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Basic Thermodynamic Formulas (Exam Equation Sheet)

Control Mass (no mass flow across system boundaries)


Conservation of mass: =
Conservation of energy (1st Law):

=
=

+ +
+

Entropy Balance (2nd Law): = +

22 12
2

+ (2 1 )

Control Volume (mass flow across system boundaries)


Conservation of mass:

Conservation of energy (1st Law):


Entropy Balance (2nd Law):

Heat Transfer and Work Relationships

= + +

2
2

+ +

+ +

Conduction: =

Convection: = ( )

4
)
Radiation: = (4

Heat transfer for an internally reversible process: . =

Boundary work: =

=
2
Polytropic process: = 1, = 1 1
1, =
2
1

Polytropic process for Ideal Gas:

1
2 2 1 1

(1)/

= 2

2
1

= 1
2

Reversible steady flow work: = +

12 22
2

+ (1 2 )

Ideal gas, no change in kinetic and potential energy


Isentropic: =

(1 2 )
1

Isothermal: = 1
Polytropic: =

(1 2 )
1

2
2

Thermal Efficiency of Cycles


Heat engine: =

Heat pump: = =

Isentropic (Adiabatic) Efficiencies:

Nozzle: =

Compressor: =

=1

Refrigeration: = =

Turbine: =

Specific Heat Relationships =

= =

2 /2

2 /2
,

, =

Incompressible Substance (solids and liquids)

Use saturation tables: @ ; @ ; @ + ( ) ; @

OR

= ()
Variable specific heat: = () +

Constant specific heat: = +

= 2

Ideal Gases = , = + , =
Use ideal gas tables =
OR

; = Molar mass (Table A-1)


= ()
= ()

Variable specific heats:

= 2 1 2
2

Isentropic process:

2
1

Constant specific heats:

Isentropic process:

1 2

=
2
1

2
1

= ,
= ,

= 1 1

2 1

2 = 1
2
1
1

2 1

(1)

1
2

2
1

=
2

1
2

Other (saturated liquid/vapor mixtures, superheated vapors, e.g. water and refrigerants) Use Tables A2 - A18
Useful Relations: = + ; = + ; = + ; = + ; = + ; =