1
Mass Moment of Inertia
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
• Encounter in the engineering problems involving rotational motion of rigid bodies
in dynamics
Moment of Inertia of a Mass
• Angular acceleration about the axis AA’ of the
small mass Dm due to the application of a
couple is related to r
2
Dm.
r
2
Dm = moment of inertia of the
mass Dm with respect to the
axis AA’
• For a body of mass m the resistance to rotation
about the axis AA’ is
inertia of moment mass dm r
m r m r m r I
= =
+ A + A + A =
}
2
2
3
2
2
2
1
• The radius of gyration for a concentrated mass
with equivalent mass moment of inertia is
m
I
k m k I = =
2
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
12/3/2013
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Moment of Inertia of a Mass
• Moment of inertia with respect to the y
coordinate axis is
( )
} }
+ = = dm x z dm r I
y
2 2 2
• Similarly, for the moment of inertia with
respect to the x and z axes,
( )
( )
}
}
+ =
+ =
dm y x I
dm z y I
z
x
2 2
2 2
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
Parallel Axis Theorem
• For the rectangular axes with origin at O and parallel
centroidal axes,
( ) ( ) ( )  
( ) ( )
} } } }
} }
+ + ' + ' + ' + ' =
+ ' + + ' = + =
dm z y dm z z dm y y dm z y
dm z z y y dm z y I
x
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
( )
2 2
z y m I I
x x
+ + =
'
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
y x m I I
x z m I I
z z
y y
+ + =
+ + =
'
'
• Generalizing for any axis AA’ and a parallel centroidal
axis,
2
md I I + =
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
12/3/2013
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Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates
• For a thin plate of uniform thickness t and homogeneous
material of density r, the mass moment of inertia with
respect to axis AA’ contained in the plate is
I
A ' A
= r
2
dm } = t r
2
} dA
= t I
A ' A ,area
• Similarly, for perpendicular axis BB’ which is also
contained in the plate,
I
B ' B
= t I
B ' B ,area
• For the axis CC’ which is perpendicular to the plate,
I
C ' C
= t J
C,area
= t I
A ' A ,area
+ I
B ' B ,area
( )
= I
A ' A
+ I
B ' B
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates
• For the principal centroidal axes on a rectangular plate,
( )
2
12
1 3
12
1
ma b a t I t I
area , A A A A
= = =
' '
( )
2
12
1 3
12
1
mb ab t I t I
area , B B B B
= = =
' '
( )
2 2
12
1
b a m I I I
mass , B B mass , A A C C
+ = + =
' ' '
• For centroidal axes on a circular plate,
( )
2
4
1 4
4
1
mr r t I t I I
area , A A B B A A
= = = =
' ' '
2
2
1
mr I I I
B B A A C C
= + =
' ' '
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
12/3/2013
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Mass Moment of Inertia of a Slendor Rod
2
z
I r dm =
}
2
0
3 2 2
( )
/
( )
3 3 3
L
z
I x mdx
m
m mass unit length
L
mL mL L mL
=
= =
= = =
}
( )
2
2
2 12
z z
cg
L mL
I I m
 
= ÷ =

\ .
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
Moments of Inertia of a 3D Body by Integration
• Moment of inertia of a
homogeneous body is obtained
from double or triple
integrations of the form
}
= dV r I
2
• For bodies with two planes of
symmetry, the moment of
inertia may be obtained from a
single integration by choosing
thin slabs perpendicular to the
planes of symmetry for dm.
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
12/3/2013
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Mass Moment of Inertia of a Rectangular Prism
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
Find mass moment of
inertia about Z axis
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
Mass Moment of Inertia of a Sphere
12/3/2013
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Moments of Inertia of Common Geometric Shapes
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
Sample Problem: Composite Section
Determine the moments of inertia
of the steel forging with respect to
the xyz coordinate axes, knowing
that the specific weight of steel is
7896 kg/m
3
.
SOLUTION:
• With the forging divided into a prism and
two cylinders, compute the mass and
moments of inertia of each component
with respect to the xyz axes using the
parallel axis theorem.
• Add the moments of inertia from the
components to determine the total moments
of inertia for the forging.
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
12/3/2013
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Sample Problem: Composite Section
( )
( )
kg 0744 . 0
10 3 1
kg/m 7896
: cylinder each
3 6 2
3
=
× × ×
= =
m
m
V m
 
( ) ( ) ( )   ( )( )
2
2 2 2
12
1
2 2 2
12
1
kgm 5394 . 0
5 . 2 0744 . 0 3 1 3 0744 . 0
3
=
+ + =
+ + = x m L a m I
y
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 1
12
2 2 2 2
1
12
3
00744 3 1 3 00744 25 2
0837
2
kgm
z
I m a L m x y
. . .
.
( (
= + + +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( (
= + + +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
( )( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
2
1
2 2
2
1
kgm 5394 . 0
2 0744 . 0 1 0744 . 0
=
+ =
+ = y m ma I
x
cylinders( ) : cm 2 cm, 5 . 2 , cm 3 , cm 1 = = = = y x L a
SOLUTION:
• Compute the moments of inertia
of each component with respect
to the xyz axes.
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces
Sample Problem: Composite Section
( )( )
kg 1895 . 0
m 10 6 2 2 kg/m 7896
: prism
3 6 – 3
=
× × × = =
m
V m
prism (a =2 cm, b =6 cm, c =2 cm):
  ( ) ( ) ( )  
2
2 2
12
1 2 2
12
1
gm k 632 0
2 6 1895 0
.
. c b m I I
z x
=
+ = + = =
  ( ) ( ) ( )  
2
2 2
12
1
2 2
12
1
gm k 126 0
2 2 1895 0
.
. a c m I
y
=
+ = + =
• Add the moments of inertia from the components
to determine the total moments of inertia.
( ) 372 . 0 2 632 . 0 + =
x
I
2
kgm 376 . 1 =
x
I
( ) 5394 . 0 2 126 . 0 + =
y
I
2
kgm 2048 . 1 =
y
I
( ) 837 . 0 2 632 . 0 + =
z
I
2
kgm 306 . 2 =
z
I
Engineering Mechanics Distributed Forces