion in the neighbourhood (Fort Pienc school AMPA, Fort Pienc School, Fort Pienc Community Garden, Casal Jove La Resposta, Metamor-Eje.Ideas, community works). It should be noted here that the collaboration of users of the Fort Pienc Pensioners Day Centre was envisaged, but at the last moment they withdrew from the project for reasons beyond our control. This activity sought to involve as many different groups as possible to show that the creation of a neighbourhood identity and relative involvement has no age limits, and that everybodys help is needed. The reasons behind this withdrawal are not clearly known. Results were so positive that there are plans to establish the Community Festival as a neighbourhood event to be staged every year.

Actions were experienced as being pioneering initiatives, and Agenda 21 considered them as model actions for other schools in taking an active part in neighbourhood initiatives, in the sense that the school must not only work inside its walls, but must also form the values of its pupils. On the downside, it would have been better for materials to have been acquired as donations from or in collaboration with stores in the area, however the local traders Association did not wish to join the project. It is believed however that some traders, having seen the success of the rst Community Festival, might become involved in future editions. Administrative obstacles and red tape created difculties for the performance of actions and limited the dimension of the initiative. These difculties denitely hamper new proposals for action that seek to improve the citys districts. To disseminate actions, a festival programme was drawn up, with leaets distributed around the neighbourhood, small sheets of paper placed in the owerpots, as well as web platforms and social networks of the project and of collaborating organisations. The initiative was also publicised internally via email.

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DECEMBER 2012 MAY 2013

SEMINARS: SHALL WE TALK ABOUT THE NEIGHBOURHOOD?

Hypothesis deriving from the research The seminars sought to bring together different social actors and organisations involved in the neighbourhood affected by those phenomena detected in the study, so as to pool together their different points of view and come up with strategies to resolve related problems. This was considered as an activity halfway between awareness building and shared study.

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Location of the intervention Fort Pienc Community Centre (Fort Pienc neighbourhood, Eixample District) and Parc Sandaru Community Centre (El Parc-La Llacuna de Poblenou neighbourhood, Sant Marti District).

times the questions of relevance emerging from the study and proposals for action. A chiey participatory method was proposed. This meant that those taking part in these discussions did not necessarily have to know one another in order to create a permanent discussion group.

Target group involved Social actors in the neighbourhood, associations, local groups, traders, social organisations, public services.

Results obtained The result of these contacts was not uniform. The lack of a strong social fabric in the area of intervention plus reluctance on the part of some groups to sit at the same table as other groups made the task of the study team more difcult. The meeting served to voice different points of view about the same phenomenon. The innovative aspect was to place at the same level members of organisations, local residents and representatives of public institutions in order to talk about how the community viewed the situation in the neighbourhood. It did however facilitate contacts among organisations and actors operating in the neighbourhood and made visible the Parc Sandaru Community Centre resource, unknown to the majority of participants.

Networking (contacted and involved organizations) Parc Sandaru Community Centre cultural mediator Street-workers of SIS (Social Inclusion Services) working with the homeless Fort Pienc school AMPA Fort Pienc Community Garden Sigma group (representing Traders Association) Metamor-Eje.Ideas Apip-Acam Foundation: Daphne team

Activities carried out Members of the Apip-Acam Foundation study and action team conducted the various discussion sessions, seeking to introduce at all
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MODELLING COMPLEXITY
A working hypothesis to overcome the volatility of actions in deviant areas and situations by Vincenzo Castelli

Introduction This paper seeks to esh out an argument and a reection on the possible modelling of actions performed as part of the project Violence in Transit. Here we seek to understand whether in complex areas and situations, in so-called non-places (namely the railway stations of Barcelona, Porto and Pescara) it is possible to carry out actions that are not just emergency-led, occasional and impromptu but rather structured, monitored, assessed, validated and transferrable. The challenge is a complex one indeed, for on the one hand social policies in our country are traditionally welfare-based, and salvic in nature, rendering vain all efforts to plan ahead and make due assessments of actions taken, and on the other it has not been possible to give a sense to welfare actions, which have never been conceived as a means for the growth of the whole community but almost always as a necessary expenditure, a sort of tax to be paid that is in any case deemed to be futile and even harmful. If these policies are applied to areas that (according to public opinion) evoke not piety1 (such as handicaps, child abandonment, etc.) but rather the gallows2 (such as illegal immigration, vagrancy, substance abuse and so on), then there is no way out of the quagmire of volatile actions, of in vitro experiments that are not reproducible, actions founded on occasional rather than sustainable and lasting prospects. We must therefore attempt to understand whether, through the experimental actions of the project Violence in Transit, it is really possible to strive towards a sort of modelling of actions performed in areas of transit (such as railway stations) which today are not just

places that people pass through, but also where they spend time (often a lot of time) and live experiences considered by most people as deviant in nature, or the cause of many problems often leading to a state of urban insecurity.

From practices to relevant practices and social models A virtuous path In order to dene social models it is necessary to attempt to construct a virtuous pathway, taking us from the denition of practices to the showcasing of relevant practices (we prefer this term over that used for many years and still in vogue, namely best practices, which are difcult to classify3), nally leading us to the structuring of possible social models.

Starting from practices First of all, it is necessary to highlight some important variables with regard to practices: The right balance needs to be given to the so-called primacy of action, from an ethical point of view, when structuring a social practice. Performing an action is not always crucial for the validation of a practice; This is because often in our social actions we exhibit veritable forms of social charlatanism. In past decades that has affected policies that have often been harmful, leading to the squandering of public resources, the creation of extensive areas of welfare and charity spending and the stagnation of social inclusion policies;
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Social practices should thus contain a strong element of experimentation (starting with the analysis of phenomena, moving on to suggestions for implementing actions, making use of the context in which actions are developed, making specic plans for action and monitoring what has been performed using output indicators); It is also necessary to construct practices starting from social innovation indicators that can contribute to an incremental virtuous process with the inclusive action (introducing new ways of analysing phenomena, new methods for social intervention, construction of latest-generation services, quantitative and qualitative performance indicators); There is also the need to provide practices with socio-economic and organisational indicators for validation/evaluation purposes. In this regard we have indeed provided limited guidelines in dening practical social intervention due to the lack of objective validation/ evaluation elements.

In order to reach a denition of relevant practice A relevant practice is an empirical construction of the ways of developing experiences which, by virtue of the effectiveness of results, internal quality characteristics and contribution made to resolving specic problems, meets a complex system of expectations. The practice is the way in which a project strategy is realised, through a set of activities, a synthesis of experiences. A relevant practice is the essential, the indispensable, present in a project, it is the know-how provided by those working in the social sphere for a long time, it is incorporating innovation in a feasible approach.

And to acquire a sense of social modelling A model, to be a model, must have the following traits: Be the end product of a practice, rst validated as relevant, then replicated, transferred, standardised and stabilised through an evaluation process; Be closely related to policies (being a harbinger of positive social policies or the tangible result of innovative choices on the part of the political world); Produce actions that are planned, strategic and synergetic, that can give a unied face to system-wide actions (processes in the spheres of housing, prevention, training, healthcare, employment and business); Maintain the prototype- and paradigm-based nature of the process;
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Highlighting some problems about relevant practices When relevant practices remain as such, sine die (i.e. they never move towards a state of structural stability, perhaps in the form of sustainable services); I would like to compile a collection of relevant practices (developing cultural assets, innovative, with applicative methods, incisive, generating social change); Risk of overdose of relevant practices (often overlapping, contradictory practices, jumbled, lacking uniformity in relation to territories, targets, types of intervention).

Put in place a harmonious system capable of giving cohesion to process indicators: objectives/procedures

fessional skills), become plural, i.e. consolidated, sustainable, transferrable and integrated; b. When standardised innovation generates new events, new policies, new services; When social action permits social change; When social intervention may turn into policy.

demand/supply symptom/cause quantity/quality effectiveness/efciency cost/benet c. d.

To model complexity Introduction

Be sustainable (in terms of process hypotheses, actions, methods, human resources, economic resources, etc.); Maintain close ties with the vectors of social change (local context, sundry phenomena, social actors, disturbances, methods, tools, resources, etc.); Be innovative (in terms of phenomena, target, professionals involved, know-how, methods); Be integrated and multiform (in terms of target, services, publicprivate, formal-informal, etc.).

From the work carried out as part of the project Violence in Transit and specically the transnational research on youth violence in the railway stations of Barcelona, Porto and Pescara, and above all from the implementation of experiments in progress in these transit areas we may attempt to propose a set of virtuous elements capable of structuring a sort of social model in complex contexts (such as transit areas). Many experiments have been carried out in railway stations. About 50 actions have touched upon many different spheres: interventions centring on dialogue, citizen training, use of peer education, cultural, entertainment, sporting, art initiatives, etc. These actions have led to a great variety of events involving the general public (not only passengers and railway users), who have responded to the socio-cultural initiatives of those living in railway stations (the so-called generators of insecurity, namely homeless people, drug addicts, illegal immigrants, etc.).

In other words a. When relevant practices, evaluated and validated in a given time (with positive indicators regarding economics, performance, applicative methods, scientic literature, know-how, pro-

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These experiments have undoubtedly uncovered signicant evidence for systematic modelling.

Spatial welfare model SCENARIO ELEMENTS Social policies have always been constructed in a non-spatial form. We must begin to consider space as a social element (spatial welfare). The way districts are built, urban layouts, parks, squares, transit areas structured in a harmonious manner helps to create a better-off community. Space as a non-place (space without identity/relations/history; space as a boundary, as the fringe of normality) helps to create a poorer community. Space has a profound inuence on the everyday lives of citizens. Transit areas (railway stations, harbours, underground, bus terminals) as places where new forms of urban deviancy are concentrated (homeless, mentally ill, illegal immigrants, addicts, prostitutes, etc.). These areas are the main motif where urban decay can now be seen, attracting situations, stories, experiences of new marginalisation, a gathering of increasingly diversied ethnic minorities, and an increasing number of the native population. Together with this mixed crowd, these spaces sometimes (or often) conceal situations of violence and conict among the inhabitants.

The central location of the area (station, underground, port, etc.) contributes to making these places a stage of daily life as well as a symbol for building up a fear of otherness, a space for community representation, for expanding the collective imagination, for which such spaces can be symbolic or otherwise. The transit area, presented and represented as an invisible space (where everyone is passing through, and no one stops, where there are not people but passengers) and at the same time an area or scene where impoverished, humiliated and chronically ill lives are on display.

ELEMENTS OF MODELABLE PRACTICES Urban renewal actions in railway stations. Working on the streets, making contact, connecting with insecurity producer groups and citizens/passengers. Social activities in the railway station area.

Temporal welfare model SCENARIO ELEMENTS The history of time (sacred/profane; full/empty). Cf. the following correlations: time/work (invention of free time and holidays), occupy time/waste time. Construction of social time

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The Time balance (use of time in everyday life) Time geography (allocation of time in relation to space). A new time statute, with new technologies time becomes separated from space. The speeding up of time (Cf. interference with changing social phenomena). Historical time no longer exists (Cf. interference with possible memory loss). There is increasingly an extended present time tending to replace the future.

To reduce forms of violence among youngsters, who are often marginalised and live in transit areas, it is necessary to reshape spaces and times in their image and likeness, to make them protagonists of their own future, to provide them with ways of expressing their opinions and emotions.

ELEMENTS OF MODELABLE PRACTICES Direct involvement of peer educators in social actions. Construction of actions to reduce risk and damage in transit areas. Writing and life story-telling workshops for marginalised groups to make use of their experiences.

ELEMENTS OF MODELABLE PRACTICES Taking the time of social groups. Interventions on everyday times (customs, legends, symbols, holidays, events, etc.). The times of social groups (times of children, youngsters, women). Making use of the signicant times of social groups (cf. the nighttime and leisure world of youngsters). Participatory security model SCENARIO ELEMENTS Urban security is built and developed by means of an integrated, multiform process (control of territory, suppression, situational prevention, social mediation in event of conicts, etc.), with the participation of many actors operating in many capacities (administrators, police forces, social workers, citizens, etc.). Participatory security, security resulting from the construction of active social ties, with the involvement of active minorities, giving value to informal ties, to everyday life, to the ordinary, is a signicant strategy for structuring a harmonious and integrated urban security system in the local community. In this sense, community welfare (with citizens empowered and authorised to be and to feel an integral part of the process to contextualise insecurity indicators and at the same
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PEER EDUCATION MODEL Making use of peer education to ensure equilibrium within the context.

time construct participatory security practices) is an essential strategy for developing strong and harmonious urban security.

There thus emerges a relevant theme which we may call social aesthetics, a call for the beautiful and pleasant in places (such as transit areas) that may at rst glance appear to offer only degradation and marginalisation. Here the question of station potential takes centre stage, so to speak, due to the opportunities afforded by railway stations (modernisation of its structures, new commercial and leisure areas, etc.) and to the presence of new target groups (younger, more dynamic, more normal, not just vulnerable and deviant).

ELEMENTS OF MODELABLE PRACTICES Research and actions regarding urban insecurity indicators in transit areas (railway stations). Construction of situational prevention practices (street lighting, equipped spaces, cleaning of public areas, etc.), conict mediation among social groups present in railway station areas (moments of conviviality among groups, with the organising of festivals, playful and sporting activities, ethnic-based activities, etc.). Integrated training for urban security workers (police ofcers, social workers, citizens, active minorities, etc.). Structuring of participatory security paths by giving value to informal agencies (cafeterias, news-stands, mechanics, gym, football grounds, discotheques, etc.) and their eld workers (barmen, newspaper sellers, trainers, coaches, DJs, etc.).

ELEMENTS OF MODELABLE PRACTICES Street theatre (theatre of the oppressed) workshops Poetry workshops Workshops on life stories Video and photography workshops Dance workshops Cinema forum

Public and urban art model SCENARIO ELEMENTS The ability to produce performances (street theatre, poetry readings, art exhibitions, video and photography workshops, dance, etc.) as shown in the actions of the project Violence in Transit provides us, in the iconic space of the transit area, an example of public and urban art that has an effect on the urban area in which it is situated.

Theatre/Plays Poetry readings Video and photography displays/exhibitions

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MARGINAL (YOUTH) CULTURE MODEL Interventions in transit areas have taught us the great value of our target groups, who are also called insecurity generators. We are talking about the homeless, young drug addicts, illegal immigrants, gypsies present in such spaces. Working with them has shown us a group of people of great sensitivity, emotions, passion and zest for life (poetry readings, theatre of the oppressed, entertainment put on have revealed poets, actors, artists, entertainers, who may be living on the street but have demonstrated great cultural and artistic capabilities). The spectacles put on clearly show up the increasingly signicant uncovering of a marginalised culture, of artistic expression coming from the street, the voicing of messages launched to the so-called normal planet by those abandoned by society.

Here we use a term coined by Bronislaw Geremek (cf. his fantastic text Piety and the Gallows. History of poverty and charity in Europe, published in Italy by Laterza in 2003). Idem Some scholars are using the term performant practices, which is undoubtedly an interesting idea.

ELEMENTS OF MODELABLE PRACTICES Organisation of street magazine Poetry production Street art production Workshops on life stories
1. Here we use a term coined by Bronislaw Geremek (cf. his fantastic text Piety and the Gallows. History of poverty and charity in Europe, published in Italy by Laterza in 2003). Idem Some scholars are using the term performant practices, which is undoubtedly an interesting idea.

Video and photography displays/exhibitions


2. 3.

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THE STATION POTENTIAL


by Gianni Petiti - Europe Consulting ONLUS In the last 10-15 years railway stations have gone through a massive restoration that concerned several aspects. Architecture is the most evident. We have rediscovered the great architectural value of major railway stations in the big cities, a mix of enthusiastic trib-

ute to modernity and progress, and rhetorical celebration of the grandeur of the nation. In the small town, instead, railway stations were built in series: standard buildings easy to recognise, and to use: the waiting room, the ticket ofce, toilets on the side, often a little garden along the rails. Small stations were not the site of architectural experimentation and creativity. They were rather the mark of the common standard of the development of the Country, which passed through mass transports: villages and cities no longer isolated and far apart, but connected and linked one another. And the use of the train soon required its own ritual the station serving as a temple: grand and impressive in the big cities, decent and simple in the villages, somehow reecting the modest yet decorous life that lower classes were encouraged (and expected) to live. Today the reasons that inspired the construction of those buildings have disappeared. Actually they became ofcially obsolete over 40 years ago, when the cultural pillars, which had held up European societies for over a century were replaced by new paradigms that did not include the pride of the nation and its common symbols. Until the 90s, railway stations seem to have suffered this cultural change almost physically, losing their glamour and their decorum, turning to be nothing more than run-down, sleazy containers, somehow disproportioned for the mere function of sheltering people on their way from and to trains. New layers have covered the original architectures, hiding the beauty and the style behind kiosks, shacks and boards. It was the acknowledgment of stations economic potential to drive the recent revolution that has transformed the railway buildings. Paying tribute to a consumerist philosophy, the train user was seen from a different angle: not only as a consumer of traditional travellers

goods (coffee, food, newspapers, books), but as a global one, and the station as a huge consumer base, with unlimited chance of exploitation. For such purpose, the beautiful spaces have become useful again, not to witness the faith in Progress, but to host the celebration of market. We have thus assisted to a massive restoration, refurbishment, requalication of the most important railway stations in Europe: Paris Nord, Roma Termini, Madrid Atocha (wounded by terrorists in 2004), Wien Hauptbahnhof, just to mention a few. And everywhere, beside the trains, we can now nd shopping centers, restaurants, fast foods, and a multiple service offer going from post ofces to medical centers, from museums to social centers to banks. Citizens benet of new neat spaces, were the shopping ritual has overcome the old train ceremony. Something different happened in the small town, where the use of the train has lowered, and passengers too. Station buildings, while being an asset in railway companies budgets, are not easy to exploit commercially. Their destiny swings from decadence to social use, as it happens in Italy, where many stations (with no personnel) have been committed to NGOs or local Public administrations for social purposes. Major railway stations have therefore evolved in multifunctional integrated urban environments, where many activities extend the perception of social usability, and many relational systems arise parallel and complementary to each other, so that the so-called station world becomes more attractive to a very diverse public. For these reasons, stations are spontaneously elected as meeting points, particularly by those social groups which lack other points of reference, or simply ignore the availability of social services or any other place
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in the city, that could respond to their needs appropriately. We are referring to marginalised people, homeless, immigrants, youth. Railway stations are not stranger to this kind of public. In fact, they have received since the beginning the most varied humanity, including the most vulnerable ones. In the late 1800s many charities in Europe (Bahnhofmission, ACISJF) were born to help, for example, young women coming to the big cities from the countryside. Those women were looking for housemaid posts, but often ended up falling into panderers clutches, or into any other form of exploitation. Railway stations were the battleeld between those racketeers, their victims and the good souls, who wanted to preserve them from a life of humiliation. Yet, it is only after the recent aesthetic revolution that this very public has become an issue, for all the stakeholders, who are forcedly confronted with someone it is now impossible to ignore. They are not spies and adventurers, lovers and fugitives, thieves and globetrotters, who were romantically said to populate stations. They are homeless, immigrants, poor and marginalised men and women who have found here the physical comfort of an unconventional, yet functional dwelling, and the spiritual solace of anonymity in a community of equals. Where do these people come from? Why do they choose railway stations? It seems as though larger stations full many expectations of those who have lost everything: a clean, safe, well-lighted, warm place where to nd food, money, routine, anonymity, human relations, solidarity. All these things are a mere replacement, an illusion, we shall

say, of a house, a job, a family; nevertheless, that is the best some people can attain. This phenomenon proves that stations are actual microcosms, with typical resources and criticalities that can be capitalized only if they are acknowledged and relate with the other surrounding systems. As a matter of fact, the station is not a self-standing building in the middle of a city. On the contrary, it is strictly linked to its neighbourhood, and both destinies went on hand in hand for decades. In the last quarter of the 20th Century, stations surroundings have in most cases shared sometimes caused the same decadence, turning into downtown suburbs, and presenting all the characteristics of peripheral areas: faded buildings, cheap shops, low-quality hotels, as well as illegal business and hustlers. This parallel journey had a stop, due to the recent transformation of railway stations, which stressed the differences both architectural and social between the effects of care, and those of neglect. For the areas around the stations have rarely been cleared of those stratications, which have altered their original appearance, nor have been reconsidered in their human and social aspects. It is from the railway station that a new type of approach to social issues has started. The processes activated in the framework of Violence in Transit are examples of a wider movement, based on the acknowledgement of what we shall call station potential: not a mere mix of passengers and customers in a multifunctional civic centre, but a resourceful combination of infrastructure, strategies, and human assets that can renew the spirit of a city.

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Such combination can be the framework of innovative partnerships between railway companies, local authorities, third sector, for prot companies and citizens, which can cooperate for the solution of new and longtime social and environmental problems. They can join together in production chains where each others competences and resources pursue common aims and factually serve common actions, in a process of permanent negotiation to subordinate self interests to the general one. In this perspective, Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane have invested a lot in this form of cooperation as a key factor to improve social cohesion, spending their social and economic weight to boost the denition of more effective social and labour inclusion policies. Moreover, in the current social and economic crisis, which is affecting so many aspects of life in our countries, key sectors, such as enterprises, local authorities, associations and citizens, are requested an addendum of social responsibility to ride it out. Governments, on their side, should back up such examples of collaborative planning, for the socioeconomic added value they proved to generate. In fact, studies and researches on local contexts are increasingly pointing out good practices of local community development, based on actual needs of the people who in those communities live and work. In spite of their small or medium size, these initiatives are able to settle and to interlace widespread connections and, through them, to enhance social cohesion and create new and sustainable economies of scale. In a word, they have promoted the local potential and somehow systematized links and interactions, which had previously been sporadic.

Work in Stations, the EU-funded project that took place in Italy, France and Belgium in 2012, is a good example of such virtuous process. The project intended to improve the situation of homeless people in and around railway stations, by setting inter-institutional partnerships to foster labour inclusion. In the project standpoint, the station is a crossroad of actors who can play a proactive role in providing job opportunities for disadvantaged people. Each of the players, again local authorities, railway companies, for and not for prot companies, NGOs, social services, citizens, can contribute to identify both employers and employees to be, to ease the connection between them, to share plans, goals, rules, governance, and eventually to create and test a new model for local development. It is worth reminding that in Italy the cooperation between the railway company, local administration and Third Sector has been widely tested in the last decade, namely with the creation of the Help Centers, places in the station where homeless and marginalised people are oriented to social services available in the city. In this model of collaboration, the railway company provides the spaces for free, local Public Administrations nance the service, and a third sector organisation runs it. The partnership is often enlarged to other funders, namely Foundations, for prot companies and EU institutions. In this setup, third sector organisations play the role of facilitator to ease the dialogue between the railway company and the local authority, which might be tempted to consider marginalised people wandering in the stations as one anothers problem. To coordinate the Help Centers activity, Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane, with the collaboration of Europe Consulting Onlus, created the ONDS (National Observatory on Poverty and Solidarity in railway stations), both a network of Help Centers and a working think-tank,
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where studies, strategies, analysis, data and best practices are shared and developed, in order to make social interventions more effective. The ANCI (Italian National Association of Cities) has been working with the ONDS since the beginning, to grant the commitment of local administrations in giving assistance and relief to the most vulnerable citizens. The social and economic crisis has pointed out the results of inadequate local policies, which now impose a global change in the role that different actors must play to guarantee the sustainability of local communities. In this framework, ONDS has strengthened its role in promoting and sharing community social responsibility, where all partners are committed to develop specic projects for socioeconomic requalication. In other words, the ONDS system, through Help Centers functioning as local antennas, moves from the observation of social criticalities in the station area, to activate collaborative processes, set in the community network, to develop strategic territorial partnerships, whose goal is to put together human, professional, institutional, social, economic, infrastructural resources to respond to the initial needs. Violence in Transit has worked in the same perspective. The project has triggered a small revolution in the way social groups at risk of ght looked at each other, and somehow in the way they looked at themselves. The station and its neighborhood have been seen as common territory, instead of a battleeld, or a land to conquest. In very different local environments, the same disposition to mutual understanding and collaboration prevailed over indifference and conict. Such process was not spontaneous, though. As well as in the Help Center case, someone had to stimulate this change of perspec-

tive, had to sense that a strong potential was lying under layers of prejudice, suspicion, distrust, sometimes fear and dismay, or simple unwillingness. Violence in Transit attained signicant results in terms of social dialogue. The ONDS experience and the project Work in Stations in particular, have demonstrated the it is possible to go much farther in the enhancement of the potential that the station urban system and its satellite activities generate in terms of labour offer and inclusion. The elements and the characteristics those inter-institutional pacts should have, to achieve the best results, will change for the inuence and the creativity of each local context. In other words, upon which basis a new sustainable society can rest, to retrieve those resources that would be otherwise wasted, to limit conicts and thus generate social and economic value, will depend on the most accurate and far-sighted analysis of its potential.

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CONCLUSIONS
by Vincenzo Castelli ! It is not always easy to nd the right words to close reasoning, thoughts, events, social constructions, or possible working solutions. These possible working solutions rely on research-action to capture, analyze, and explore complex phenomena and disjointed areas (between ease and discomfort, normality and deviance, departing and arriving, places and non-places). The work carried out (research-action, experiments, modelling, dissemination, and mainstreaming) at the railway stations in Pescara (Italy), Barcelona (Spain), and Porto (Portugal), within the project "Violence in Transit", highlighted many variables of great interest to anyone involved in building social inclusion policies for the groups in the areas of transit and ow within or in the vicinity of which sometimes or often people gather, mostly youth, locals, and legal and illegal immigrants, with more or less problems. Ultimately, a diversied world, increasingly kaleidoscopic tribes, hardly identiable and reconcilable within the local context. The train station (within other places of scrolling and ows such as airports, ports, metros, and bus terminals) is the "topos" by ex143

cellence today to understand urban decay, to give hospitality to homeless people, attract situations, stories, experiences of the new urban marginality, assembly of increasingly diversied ethnic groups, including more and more indigenous people (increasingly deprived Italian, Spanish, Portuguese nationals). Together with the "trade fair of so much humanity" situations of violence and conict among the inhabitants of the station sometimes or often lurk in these spaces. The research carried out in the railway stations of Pescara, Barcelona, and Porto have pointed to elements of great importance, which are certainly useful for structuring public policies in our cities, with particular attention to the so-called scrolling and ow areas. After viewing the maps drawn on the area of the railway station, in fact, after reading of the ndings on situations of youth violence in these spaces and life stories of people gravitating within and/or around the station, after entering the trials put in place in these settings, some horizons remain from which to start for sound reasoning on the welfare of our cities. First, the work developed in "Violence in transit" provides us with common words (space, territory, control, stigmatization, non-places, etc.), which need to be declined, aggregated, and dissociated to build up a harmonious process. It lets us understand the central role played by the station as the stage of daily life on the one hand and as a symbolic place to build up the fear; on the other hand, a space of collective representation to increase the collective imagination of which stations can be symbolic spaces and not only.

The station presented and represented as an invisible space (where all pass and no one stops, where there are no people, but travellers) and at the same an ob-scene area where impoverished, humiliated, and chronic lives are shown. The work on the railway station crucially highlights the need to address the aporia (for too long forgotten) of the assumption of space and time in building inclusive and welcoming policies for citizens (who use the station) and marginal groups (who live there). The space above all, for too long designed by architects and surveyors, shall return to have the genetic codes of sociality, shall be able to unite and not to divide, to aggregate and not to disperse, to create conviviality and not barriers. The railway station has to be some sort of prototype of spatial welfare able to offer meetings, relations, and reciprocity. Time is also an integral part of a new structuring of welfare, which should be closer to peoples needs: time of children, women, youth, and the elderly. Everything today unfortunately turns around a time built away from people's lives and governed only by the rhythms of Fords efciency and fear of wasting time (an action considered as obscene and immoral). The life of groups living in the railway stations of Pescara, Barcelona, and Porto (met by our researchers several times) goes to a different direction and shows us new relationships (less schizophrenic) with time. They teach us to "waste time", a great value of our time... We are taught to respect the time of all and therefore our time; we are taught to give us a somewhat different and better quality of life. The actions in the station have taught us the great value of our target groups, also called "producers of insecurity." We refer to the home144

less, young drug users, people with irregular position, the Roma in the area of the station. The research and the work of the operators of On The Road, APIP, and EAPN Portugal in the stations show us a group of people with great sensitivity, emotions, passion, love of life. The poetry readings, performances of theatre of the oppressed represented, and animation actions showed poets, actors, artists, animators who may live in the street, but who have shown great cultural and artistic ability. The performances produced show very clearly the more and more signicant emergence of a culture of marginality, artistic expressions that come from the bottom, which clarify the messages that the world of the abandoned launch to the so-called planet of normality. This performance or "spettacolazione" ability (to use a language of Franco Passatore, a great promoter of cultural events of the 1970s) shows us, in the iconic space of the station, an example of public and urban art that reverberates on the urban area that contains it. In this sense, the repeated architectural requalication and restyling activities that are taking place on many railway stations in Europe (for example the one just completed of the Tiburtina station in Rome, Italy) are combined with "human" regeneration that the research brings to our attention. So I think we can speak, in the project "Violence in Transit" of social aesthetics, a big bet on the beautiful and pleasant in places (such as stations) that seem to offer degradation and marginalization at a rst supercial glance. Ultimately, the research outlines a way: if we want to lower the forms of violence among young people (as reference is made to them for the most part), often marginalized and living in the areas of transit

and ow such as railway stations, it is necessary to re-create spaces and times in their own image and likeness, making them protagonists of their future, offer them tools to express their voice and their emotions. All this should be done through social work, by operators, made of great care, sensitivity and respect. Street work, in its forms of entertainment and education in the contact and empathic engagement with these young people, allowed entering the dark and often hardly penetrable worlds and build, along with the so-called "producers of insecurity", clusters of shared security.

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WEBSITE REFERENCES
Ajuntament Barcelona, http://www.bcn.cat/novaciutadania/arees/ca/estudis/estudis.html Castellan S., Baby gang: anche in Italia?,! http://www.questotrentino.it/qt/?aid=7091! 27 gennaio 2001 Eurostat,! http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/ Perri S., LOCSE e la diseguaglianza: a che punto la notte?,! http://www.economiaepolitica.it/index.php/primo-piano/locsee-la-dis eguaglianza-a-che-punto-e-la-notte/! 25 giugno 2011 Zunino C., Le gang del barrio Italia,! http://inchieste.repubblica.it/it/repubblica/rep-it/inchiesta-italiana/201 1/11/23/news/le_gang_del_barrio_italia-22081285/! 23 novembre 2011 http://www.abruzzo24ore.tv/documents/2012/osservatorio_criminalit %C3%A0_in_abruzzo_anni_2008_-_2009_-_2_010_-_2011_e_primi_ mesi_del_2012_(4).pdf

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PHOTOGALLERY CREDITS:
Page 24 Jessica Di Benedetto Page 31 Alfredo Giangaspero Page 61 Adriano Miranda, Lara Jacinto and Rui Farinha Page 109 Juanfra Alvarez (IEFC Student)

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CREDITS

Violence in Transit! www.violenceintransit.org

PROJECT PARTNERS On The Road Onlus! www.ontheroadonlus.it/ EAPN Portugal! www.eapn.pt/ ! FUNDACIN APIP-ACAM! www.apip.org Europe Consulting Onlus! www.europeconsulting.it

ASSOCIATED PARTNERS OSCE! www.osce.org

Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane! www.fsitaliane.it

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Any part of this Report is protected by copyright. Any reproduction (including photocopying, scanning, electronic storage) and communication are prohibited and punished (unless expressly authorized). The report reects only the views of the authors; the European Commission is no way responsible for any use of the information herein contained. Editing! EC edizioni - www.ecedizioni.it! October 2013

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European Commission Directorate-General Justice

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