UMTS RF Engineering Guidelines

401-380-xxx Issue May 2003

1.0

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Copyright ©2003 by Lucent Technologies. All Rights Reserved. This material is protected by the copyright laws of the United States and other countries. It may not be reproduced, distributed, or altered in any fashion by any entity (either internal or external to Lucent Technologies), except in accordance with applicable agreements, contracts, or licensing, without the express written consent of the Customer Training and Information Products organisation and the business management owner of the material. For permission to reproduce or distribute, please contact: The Manager, RF System Engineering Group 01793 89 7613 (domestic) (44) 1793 897613 (international) Notice Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this information product was complete and accurate at the time of printing. However, information is subject to change.

Table of Contents Introduction.............................................................................................................................................. 1 1 Air Interface Dimensioning.............................................................................................................. 2 1.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................. 2 1.1.1 Processing gain................................................................................................................. 2 1.1.2 Correlation between coverage and capacity ..................................................................... 2 1.1.3 Hard and soft capacity...................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Link Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 2 1.2.1 Uplink budget ................................................................................................................... 3 1.2.1.1 UMTS service description............................................................................................ 3 1.2.1.2 Type of connection....................................................................................................... 3 1.2.1.3 Bit rate .......................................................................................................................... 3 1.2.1.4 Traffic load................................................................................................................... 3 1.2.1.5 Required Eb/No ............................................................................................................. 4 1.2.1.6 Propagation environment.............................................................................................. 4 1.2.1.7 Receiver sensitivity ...................................................................................................... 4 1.2.1.8 Pole capacity................................................................................................................. 5 1.2.1.9 Noise rise due to interference ....................................................................................... 5 1.2.1.10 Establishing the link budget ..................................................................................... 6 1.2.1.11 Antenna gain............................................................................................................. 7 1.2.1.12 Transmitter antenna system-antenna gain................................................................. 7 1.2.1.13 Feeder loss for UE .................................................................................................... 7 1.2.1.14 Body loss .................................................................................................................. 7 1.2.1.15 Output power............................................................................................................ 7 1.2.2 Downlink analysis .......................................................................................................... 10 1.2.3 Pilot power budget.......................................................................................................... 11 1.2.4 Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 12 1.3 Mixed Services Dimensioning ............................................................................................... 13 1.3.1 Traffic conversion .......................................................................................................... 13 1.3.2 Dimensioning methodology ........................................................................................... 13 1.3.3 Capacity versus coverage analysis.................................................................................. 13 1.3.4 Fixed cell loading ........................................................................................................... 16 1.3.5 Adaptive cell loading...................................................................................................... 16 1.4 Coverage and Capacity Examples .......................................................................................... 17 1.5 UMTS Overlay 2G Technologies........................................................................................... 19 1.5.1 UMTS and 2G networks................................................................................................. 19 1.5.2 GSM coverage................................................................................................................ 21 1.5.3 TDMA link budget ......................................................................................................... 23 1.5.4 UMTS coverage and capacity......................................................................................... 26 1.5.5 Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 28 1.6 Reference................................................................................................................................ 30 2 Packet Data..................................................................................................................................... 31 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 31 2.2 Application Layer................................................................................................................... 31 2.2.1 Traffic model overview .................................................................................................. 32 2.2.2 Deriving a web traffic model.......................................................................................... 32 2.2.3 Generation of a web traffic model.................................................................................. 33 2.2.4 HTTP versions................................................................................................................ 34 2.2.4.1 Version 1.0 ................................................................................................................. 35 2.2.4.2 Version 1.0 - with keep alive multiple connections.................................................... 35 2.2.4.3 Version 1.1 - with persistent pipelined connections ................................................... 36 2.2.5 Mixing traffic types ........................................................................................................ 36 2.3 Transport Layer ...................................................................................................................... 37 2.3.1 TCP................................................................................................................................. 37 2.3.2 Network element latency................................................................................................ 40 2.4 Network and Data Link Layer ................................................................................................ 41 2.4.1 Network layer ................................................................................................................. 41 2.4.2 RLC ................................................................................................................................ 41 2.4.3 MAC-d ........................................................................................................................... 41 Issue 1.0 - May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions i

.................... 41 2................................. 52 3...................................................... 48 2................................................................................................................. 42 2............................1 Channel structure...5 Mean rate per user over simulation .................................................2..................................................................................8.............. 78 5.................................. 59 Handover .................................................................................................................................................1 Reception Diversity..............................................................................1 Scheduling schemes for DSCH ....4 Scrambling Code Planning.................6 Results and Discussion . 41 2......................3....................................... 83 6.. 50 2........................................3 Soft Handover Algorithm........................5 Dynamic Bearer Control........................................................................ 61 4.........................................................................................3 DSCH .6............................................................ 85 6..........5 Physical Layer ..................................................................................................................................................................... 48 2........................................2.......................7........................................................................................................................................................................... 63 4........................................................... 48 2......................9 References ....................................................6 Conclusions .......................... 61 4.................................................7 Reference...................................................................4 Active set size analysis...6 DSCH .........2..................9 References .... 76 5.................................. 60 4.....3 Mean transfer time............ 77 5................................................................................3............................... 54 3....... 74 4.3 Feeder Cable...........................................5 Code Allocation Strategy .................................................................4 Mean transfer rate during transfer time ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Scrambling Codes.........................2 Remote Electric Tilt ........................... 79 5...................... 60 4.......................... 49 2............................7................................................... 47 2...........................3.........................................................................May 2003 ....................................................... 54 3...... 49 2.. 77 5.............................2 Review of other scheduling schemes........................................................8 Conclusion.................................................7 Code Reuse Distance...............................2 Antenna Types...................................................1 Introduction ....................................... 48 2..................................................................................... 76 5...............................................................................0 ........... 85 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions ii Issue 1.................................. 58 3...... 49 2........................................... 41 2...................6............................ 60 4............................................................................................ 48 2..........................................7..................3 Cell Search and Synchronisation.............................1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 76 5............1 From a modelling and simulation perspective..........4 Outage Probability without Handover.........................................................................................2............5..............................................3 Fading Factor.........8......................... 66 4.............................................................................2...................................... 83 6..................................................................................................................2 Fading Margin and Handover Gains.........................8 Parameters in Packet Data Analysis .......3 Congestion Control....................................................................................................................................... 68 4..............................................................................................................................8..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Introduction ............................. 47 2................................................ 80 5...........................2............................................ 52 3.......................................................................4 Call Admission Control........................................................................................................6 Code Assignment Scheme......................................................................................................5............. 52 3...............................5 Impact of add/drop threshold..........................................................3 Common Options for UMTS.....................2 Multiplexing gain ................................................................. 84 6....................................................................................2 DCH .........................................................................................................7 Power Calculation ....................................... 62 4............... 78 5.......................... 50 2........................6 Conclusions .... 63 4.................................................................................8..................................................................................................... 82 Antenna systems...........................................................2..................................................................8. 49 2............ 85 6.....................1 Number of users ...................... 84 6.............. 83 6........................3....................................................4 Diplexers and Triplexers .........................................................................................................................7.1 Introduction ................................................................... 48 2.........................................................................1 Blocking .........................................................7 Reference.......................7................................ 71 4.................................... 46 2......................................................................................5 Outage Probability with Handover .............3 4 5 6 2........................ 75 Scrambling Code Allocation .........................4 MAC-sh ................................................................................................2....2 Handover gain .....1 Overview .................4....2 DCH ................... 58 3......................................2 Load Estimation ..... 60 4...........2 Sector Carrier Throughput.......................................... 51 Load Control ..

............................... 110 7........................................................................7 REFERENCES.4... 94 6....................................2..........................2 Task 2 ................ 107 7...............................................................................3 Antenna Isolation Criteria and Safe Antenna Isolation ................................3 The influence of weight.6 Antenna Separation between two Co-located RF Stations ................1 Service based handover type: "should" .....1 Service based handover type: "should" .............. 90 6..................................3............. 87 6....2...........4 Conclusions ............................3........................5.................................... 94 6........May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions iii ..........4 Antenna Isolation ..4... 95 6......................................................................................4................................................... 103 7 Inter Radio Access Technology Handover... 101 6............... 92 6............................... 115 7..................... 102 6........................................................5 UMTS GSM Antenna Isolation......1 The influence of UTRAN threshold ..................2..2 Triplexers..................................................................................... 99 6............................................................3.2............................................3..............2................................................ 97 6......3.....3..........................1............2..................................................4..................... 103 6.........Receiver Blocking ........2...............................................2 Interference from Existing Stations to New Station .......................................................4........... 87 6.....................3 Parameter Settings for Inter-RAT......................................................................... 105 7....................................................2......................................................................3............................................6 The influence of the compressed mode ..........2 Investigation of parameter settings for the MAHO CM "should not" algorithm.................................2.......... 104 7.......................... 109 7.............4.............4..........2...................................................... 89 6.. 122 Issue 1...2.........4.......3 Task 3 .............................................2 Intermodulation Product Interference.. 118 7.....................................................................4 The influence of the UE's velocity ........3.......................... 106 7........................................................ 106 7.7....................................................1 Overview ....4.........................................................4............................4..............................................3 Antenna Isolation/Separation Estimations...................................... 98 6.............................................5 General Transceiver EMC..............6....................................7...........2............................... 106 7.................5...................... 104 7........... 104 7................1 Interference from A New Station to Existing Stations .......................1...............2 Service based handover type: "should not" ................................................4.......................................................................................................................2..5.....1 Receiver Desensitization ........... 120 7........4...........2.................................. 88 6.... 121 7.......Receiver Overload....7.........3 Receiver Overload.......................................1 UMTS co-siting with GSM 900 ...........................3...................4..........5 Site Survey ...........2 The influence of time to trigger 1F...................................5.............................................................................3 Database assisted handover ......................................................1 General aspects... 111 7......... 106 7.................................................................................1 Diplexers ........ 100 6...............2 Inter-RAT handover Algorithms ..........................................4.................... 112 7......................................................1 Task 1 ... 100 6........ 110 7............... 104 7....................................3......2.........3..2 Service based handover type: "should not" ......................7 Mutual Interference among Multiple Co-located RF Stations.........3..........5 The influence of the inter-RAT handover execution delay ....................4.................................. 103 6. 100 6............................... 113 7...........6 Conclusion................................................4........5...............................4 Receiver Blocking .0 ...........................2 The influence of time to trigger 3A ..................................................................3................2..............................................................................................4...........5 Timing assumptions...........................4 Mobile assisted handover .....2.................... 86 6.............................. 119 7...................................................... 104 7......3.............4 UMTS1900 PCS Antenna Isolation......................................................2..................3.. 87 6............................... 86 6................... 117 7............................................2 UMTS co-siting with GSM 1800 .........1 The influence of absolute threshold 1F .................................................................................................5...........................2 Mathematical Model for Mutual Interference Evaluation ...............2 Service based handover ........... 86 6.....3 Reporting event 1F ....................... 91 6......... 106 7...............1 Parameter settings for the DAHO "should not" algorithm ..............2..4..............Spurious Emissions ........................................... 108 7... 102 6.........................................4............................5 Reference...............................4 Task 4 ................................ 91 6..1 Overview ..............2...3.....................................IMP3 Interference.............................................

About this document Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide engineering guidelines on RF network design issues for UMTS. Scope The scope of this document is listed below: (a) Cover the basic principles of UMTS RF engineering design and optimisation. This document tends to present results or conclusions rather than concentrate on detailed derivation or simulation.0 . (b) Provide guidelines on design and optimisation of UMTS RF networks. which is always welcome. haizhou@lucent.com Issue 1. The content of this document can be shared with Lucent customers. (c) This document also has some tutorial values although some of the issues are not dealt with in great depth.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions iv . please contact: Hai Zhou at +44 1793 89 7613. Audience The intended audiences are (a) RF design and optimisation engineers (b) Sale persons who wish to know more technical details on RF network design (c) System engineers engaged in bid and proposal work (d) Customers Contact For further questions or feedback.

Administration and Maintenance Quality of Service Radio Access Bearer Random access channel Radio Access Technology Radio Link Control Radio Link Failure Radio Network Controller Radio Resource management Received Signal Strength Indicator Retransmission Time Out Round Trip Time Segmented Data Unit Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions v Issue 1.Abbreviations ACK AMR BCCH BHDSA BLER BSIC BTS CAC CDMA CM ConC CPICH CS DAHO DBC DCH DL DNS DPCH DPCCH DPDCH DSCH EIRP FACH FDD FTP GSM HTML HTTP IP ISO LCP LNA MAC MAHO MSS MTU NAS NodeB PDSCH PDU PHY PS OA&M QoS RAB RACH RAT RLC RLF RNC RRM RSSI RTO RTT SDU Acknowledgement Adaptive multirate Broadcast Control Channel Busy Hour Data Session Attempts Block Error Rate Base Station Identification Code Base Station Call Admission Control Code Division Multiple Access Compressed Mode Congestion Control Common Pilot Channel Circuit switched Database Assisted Handover Dynamic Bearer Control Dedicated Channel Down Link Domain Name Service Dedicated Physical CHannel Downlink Physical Control CHannel Downlink Physical Data CHannel Downlink Shared CHannel Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power Forward Access Channel Frequency Division Duplex File Transfer Protocol Global System for Mobile Communication Hyper-Text Markup Language Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Internet Protocol International Standards Organisation Link Control Protocol Low noise amplifier Media Access Control Mobile Assisted Handover Maximum Segment Size Maximum Transfer Unit Non-Access Stratum UMTS base station Physical Downlink Shared Channel Protocol Data Unit PHYsical Packet switched Operations.0 .May 2003 .

also Transceiver Transmission Timing Interval Tower Top Low Noise Amplifier User Equipment Up Link Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Uniform Resource Indicator UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Virtual Private Network Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Issue 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions vi .SIR STEAM TCP TFCI TRX TTI TTLNA UE UL UMTS URI UTRAN VPN WCDMA Signal-to-Interference Ratio Simulation Tool for the Evaluation of Algorithms in Mobile networks Transmission Control Protocol Timing Format Combination Indicator Transmitter/Receiver.0 .

UMTS handover procedures. Packet access allows bearers to use common. It also serves as a tutorial for UMTS RF system engineering. In a mobile communication environment. chapter 4 describes handover gain. Chapter 1 provides an overview of UMTS air interface planning and dimensioning. It provides design. deployment and optimization guideline for UMTS RF systems and networks.0 . Simulation results and the optimum thresholds are discussed. as its air interface. especially between UMTS FDD and GSM systems are presented. There will be wide range UMTS antenna systems to be deployed according to site-specific environments.Introduction Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the major third generation (3G) mobile communications systems being developed within the framework defined by the ITU and known as IMT-2000. Using simulation results. Typical examples of network dimensioning are provided. It tolerates longer delay than realtime services (such as telephone service) and packets can be retransmitted. A CDMA system has the capability of cell breathing according to the loading. if the air interface is allowed to increase excessively. The topics covered in this document are as follows: Capacity and coverage considerations are fundamental to UMTS planning and operation. Issue 1. downlink-scrambling code is used to identifying a cell or a sector. a handover must occur to transition the communication link from one base station to the next. In UMTS. factors affecting handover gains. UMTS adopted Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) technology. Inter radio access technology handover is investigated in Chapter 7. dedicated or shared channels dynamically. Chapter 3 covers criteria and algorithms for load control. link budgets for various services in both up and down link directions. as a user moves from the coverage area of one base station to the coverage area of another base station. including algorithm and optimisation of handover parameters (such as Add/drop thresholds. feeder loss. pilot channel) power needed to provide adequate coverage. the coverage area of the cell is reduced below the planned values and the quality of service of existing connection cannot be guaranteed. such as gain. overhead channel (e.g. However. Antenna isolation issues between UMTS and 2G (GSM. TDMA) technologies are also discussed in this chapter. dealing with issues such as trade-off between capacity and coverage. This document addresses selected radio frequency (RF) engineering topics for Lucent implementation of UMTS. Correlations between scrambling codes from both by theory and simulation are also presented in the chapter. active set size etc). non-real-time packet data is burst. Chapter 5 gives an overview on scrambling code allocation criteria.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 1 . with bandwidth of 5MHz. Chapter 6 describes the main items associated with the antennas that are used together to form the UMTS antenna system. Chapter 2 gives an overview on UMTS packet handling through a detailed modelling of web browsing. From air interface point of view. The results obtained by investigations of inter-RAT (radio access technology) algorithms.

1 Air Interface Dimensioning This chapter introduces the principles of the WCDMA air interface. also called link.2 Correlation between coverage and capacity Site capacity is limited by the amount of mutual interference among the mobile units that can be tolerated in order to cover a given area. This results in a trade-off between coverage and capacity.0 . The maximum capacity is limited by the amount of interference (and noise) in the air interface. However the precise definition of processing gain is: (Chip rate)/(symbol rate at air interface) + (coding gain at specific error rate) 1. as a good approximation. Moreover. modelling in general. which corresponds to a capacity limited by the amount of hardware. The probability of capacity limitation due to a lack of available codes is regarded as negligible in the following. Finally. reverse budget and to discuss downlink. Also the use of orthogonal codes allows re-use of the same frequency. and in general of all spread spectrum systems. while maintaining a margin against signal fading and shadowing losses. 1. that is. It is the processing gain that gives CDMA systems the robustness against selfinterference.1.1. It provides an overview on the main aspects of UMTS network dimensioning. which is necessary in order to reuse the available 5MHz carrier frequencies over geographically close distances. it is by definition a soft capacity.1 Processing gain The processing gain is a fundamental aspect of the all CDMA systems. opposed to the hard capacity. The total channel pool is larger than just the average number of channels per cell. the system can naturally exploit the reduced levels of interference generated by low voice activity. also called forward.1 Overview 1. capacity limits are soft rather than hard because system capacity can be increased by lowering the service quality requirements for different connections. a cell's capacity is inherently dynamic. as a cell's load increases. since the adjacent cells share part of the same interference. its coverage will decrease.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 2 . for the voice traffic load. In addition. Issue 1. the coverage may be viewed as being limited by capacity in that the amount of interference is determined by the given value of capacity and the degree to which this capacity is "loaded" by the actual traffic in a typical situation. This procedure supports more mobile stations at the expense of slightly degrading the call quality of all mobile stations.3 Hard and soft capacity The many factors influencing CDMA capacity give rise to a desirable flexibility in system operation. In some cases. the processing gain has been taken as chip rate divided by data rate. while its neighbouring cells coverage can increase naturally absorbing more mobile stations if they are lightly loaded. 1.1. since there is no single value for the maximum capacity.2 Link Analysis The aim of this paragraph is to explain the key parameters of the uplink. 1. Since capacity depends on the interference levels. That is the reason why the capacity is qualified as a soft capacity. and therefore more traffic can be served with the same blocking probability.

The bit rate would be the same for circuit and a packet switched connection.2 Type of connection The type of connection can be Circuit Switched adaptive multirate (AMR) Speech. in order to calculate the energy per user information bit.1 Uplink budget 1. The traffic density that has to be served by the UMTS network should be composed of different services and different types of subscriber.2.2.g. E.4 Traffic load The traffic load depends on the nature of the user application: Voice traffic and Circuit Switched traffic: the traffic load is in Erlang.1. B. Circuit Switched or Packet switched data connections. Packet switched traffic: the traffic load is provided in bits per second. This leads to a lower minimum required Eb/No values to account for the higher tolerable BLER rates for PS services.2.0 . The bit rate can be used to calculate as a good approximation the processing gain. This process provides the cell capacity of a UMTS cell and the radius of the cell. C. Issue 1. This applies also for the busy hour.2. which has to be chosen to manage the traffic density and the performance level required by the operator. The main difference is that packet data can tolerate higher BLER than that of circuit switched data due to its capability to retransmit data packets.1.2.1. from the available wideband power. Type of connection Bit rate Traffic load Type of environment Eb/No requirement They will be explained in the following.A link budget forms the key element for the dimensioning process. The different parameters that define a UMTS service when considering the coverage and capacity issues are: A. The coverage of a cell. corresponding to a traffic density is defined in this document as the common coverage of each service and subscribers that are present in the traffic density. as described in section 1. mean delay and averaged throughput. 1. 1. e.1. D.1. 1. 1. It is necessary to include the baseband data rate in the link budget power calculation. which is the average percentage of time a circuit is used. The study of this coverage / capacity issues versus the mixed traffic density is a complicated one and the first step is to do this study for a single UMTS service.1 processing gain.3 Bit rate The Bit Rate is the user information bit rate.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 3 .1 UMTS service description Before establishing a link budget it is necessary to define the service for which the network should be defined. should be taken into account. When the traffic load is given as the combination of number of users and traffic per user the quality of service parameters for packet data.

7 Receiver sensitivity The key to reverse link analysis lies in assessing the receiver sensitivity.6 Propagation environment The type of propagation environment is one of the parameters of the service definition that influences the Eb/No requirement and then the behaviour of the coverage vs. the average power relative to the strongest tap.0 .0 1090 -10. the type of subscriber has a significant effect on the required value of (Eb/No). Power control imperfection is also included in the required Eb/No.0 1730 -15. 1. The propagation environment and the speed of the mobile qualify the channel type. Issue 1. Eb/No is the ratio of bit energy to the power spectral density of thermal noise plus interference. The interference power spectral density is interference from all other CDMA users.e.2. the time delay relative to the first tap. and the Doppler spectrum of each tap.0 710 -9. which composes of contributions from users both within the cell and in other cells. at the point where the incoming signal has already suffered cable loss. The receiver sensitivity is derived through the equation of the link quality as explained in the following. The final combination should either come from field measurement or from customers. For each terrestrial test environment. Eb is the energy per user information bit and No represents the receiver noise density (thermal noise + Interference). capacity issues. The thermal noise must be adjusted by the base station noise figure [2]. The bit energy is obtained by dividing the received signal power by bit rate.e. several types of propagation channels may be used. i. The Doppler spectrum is defined as classic [1].0 110 -9.1.2. Table 1-1 Definition of Mobile Channel Tap 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pedestrian Channel A Rel. i.2.0 310 -1.5 Required Eb/No The required Eb/No values corresponding to each service are the results of link level simulations for a given BLER under specified propagation conditions. Thus.1. a channel impulse response model based on a tapped-delay line model is given. Therefore. For each tap of the channels three parameters are given: the time delay relative to the first tap.7 190 -19. for example.1. Another factor that influences the performance of the coding scheme is the severity of the multi-path environment. Power (dB) 0 0. and the rate and length of nulls in the received signal caused by movement through it. This input (the J4 port) lies at the end of the cable connecting receiver to antenna..0 2510 -20.. i.e. 25% of vehicular A + 30% of pedestrian A + 45% of others.0 For a defined area to be covered.1. 1. The extent to which the coding scheme protects against errors and allows for their correction also has a major effect on the required value of Eb/No.May 2003 4 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions . the average power relative to the strongest tap and the Doppler spectrum of each tap. to whom a guaranteed service is to be provided. the final channel should be a combination of related channels. the minimum power (usually expressed in dBm) required per receive diversity branch at the cell site receiver input. Power (dB) 0 0.2 410 -22. The following table describes the tappeddelay-line parameters for each of the terrestrial test environments used in Lucent Technologies link level simulations. Delay (nsec) Avg.8 Vehicular Channel A Rel. Delay (nsec) Avg. The model is characterized by the number of taps. strictly speaking the Radio link budget calculation should be managed for all type of propagation channels.

In the downlink. By setting the denominator in equation (1.2) 1. Rearranging the above formula we get the receiver sensitivity: S= FN tW G − α (1 + β )( N − 1) d (1. The noise rise is normally expressed in dB. coverage and capacity can be traded. it corresponds to infinite noise rise. the associated capacity is deemed pole capacity. By going to the extreme of having little coverage. the denominator approaching zero and the receiver sensitivity approaching infinity. It is seen that the noise rise due to interference is function of this cell loading.2. we have N max = G/d +1 α (1 + β ) (1. increase. Nt: power spectral density of thermal noise W: Chip rate α: active factor β: interference factor. it is assumed all the users have the same bit rate G: processing gain =W/R.d= Eb = No S/ R S =G α(1+ β)(N −1)S FN )S tW +α(1+ β)(N −1 FN t + W (1. The maximum allowed number N is called the pole capacity. in other words.1. which is other cell own cell interference ratio N: number of mobile station in the cell R: bit rate of all the users. The pole capacity can be simulated by cells with a very small radius.4) For larger number of mobile stations. S: received signal strength of each user.e. the above equation can approximated as S= (1.5) where ÿ=N/Nmax is called cell loading factor.2. for simplicity. we have S= FN tW N maxα (1 + β )(1 − µ ) FN tW 1 G / d 1− µ (1. that as the number of users. an interference limited case. N. loading equal to 100%.1.0 . i.9 Noise rise due to interference Replacing G/d in equation (1.2) using equation (1.3) In the uplink. by the following expression: Issue 1. since in CDMA system.2). It is seen from equation (1.3) by Nmax. the concept of the pole capacity can be interpreted as the capacity with unlimited base station power.8 Pole capacity Pole capacity means the maximum theoretical air interface capacity of a CDMA system.2) to zero. 1.1) Where d: the required Eb/No Eb: bit energy No: Power spectral density of thermal noise plus interference F: base station noise figure. It is assumed all the users have the same received power.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 5 .

The loading of the cell is taken into account by the cell-loading factor.7 0. we can feed this back into the common link budget formula to calculate the maximum allowed pathloss. there is no significant benefited in terms of noise-rise. which is conveniently expressed as a fraction of the pole point.4 0. Therefore. If the cell loading is over 75%.70% of the pole capacity.6 Cell Loading % 0.1. the larger is the interference margin needed in the up-link. for the cell radius adjustment.6) The interference margin is needed in the link budget because the loading of the cell affects the coverage. [S ]dB = Ptx + Gantenna _ mob − Lcable _ mob − Lbody − L path + Gantenna _ BTS − Lcable _ BTS Resolving this equation for LPath we get the following: (1.7) Lpath = Ptx + Gantenna _ mob − Lcable _ mob − Lbody − [S ]dB + Gantenna _ BTS − Lcable _ BTS ÿ (1. but system capacity will be reduced rapidly.1 0. The noise-rise increases rapidly as cell loading over 75%.5 0.10 Establishing the link budget Being able to calculate the receiver sensitivity. Noise rise 1. The more loading is allowed in the system.8 0. 20% load corresponds to about 1 dB noise-rise.2 0. For loading below 20%.8) To account for shadow fading and soft handoff gain the link budget becomes: Issue 1. corresponds to about 6 dB noise-rise.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 6 . the smaller is the propagation loss available and the smaller is the coverage area.3 0. 20 18 16 14 12 Noise Rise dB 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. so there is room for cell breathing to cope with loading change. we have a range of 5 dB manoeuvres on cell loading. It is recommended to dimension UMTS network around 50% loading. the system become unstable as small amount of loading increase causes significant increase in noise rise. The noise rise as a function of cell loading is plotted in Figure 1-1.9 1 Figure 1-1 Cell Loading vs.Noise rise due to interference [dB] = 10*log 1 1− µ (1.2.0 . The maximum pathloss LPath should fulfil the following equation. corresponding to 20 . On the other hand.

the loss is negligible in the case of an integral antenna.12 Transmitter antenna system-antenna gain The mobile equipment has an omni-directional antenna with 2dBi antenna gain.5).Lpath = Ptx + Gantenna_ mob − Lcable_ mob − Lbody − [S]dB + Gantenna_ BTS − Lcable_ BTS + Gsoft_ handoff − Mshadow (1. rearranging the link budget equation: Lpath = P tx + G antenna _ mob − L cable _ mob − L body− Eb N0 (NtW / G) −10*log −10*log dB 1 + Gantenna _ BTS − NF− L cable _ BTS + G soft_ handoff− Mshad 1− µ (1. although a figure of 1-2dB is typical in the case of vehicle mounted antennas.9) Replacing S by equation (1.15 Output power Issue 1.2.14 Body loss The power loss due to the location of the Mobile Equipment antenna and the direction of the antenna shall be taken into account in the radio link budget.2.2. The coverage and the radio link budget are consequently not the same at the sectors boundary. which are not addressed yet. In the following the parameters. 1.1.5 dB has to be taken into account.1.0 . Table 1-3 Tx Antenna and Transmitter parameter Service Details Tx Antenna Gain Feeder Loss Other Loss TX Total antenna Gain Units dBi dB dB dB Value 2 0.1. This is the final equation.5 1. Commonly spreadsheets are used to apply this formula in tabular form (see example further below). This applies to a handheld mobile. This is normally assumed for hand held mobiles. A high-speed data mobile is likely to be PC mounted and is assumed to reduce body loss to 0dB.5dB (it in fact includes the non ideal antenna direction). will be explained.10) where NF is the noise figure in dB.1.1.2. Example: Table 1-2 Rx antenna System Gain Service Details Rx Antenna Gain Feeder Loss Units dBi dB Value 18 3 1.5 0 1.2. 1. which is higher than what is available at the sector boundary.11 Antenna gain The antenna gain taken into account is the gain of the antenna in the pointing direction of the directional antenna. A typical value of the body loss should be 1. but vehicle mounted antennas may have higher gains.13 Feeder loss for UE A feeder and connector loss of 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 7 . At the mobile. 1.

8416 1. Examples Table 1-4 Link budget examples for Pedestrian A Bit rate bit/s 12200 Total TX power available dBm 21 TX antenna gain dBi 2 Body loss dB 2 TX EIRP per traffic channel dBm 21 RX antenna gain dBi 18 RX cable and connector losses dB 3 Receiver noise figure* dB 3 Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174 Cell loading % 70 Noise rise due to interference dB 5.56 Maximum path loss urban dB 125.50 Log normal fade margin dB 11.The total output TX power available from the mobile equipment is 21 dBm for voice and 24dBm for data. the fading characteristics and soft handover benefits.3705 Maximum cell range COST231 urban km 0.16 Soft handoff gain dB 4.0961 64000 21 2 0 23 18 3 3 -174 70 5.9758 5.5 2. higher classes of UE with 27dBm and 30dBm have been specified in the UMTS standards.7245 0.9820 Maximum cell range COST231 rural km 2.56 Maximum path loss rural dB 135.50 11.76 COST 231 2000 25 30 1. However.56 Maximum path loss suburban dB 130.56 Maximum path excluding fade and penetration dB 157. Propagation effect: Different parameters will impact the transition from the maximum propagation path loss to the cell radius: the propagation model.5 Fast Fading Margin dB 2.1315 *If overlaying another system receiver noise figure may be higher than 3dB due to interference.16 154.5 0.6 In-building penetration loss (dense urban) dB 20 In-building penetration loss (urban) dB 20 In-building penetration loss (suburban) dB 15 In-building penetration loss (rural) dB 10 Maximum path loss dense urban dB 125.8 RX sensitivity dBm -119.86 Effective required Eb/No dB 5.16 128.76 4.4250 Maximum cell range COST231 suburban km 0.16 123.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 8 .8677 0. Propagation model Issue 1.16 133.0 .23 Total effect of noise dBm/Hz -171 Information rate dBHz 40.06 3.8412 BTS/km2 suburban 0.3106 BTS/km2 dense urban 3.22 -114.7380 BTS/km2 urban 2.3169 0.6 20 20 15 10 123.23 -171 48.5 Maximum cell range COST231 dense urban km 0.1118 3.16 Path loss model COST 231 Frequency MHz 2000 Base station antenna height (urban+suburban) m 25 Base station antenna height (dense urban+rural) m 30 Mobile station antenna height m 1.3643 0.5322 BTS/km2 rural 0.

The standard deviation of the distribution of received power level.5-1dB. about the mean calculated from the general path loss formula). As the attenuation of radio signals caused by buildings is function of the magnitude of the radio frequency. an additional margin has to be applied to the required service signal level to allow for the attenuation of the signal when passing into buildings. a fast fading margin of 1. Note that this margin does not compensate for building attenuation (i. The value of this attenuation is highly variable. However different propagation models can be used either on customer's request or after a proper field propagation calibration. thus the margin required to account for transmitted power is very small (negligible) and on the order of 0. shielding by vegetation and building) in the outdoor coverage.e. owing to the radio waves having to pass through the structure of the building). therefore the transmitted power needed will vary widely as the channel changes. Based on simulations.9GHz bands. so 2-3 dB is a typical margin. This distribution is not as wide as one might think since there are many signal paths and the rake receiver is able to combine them in the best way possible.g. A. This applies especially to slow moving mobiles where fast power control is able to effectively compensate the fast fading. that the designated received power level will be satisfied). and location within the building. B.5dB is recommend. both according to the type of building.0 .May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 9 . When the mobile is at high speed however. owing to local variation in outdoor shadowing. the power control is able to follow the fades perfectly. The probability that at any point in the nominal cell coverage area.e. Shadow Fade Margin The Shadow fade margin is the additional margin that has to be taken into account so that the received power level can manage the radio shadowing (e. the standard deviation of Eb/No is very high. the Eb/No requirement will be higher in order to compensate for all the dips in the channel that power control is not able to follow. and. the attenuation for UMTS operating in the 2GHz band is well estimated by that experienced by GSM networks operating in the 1. as the power control can not catch up with the channel variation.8 & 1. that coverage will actually be available (i. However. Consequently. When a mobile is travelling slowly and the fades are apart from each other. due to this perfection in power control. The impact of the fast fading on the link budget is explained in this section. the standard deviation of Eb/No is relatively small. The value is chosen based on. For this reason we know that from link level simulation the Eb/No requirement on average for such a channel is rather small. High speed mobile: large Eb/No requirement and small fast fade margin. In summary the net effect is as follows: Low speed mobile: small Eb/No requirement and large fast fade margin. Impact of the Fast Fading Some headroom is needed in the mobile station transmission power for maintaining adequate closed loop power control. Handover gain Issue 1. Indoor penetration loss When a network wishes to provide indoor coverage.COST 231 model has been used in calculating the coverage from the maximum allowed propagation loss. loss of power experienced by indoor users. This will mean that we need to add a "fast fade margin" on top of averaged Eb/No to ensure the service reliability when mobile is at the edge of the cell.

As the number of users within a CDMA cell increases so does the energy radiated (composite power) on the common RF carrier. This provides an improvement in performance of the resulting composite link. there is still some gain. Number of simultaneous links between the mobile and BTSs Standard deviation of log normal fading. The magnitude of the soft handover gain depends on a number of factors: A. this would be indistinguishable from a rise in the thermal noise floor. Where applicable. therefore only hard handoff takes place. Issue 1. This analysis differs in three important ways from that of the uplink: First. This is because the slow fading is partly un-correlated between the base stations.0 . C. and as they make more intensive use of the channel (for example. In contrast. This mode of operation is analogous to that of a GPRS mobile. However. The 'geometry' is defined as the ratio of the total power within the active set to the sum of receiver noise and total power received from all sectors not within the active set. B. the other-cell interference considered in uplink analysis consists of power from modest transmitters at a greater distance from the cell site receiver. and by making handover. sending more data). owing to non-perfect orthogonallity between the codes used by the different users. D. i. the link transmitter power (downlink amplifier power) considered in analysis is shared amongst multiple users. Thus causes inter-user (or mutual) interference. The details of hard hand off gain can be found in a later chapter of this guideline. If all the users had completely orthogonal channel access codes. A sector is in the mobile's active set if it is supporting the mobile call. also requires specifying a nonorthogonal factor. depending on the system configuration either a dedicated or a common packet data channel may be used. called hard hand off gain. Additionally.Handover gives a gain against slow fading by reducing the required fading margin that has to be taken into account in the propagation model. If a common packet data channel is used. the current methodology used by Lucent. when the mobile is operating in packet data mode rather than circuit switched mode. Clearly the level of mutual interference will rise as more users access the common RF channel. the fractional forward link power ("Ec/Ior") as a function of mobile geometry is used in analysis.e. 1. rather. The same type of packet data channel does not have to be used for the downlink and the uplink.2. which enjoys the advantage of two diversity antennas. Under these conditions only a single link to a base station exists. the mobile can select a better base station. In contrast. as a mobile receiver near the cell boundary can be subjected to a significant amount of interference broadcasted by nearby neighbour base stations.2 Downlink analysis The objective of downlink analysis is to ensure that the base station has sufficient power to support all the users within the footprint dictated by the reverse link. the effect of other sectors at the receiver is more important. However. Third. The correlation between the multiple radio links. Second. the value of the soft handover gain for circuit switched services is a probability function of the 'overlapping' cell area at the edge of the cell and the standard deviation. and there is no soft handover during the transmission of a data packet. when compared to that at the base station. the mobile communicates with only one base station. When a mobile is operating in connected mode for circuit switched services it may have radio links with more than one base station. We should mention here that the Eb/No requirement at a mobile is much more sensitive to the RF conditions and speed. the available link level information does not consist (directly) of receiver Eb/No requirements.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 10 . the mobile transmit power employed in uplink analysis was dedicated to that mobile. Probability of cell edge coverage. in practice the interference effect of the radiated energy is intensified.. which can be translated into a soft handover gain that can be incorporated in the link power budget However. depending on the propagation environment and the speed of hand off. providing signal for the mobile to demodulate [2]. which besides incorporating the concept of forward link capacity into the forward link budget.

which provides empirically the downlink radio link analysis.Lucent has developed a simulation tool. The coverage probability for a pilot channel is dependent on the pilot power percentage allocation. From µ pilot PBS T ( r ) Ec = I o N tW + I ocW + I scW Io = Total Interference density Nt = Thermal noise power spectrum density W = Carrier bandwidth µpilot = Pilot power fraction PBS = Total base station output power T(r) = Transmission loss Ioc = other cell interference Isc = same cell interference (1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 11 .11) where Substituting Isc by PBST(r) we can derive the pilot power fraction as µ pilot Ec I N tW + PBS T ( r )(1 + oc ) I I sc = o PBPT ( r ) (1. The outmost tier of base stations are not counted to remove the edge effect.3dB for 50% loading.6 (2. i. the maximum cell radius for a given traffic per cell.3 lognormal fade margin.8dB) and a PBS of 46dBm the following results are obtained.12) For Inter-cell/Intra-cell interference ratio of Ioc/ Isc= 1. and this for the down as for the up links.0 . 10.1dB) the results are slightly higher (+0. In the table. By outage in the downlink we mean that the base stations do not have enough power to meet all the user requirements. TTLNA is used to compensate the cable loss of 3dB. The simulation developed is static.3 Pilot power budget Prior to access the WCDMA network. For higher data rates the UE antenna is assumed to be not close to the body. DPDCH/DPCCH and PICH. the body loss and will compensate the antenna gains by 2dB for 8k data rates.e. Ioc/Isc=4dB and rural environment.2. The simulation is iterative and power of the BTS is modified for each iteration until a steady state is reached. The power fractions can be controlled by means of system parameters.5dB SHO gain. This link budget shows that the maximum allowable path loss over the air is 157. The maximum reverse link path loss (Max RL PL) is derived from a reverse link budget as shown at the end of this chapter. The same applies for the coverage of other physical channels like SCH.5 gives an overview about the recommended pilot power fraction to be used in different scenarios. with 4. in which a predefined number of mobiles are randomly positioned and it is then determined how many of them can be served by the system. Soft handoff gain will not apply for the pilot channel. the fraction of the total output power used for the CPICH. Table 1. The results of these simulations provides some network dimensioning value: for a given UMTS service. However. In the fwd link the transmission loss. 0 dB RX cable loss due to the TTLNA and 2dB TX cable and body loss.2 (0. that is the total loss that the signal will experience from the transmitter to the receiver is 21dB less due to the antenna gains. For a Ioc/ Isc of 1. the mobile has to detect the strongest pilot among several WCDMA sites. 4dB SHO gain. The outage rate is define as the number of base stations over the number total counted base stations. 1.8%). all values are in dB. Issue 1.

7 6.2 10.097 0.8 4.4 Load reverse link: 75% Base station output power [W] 10 20 40 5.5 5.5 9.0 123.4 11.6 10. As one can see from Table 1-5 a pilot power fraction of 9% would be sufficient to achieve a Ec/Io of – 15dB for all data rates.096 0.4 8.5% for 7. For higher loading the coverage in the reverse and forward link will shrink and consequently less pilot power will be required.1 8.110 0.062 Where Gm + Gb are the mobile antenna gain plus base station antenna gain.3 8 11. based on simulations this value should be around 4dB.4 6.8 Gm+Gb Body loss 21 2 21 0 21 0 21 0 Transmission loss [dB] 138.2. Thus.078 0. It should be noted that the above values are for 50% loading in the uplink.0 . Increasing the load from 50% to 75% will drop the required pilot power fraction by about 0.7 5. However.6 7.3 144k 149 384k 144.7 Load reverse link: 50% Base station output power [W] 10 20 40 7.3 12. Since this parameter depends on the quality of the network design in terms of inter-site distance. Consequently the required ratio between pilot signal strength and interference is more or less constant.95k services.3 130. antenna orientation and tilt it is very difficult to assess this value.7 8. Issue 1.8 6. The maximum cell radii for higher data rates are already that small that the interference coming from thermal noise is negligible.063 0.9 8.5 5.3 DL amplifier load 50 75 100 Ioc/Io 4dB DL amplifier load 50 75 100 1.9 5.5dB Load reverse link: 50% Base station output power [W] 10 20 40 6.3 64k 151. The maximum achievable loading is regarded to be between 70% and 80%.4 Conclusion For a network that is operating at normal loading.072 0.5 4.5 6.3 8.6 7.Table 1-5 Recommended pilot power fraction Data rate Max RL PL 8k 157.3 128. RLPL is the reverse link path loss. this will mainly impact the lower data rates.8 8. The Ioc/Isc represents the ratio of other cell to same cell interference.6 Load reverse link: 75% Base station output power [W] 10 20 40 4.3 8. Pilot power fraction for various scenarios The following table gives an overview about the recommended pilot power fraction to be used in different scenarios.095 -15 0.5 4.5 6.077 -16 0.8 -14 0.089 0.079 0. Table 1-6 Pilot power fractions for different scenarios Ioc/Io 2.2 10.8 10.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 12 .5 9. Based on simulations it can be seen that additional 1% should be added to ensure a certain coverage probability for the pilot channel of about 95%.064 0.9 10. 10% will be the recommended value. reserving 10% of the total power for the pilot channel should be an acceptable trade-off between having balanced coverage for the most of the services and taking not too much energy away from the traffic channels. However.

e.3.1 Traffic conversion Different types of traffic can be converted each other. the cell coverage is extended.3. With regard to the dependency of coverage on the loading. for dimensioning purposes. 1. from the inverse linear conversion.2kbps. As a result the relation between coverage and capacity of the WCDMA air-interface can be presented in a graph.2 Dimensioning methodology By the use of the simulation. by increase the pilot power. Add all these traffic to obtain one unique service density that is virtually loaded on the network.2kbps). one can manage the appropriate maximum cell radius with its corresponding traffic per site for a given unique UMTS traffic density. capacity relationship for one service (12. 1. Achieve the network dimensioning related to this type of service and its virtual density.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 13 . The proposed methodology to dimension a UMTS network to be loaded by N different types of traffic is the following: For each of the UMTS traffic that has a traffic load to be taken into account: A. Since the linear conversion of the different traffic is a rough estimation to manage the mixed traffic environment. Issue 1. corresponding to this cell radius and this hypothesis. and consequently the cell capacity is reduced. one should have obtained as many cell radius and traffic distribution per cell than the number of different type of services.0 . D. We have in the previous paragraph that the traffic of different UMTS services can be converted in total traffic of one unique UMTS service.3. the smallest cell radius shall be taken as the result of the dimensioning study. by a linear conversion proportionally to their pole capacity. The same can also be done through simulations for the downlink.3 Capacity versus coverage analysis The scope of this paragraph is to discuss some basic principles of the relationship between coverage and capacity in UMTS and to reveal the nature of (W) CDMA networks. it is recommended to adjust the pilot power according to the amount of offered traffic. Convert all the traffic present in this traffic type by the linear conversion to a 'base traffic rate' e. Obtain the maximum cell radius and. The unit of the Y-axis in the plot is in dB. Based on the reverse link budget presented above it is possible to calculate the maximum path loss for all possible loads (0-100%).2 shows one example for the coverage vs. A dimensioning tool is able to do both and generate this capacity versus coverage curve for the forward and reverse link for different user information rate. i. the achievable traffic load of each services.g. Figure 1. At the end of this process. 12. C. B.The amount of power required for other control channels should be around 13%.3 Mixed Services Dimensioning 1. 1.

meaning that for high loads. where the curve has a high slope. It should be noticed that the pole capacity stays the same. the coverage improvement is reduced to zero.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 14 . The other possibility is to use Tower Top Low Noise Amplifier (TTLNA) to reduce the cable loss. But this implies more powerful amplifiers in the handsets.2k Composite Capacity 175 170 165 X Erl /km2 160 Path loss Y Erl /km2 Downlink Macro Uplink Macro 155 150 145 140 135 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Erlangs 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Figure 1-2 Maximum Cell Radius against Traffic Load based on Path Loss Power Budget Uplink can be improved by increasing the maximum output power of the mobile station. Issue 1. This is because the pole capacity does not depend on the output power of the mobile. The TTLNA causes a vertical shift of the uplink curve by about 3dB. The following picture shows the effect of a TTLNA.0 . which is not beneficial for the usability and the power consumption.12.

On the other hand the interference generated by the own cell would increase as well and finally the SIR would stay the same. Consequently the required power per user in the uplink to achieve a certain Eb/No does not depend on the distribution of other users in the same cell. However the opposite applies in the downlink where the power required supporting a user does strongly depend on the location of other users in the same cell.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 15 . A link budget is static by its nature and would only represent a snapshot of the traffic distribution of the users in a cell. Depending on the location of the other users the base station has to dedicate more or less power to serve them. This has several reasons. First of all. As it can be seen in Figure 1-4 the downlink pole capacity remains the same if the power is increased. whereas in the uplink each user has its own power resources. The interference generated by thermal noise is negligible.0 . Issue 1. This is because all users have to share the total output power of the base station. Increasing the total power would on the one hand increase the power available per user.12. the ratio between interference coming from other cells and interference from the same cell is independent of the cell radius. Due to this dependency on other users' location it is not possible to describe the coverage versus coverage relationship in a link budget. Regarding the impact of increasing the total output power on coverage and capacity in the downlink there are some similarities to the uplink. The remaining amount of power decides the maximum range that could be achieved given a minimum required Eb/No. When the radius is increased both the own and other cell interference decrease equally.2k Composite Capacity 175 170 165 160 Pat h los 155 s Downlink Macro Downlink with higher PA Uplink Macro Uplink Distributed/TTLNA 150 145 140 135 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Erlangs 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Figure 1-3 Uplink with TTLNA and Downlink with higher output power Another aspect worth mentioning is that the noise rise caused by other users in the same cell does not depend on their location assuming that power control is working perfectly. for high loads its own interference consisting of own and other cell interference limits the system. Secondly.

Since the thermal noise is constant by its nature.5 0. 1. For example. In the above case.3. if operating at maximum pathloss of 140 dB. or if this is not possible. This effect can be seen the coverage vs. The point at which this cuts the up-link and downlink curves of range against load determines the maximum cell operating range. the downlink is (marginally) the limiting case.5 Adaptive cell loading The ideal cell loading point can be determined when the subscriber density and associated traffic density is known by plotting a graph of cell radius against offered traffic on the same axis as the graph of cell radius against cell traffic load capacity.8 0. 1.7 0. In areas where the offered traffic in the service area is greater. where 7.95kbps voice circuits are considered.160 155 150 145 140 Pathloss (dB) 135 130 125 120 115 8W 16W 32W 0 0.4 0.6 0. more transmit power in the downlink will increase the distance at which sufficient SIR can be achieved.2 0.3 0. thermal noise becomes more dominant (downlink). capacity curve in Figure 1-4 where the cell radius for a certain loading is increased according to the increase in base station output power.3. Issue 1. either an additional RF channel (and associated transceiver) is used at each cell.9 1 110 % of maximum down link capacity Figure 1-4 Impact of increase total output power in the downlink For lower loads with relatively large cell radii. 32 Watt BTS power amplifier can increase downlink capacity around 33% of maximum down link capacity compare with 8-Watt power amplifier.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 16 . the network becomes capacity limited. It is this cell radius that is therefore used when estimating the number of cells that are required to provide coverage over the desired service area.1 0.4 Fixed cell loading The maximum recommended cell load is 75%.0 .

the practical examples for network dimensioning are presented. Issue 1.Previously it has been mentioned that as cell range increases. Urban propagation environment and composite channel condition are assumed. using Dimension Tool developed by Lucent Technologies. The cell loading is relative to the uplink pole capacity.0 .4 Cell Loading % Figure 1-5. since at any loading downlink can cover higher pathloss. namely 12 kbps circuits switch and 64 and 384 kbps packet switch.6. are presented 170 DownLink UpLink 165 160 Path Loss dB 155 150 145 140 135 0 0. It is seen that for 12kbps uplink is the limited factor. Thus with a given subscriber density.4 0. Three typical data rate.8 1 1.2 1. the offered traffic will increase with cell radius.4 Coverage and Capacity Examples In this section. Pathloss vs. The doted red line represents the uplink and blue line represent down link. The base station power is assumed 42 dBm and the mobile power is 21dBm. Other parameters can be found in table 1. the traffic capacity reduces.6 0. The optimum loading point is found where the two factors balance. The optimum loading point is located where the cell radius contains the amount of offered traffic equal to the maximum cell capacity at that range.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 17 .2 0. 1. In the uplink. Cell loading for 12 kbps date rate Figure 1-5 is the pathloss versus cell loading plot at 12 kbps. the TTLNA is included in the dimension.

It is seen that at 64 kbps when the loading is below 66%. While when the cell loading is greater than 66%.8 0. Cell loading for 64 kbps date rate Figure 1-6 is the pathloss versus cell loading plot for 64 kbps. Issue 1.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.6 0. Further. there is no point to dimension cell loading over 75%.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 18 . The cell loading is relative to the uplink pole capacity at 64 kbps.0 . The dotted red line represents the uplink and blue line represent down link. the downlink becomes the limited factor.170 DownLink UpLink 165 160 Pathloss dB 155 150 145 140 135 0 0.9 1 Cell Loading % Figure 1-6 Pathloss vs. uplink is the limited factor.3 0. as it is the pole capacity in the downlink.7 0.

The cell radius can be derived from the maximus allowed path loss and radio propagation model. Since the 2G networks are already deployed. to cope with explosive growth in demand. 1.170 DownLink UpLink 165 160 Pathloss dB 155 150 145 140 135 0 0.6 0.0 .1 0.8 0. the downlink becomes the limited factor.2 0. the 2G-cell coverage is calculated by the maximus allowed path loss for a given service. Cell loading at date rate: 384 kbps Figure 1-7 is the pathloss versus cell loading plot for data rate 384 kbps. The coverage analysis is based on the path loss model. especially in urban areas had been split. The task for UMTS deployment is to dimension UMTS network according to the coverage and service requirements from operators for given cell size.7 0. resulting in much smaller cell radius as calculated purely from link budget.5 UMTS Overlay 2G Technologies The initial deployment of UMTS networks is most likely overlaid on existing 2G networks.g. As the UMTS and 2G technologies operating at different frequencies. in order to reduce roll out cost. As a general approach. The dotted red line represents the uplink and blue line represent down link. operation frequencies and the equipment performance.5.1 UMTS and 2G networks The GSM/TDMA systems are operating at given frequency bands as listed in table 1 below.3 0. UMTS maximum allowed path loss in the uplink is also calculated for different UMTS service. a large majority of 2G cell sites. It is seen that at 64 kbps when the loading is below 80%. Uplink analysis is used to Issue 1. While when the cell loading is greater than 80%. e. coverage analyses based on link budget calculation are presented in this chapter. 1. the cell sizes are known to the 2G operators.4 0. The cell loading is relative to the uplink pole capacity at 384 kbps. the path loss difference need to be analysed in order not to leave coverage holes in UMTS services. It should be pointed out here.9 1 Cell Loading % Figure 1-7 Pathloss vs. GSM and AMPS/TDMA.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 19 . As a general approach and for comparison purpose.5 0. uplink is the limited factor.

The path loss exponent is given by B/10.establish the cell footprint.2(log(11. E = 4.849 880 . From Table 1-7.894 925 . The objective of down link analysis is to ensure that the downlink has sufficient power to support performance within the footprint dictated by the reverse link. base station height: 30m<hb<200m. mobile station height: 1m<hm<10m. Accordingly.915 1710 . for large cities fc>300MHz.75hm )) 2 − 4.1980 1850 -1910 824 .11log f c − 0.78(log f c ) 2 + 18. the dB design path loss determined by uplink analysis is an input to the downlink analysis process.55 + 26. The Okumura-Hata Model is expressed as LdB = A + B log R − E where (1-1) A = 69.0 .894 1930 . E = 3. Table 1-7 UMTS and 2G Frequency Allocation (MHz) Link Direction UMTS FDD a UMTS FDD b GSM 850 GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM1900 TDMA 850 TDMA 1900 Up /Reverse Link 1920 . the cell radius can be calculated from appropriate path loss model.16 log f c − 13. B = 44.97 .849 1850 .1990 Once the design path loss is determined. (1-7) The model is valid only for operation frequency: 150 MHz<fc<1500 MHz.3 + 33. E = (1.56 log f c − 0. for open areas. decreasing with increasing base station antenna height. for urban areas.1910 Down/Forward Link 2110 . which assesses whether the base station has sufficient resources to deliver adequate power to each mobile receiver within the design service area. COST-231-Hata Model is extended from Okumura-Hata Model for medium-small cities to cover the band 1500 MHz <fc< 2000 MHz and expressed as LdB = F + B log R − E + G (1-8) where F = 46. which is a little less than 4. This analysis can be viewed as driven by the limit on mobile transmit power.8) .7)hm − (1. The path loss models widely used in cell size calculations are Okumura-Hata Model for the frequency band from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz and COST-231-Hata Model for the frequency band from 1500 MHz to 2000 MHz [2].82 log hb .9 − 6.82 log hb .1910 824 .4 .1785 1850 . There is no single path loss model is suitable for this wide range of frequencies.960 1805 . (1-9) Issue 1. for medium-small cities. This limit is a key constraining factor in cell size.1990 869 .33 log f c + 40.94 .May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 20 .9 log f c − 13. for Suburban areas. which are summarized bellow.1880 1930 .55 log hb .2170 1930 -1990 869 . it is clear that the operating frequency covers from 800 MHz to 2GHz. (1-2) (1-3) (1-4) (1-5) (1-6) E = 2(log( f c / 28)) 2 + 5. and cell radius: R>1 km.

E is as defined in (1-6) for medium-small cities and G=0 dB, for medium-small cities and suburban areas and G=3 dB for metropolitan centres. In the following calculations, all the cell radiuses are derived for medium-small city or for comparison. For other propagation conditions, it is advised to used appropriated path loss model or field measurement.

1.5.2 GSM coverage
GSM coverage is calculated from GSM Standard Link Budget. The main factors are summarized bellow. For detailed explanation please refer to reference [5]. Downlink Specific Elements include Mobile Transmit Power; Antenna Coupling Equipment (ACE) includes all diplexers, combiners and connectors loss Mobile Receiver Sensitivity. There are wide variety of mobiles with varying performance in the network. The link budget must design the network to cover the worst-case sensitivity as defined by the GSM specifications. With the new generation of mobile evaluation, -102 dBm are used for both GSM900 and 1800. Uplink Specific Elements are Mobile Transmit Power; in the receiving path, to improve the performance of uplink; Diversity Gain used to reduce the effects of multipath fading on the uplink path and BTS Receiver Sensitivity. Common Elements for both Uplink and Downlink budget are Feeder Loss; BTS Antenna Gain; Maximum Path Loss; Slow Fade Margin; Penetration Loss; Body Loss; MS Antenna Gain and Cable Loss. The typical GSM link budgets for the downlink and uplink are give in the two tables below. The cell radiuses are also provided in the table. It is seen that for GSM 900, the downlink is the limited case with maximum balanced cell radius of 26.4 km, while GSM 1800 can support cell radius of 3.9 km.

Transmitter

Table 1-8 GSM Downlink Budget 900 dBm dB dB dBm dB dBi dBm 40.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 2.5 17.0 54.5

1800 40.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 3.0 18.0 55.0

Tx Power Combiner + Filter + Isolator Loss LNA Tx Loss Top of the Rack Power Feeder + Connector Loss Tx Antenna Gain Tx EIRP Receiver Sensitivity Mobile Antenna Gain Body Loss Effective Rx Level Maximum Path Loss Cell Radius for medium-small city

dBm dBi dB dBm dB Km

-102.0 2.0 2.0 -102.0 156.5 7.1726

-102.0 2.0 2.0 -102.0 157.0 3.8956

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Table 1-9 GSM Uplink Budget Frequency Transmitter Tx Peak Power Mobile Antenna Gain Body Loss Tx EIRP Receiver Sensitivity Diversity Gain Feeder Loss Low Noise Amplifier Gain Rx Antenna Gain Effective Rx Level Maximum Path Loss Cell Radius for medium-small city MHz dBm dBi dB dBm dBm dB dB dB dBi dBm dB Km 900 33.0 2.0 2.0 33.0 -108.0 4.0 2.5 0.0 17.0 -126.5 159.5 8.7265 1800 30.0 2.0 2.0 30.0 -108.0 4.0 3.0 0.0 18.0 -127.0 157.0 3.8956

North America GSM link budgets are present in tables 1-10 &11, which are slightly different from that of Europe link budget. The balanced cell radius for IS-136 850 service is 13.3 km. For GSM 1900 with out TTLNA, the cell radius is 2.4 km, while with TTLNA; the cell radius is 2.7 km. Table 1-10 North America Voice Downlink Budget GSM1900 GSM1900 Item Units IS-136 850 No TTLNA With TTLNA (a) Maximum Transmitted power per traffic channel dBm 44.7 45.5 45.5 (b) Tx Cable, Connector, Combiner Loss dB 4 1.2 1.2 (c) Transmitter Antenna Gain dBi 13 16.0 16.0 (d) Effective Transmitter EIRP per traffic dBm 53.70 60.3 60.3 channel (a-b+c) (e) Receiver Antenna Gain dBi 2.0 2.0 2.0 (f) Feeder Cable and Connector Losses dB 2.0 3.0 3.5 (g) Receiver Noise Figure dB 9.0 9.0 9.0 (h) Receiver Noise Density dBm/Hz -174 -174 -174 (i) Receiver Interference Margin dB 1 (j) Total Effective Noise plus Interference Density=(g+h+i) dBm/Hz -164 (k) Information Rate (10log(Rb)) dB 46.87 Unprotected FER for GSM/IS-136; BER for 3% IS-136 C/(I+N) measurements for GSM/IS-136 dB 17.00 (l) Required Eb/(No+Io) dB 13.99 (m) Receiver sensitivity (j+k+l) dB -103.04 -102.0 -102.0 (o) Explicit Diversity Gain dB 0.0 0.0 0.0 (o') Body Loss dB 3.0 3.0 3.0 (p) Log-normal Fade Margin dB 5.40 5.40 5.40 (p') Building/Vehicle Penetration Loss dB 0 0.0 0.0 (q) Maximum Path loss {d-m+(e-f)+o+n-p-p'} dB 148.3 152.9 152.4 Cell Radius for medium-small city Km 4.3777 2.8291 2.7381

Table 1-11 North America Voice Uplink Budget Issue 1.0 - May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 22

Item Unit (a) Maximum Transmitted power per traffic channel dBm (b) Transmit Cable, connector, combiner, and body losses dB (c) Transmitter Antenna Gain dBi (d) Effective Transmitter EIRP per traffic dBm channel (a-b+c) (e) Receiver Antenna Gain dBi (f) Receiver Cable and Connector Losses dB (g) Receiver Noise Figure dB (h) Receiver Noise Density dBm/Hz (i) Receiver Interference Margin (j) Total Effective Noise plus Interference Density=(g+h+i) (k) Information Rate (10log(Rb)) Unprotected FER for GSM/IS-136; BER for IS-136 C/(I+N) measurements for GSM/IS-136 (l) Required Eb/(No+Io) (m) Receiver sensitivity (j+k+l) (o) Explicit Diversity Gain (p) Log-normal Fade Margin (p') Building/Vehicle Penetration Loss (q) Maximum Path loss {d-m+(e-f)+o+n-p-p'} Cell Radius for medium-small city dB dBm/Hz dB

IS-136 850 27 3 2 26 13.0 2 4 -174 0.3 -170 47 3% 17 14 -109 5.0 5.4 0.0 145.4 3.6217

GSM1900 GSM 1900 no TTLNA with TTLNA 29 3 2 28 16.0 3 3 -174 0.0 -171 54 1% 6 6 -111 4.0 5.4 0.0 150.6 2.4342 29 3 2 28 16.0 0.3 3 -174 0.0 -171 54 1% 6 6 -111 4.0 5.4 0.0 153.3 2.9040

dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Km

1.5.3 TDMA link budget
In TDMA link budget, tabes 1-12&14, there are a few interference contributions due to co-channel, adjacent channel, and alternate channel interference, denoted by C/Ico, C/Iadj and C/Ialt. Recall that TDMA uses a spatial frequency reuse plan and some of that RF energy spills back to where it is being reused. As no licensed spectrum is pristine, we have to budget some spurious emissions into the band, which is called unexpected Noise (Nun). Smin,rcvr is the minimum signal at the base station receiver. All of our laboratory measurements are taken with respect to a reference point in the RF receiver chain. This does the adjustment to the reference.

Table 1-12 TDMA 850 Without TTLNA

RX Path Parameters
1. Minimum Signal @ J4 Smin,rcvr a. Thermal Noise Power Nt @ J4 i. Reference Thermal Temperature T ii. Channel Bandwidth B iii. Noise Figure NF @J4 iii. Nt b. C/Itot @ J4 i. C/Ico ii. C/Iadj Issue 1.0 - May 2003
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Unit

Upink @ BS

Downlink @ MS

K

290 24.3 5 -125.14 23.47 60

290 24.3 8 -122.12 23.47 60 23

KHz dB dBm dB dB

Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions

iii.65 3.94 Uplink 15 2. C/Ialt iv.eff a. w. 10. Fade Margin for 90% cell coverage 8.A.47 -200. TX EIRP PEIRP 7. Cable.May 2003 dB dB dB Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 23. Effective Antenna Gain Gant. Channel Bandwidth B iii. Body Loss Lbody 9. C/Itot @ J4 i. Balanced Path Loss (MIN[10. Reference Thermal Temperature T ii.00 2.0 . Jumper and Conector Losses Lcjc d. RX Div g.5 12.5 12.47 60 60 23.rcvr a.00 17 -104.eff 6.8679 141. Allowable Path Loss Lp Cell Radius for medium-small city 11.0259 b. C/Iadj iii. Thermal Noise Power Nt @ J4 i. Cable.B]) Balanced Cell Radius dBi dB dBm dB dB dB dB Km dB 0.00 3. Nun Unexpected Noise d. Jumper and Connector Losses Lcjc dB Table 1-13 TDMA 1900 MHz Link Budget without TTLNA RX Path Parameters 1. C/Ialt Issue 1.83 2.8679 9.rcvr 2.00 10 60 23.01 Downlink @ BS -114. C/Ico ii. Effective Antenna Gain Gant. Noise Figure NF @J4 iii.5 52.00 3. Antenna Gain Gant c.01 Downlink 2 2 0 -104.3 9 -121 KHz dB dBm .5 -127.eff 3.78 2 2 0 27. Minimum Signal @ J4 Smin.4 2 6 141.78 5. Desired BER e.00 39.04 5.54 15.4 2 6 142. Smin.60 27.47 60 60 24 o Unit Upink @ BS Downlink @ MS K 290 24.3 5 -125 290 24. Minimum Signal @ RX Antenna Sant dB dB dBm % dB dBm Unit dBi dB dB dBm watt dBm 60 23. Antenna Gain Gant b.xmtr 5. Req'ed C/N @ J4.83 2. Building (Vehicle) Penetration LBP 10.eff a. Nt b. Gant.44 Uplink @ MS TX Path Parameters 4. C/Itot c.47 -200. Gant. Maximum Transmitter Output Pmax.

iv. C/Itot c. Nun, Unexpected Noise d. Desired BER e. Req'ed C/N @ J4, w. RX Div g. Smin,rcvr f. adjusted. Smin,rcvr 2. Effective Antenna Gain Gant,eff a. Antenna Gain Gant b. Cable, Jumper and Conector Losses Lcjc d. Gant,eff 3. Minimum Signal @ RX Antenna Sant TX Path Parameters 4. Maximum Transmitter Output Pmax,xmtr

dB dBm % dB dBm

23.47 -200.00 3.00 9.8 -115.15 -115.68

23.47 -200.00 3.00 17 -103.01 -103.01

dBi dB dB dBm

17.5 2.35 15.15 -130.83 Uplink @ MS

2 0 2 -105.01 Downlink @ BS 16 42.04

watt dBm

0.6 27.78

5. Effective Antenna Gain Gant,eff a. Antenna Gain Gant dBi 2 0 2 29.78 5.4 2 0 153.21 153.21 2.8870 17.5 2.35 15.15 57.19 5.4 2 0 154.80

b. Cable, Jumper and Connector Losses Lcjc dB c. Gant,eff 6. TX EIRP PEIRP 7. Fade Margin for 90% cell coverage 8. Body Loss Lbody 9. Building (Vehicle) Penetration LBP 10. Allowable Path Loss Lp 11. Balanced Path Loss (MIN [10.A, 10.B]) Balanced Cell Radius dB dBm dB dB dB dB dB

Table 1-14 TDMA 1900 MHz Link Budget with TTLNA RX Path Parameters 1. Minimum Signal @ J4 Smin,rcvr a. Thermal Noise Power Nt @ J4 i. Reference Thermal Temperature T ii. Channel Bandwidth B iii. Noise Figure NF @J4 iii. Nt Issue 1.0 - May 2003
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Unit

Upink @ BS Downlink @ MS

K

290 24.3 5 -125

290 24.3 9 -121 25

KHz dB dBm

Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions

b. C/Itot @ J4 i. C/Ico ii. C/Iadj iii. C/Ialt iv. C/Itot c. Nun, Unexpected Noise d. Desired BER e. Req'ed C/N @ J4, w. RX Div g. Smin,rcvr f. adjusted. Smin,rcvr 2. Effective Antenna Gain Gant,eff a. Antenna Gain Gant b. Cable, Jumper and Convector Losses Lcjc d. Gant,eff 3. Minimum Signal @ RX Antenna Sant TX Path Parameters 4. Maximum Transmitter Output Pmax,xmtr watt dBm 5. Effective Antenna Gain Gant,eff a. Antenna Gain Gant dBi 2 0 2 29.78 5.4 2 0 155.36 154.80 3.2032 17.5 2.35 15.15 57.19 5.4 2 0 154.80 dBi dB dB dBm 17.5 0.2 17.3 -132.98 2 0 2 -105.01 dB dB dB dB dBm % dB dBm 23.47 60 60 23.47 -200.00 3.00 9.8 -115.15 -115.68 23.47 60 60 23.47 -200.00 3.00 17 -103.01 -103.01

Uplink @ MS Downlink @ BS 0.6 27.78 16 42.04

b. Cable, Jumper and Connector Losses Lcjc dB c. Gant,eff 6. TX EIRP PEIRP 7. Fade Margin for 90% cell coverage 8. Body Loss Lbody 9. Building (Vehicle) Pentration LBP 10. Allowable Path Loss Lp 11. Balanced Path Loss (MIN[10.A, 10.B]) Balanced Cell Radius dB dBm dB dB dB dB dB km

1.5.4 UMTS coverage and capacity
UMTS uplink budget is discussed in chapter 1. Here the link budget is reproduced with modified parameters in line with 2G-technology link budget assumptions for comparison purpose. It is assumed that UMTS operating at frequency of 2000 MHz with base station antenna height equals to 30 m and mobile station antenna height 1.5 m. Cell loading is set to 50% for initial roll out and relative larger coverage in comparison with normal cell loading of 70%. The composite channel condition is Issue 1.0 - May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 26

presented. The composite channel is a combination of pedestrian and vehicular channel for mixed services. The path loss model COST 231 is used inline with 2G-technology path loss model. Table 1-15 UMTS CS Uplink budget for different Services Bit rate bit/s 7950 12200 64000

w/o w/ w/o w/ w/o w/ TTLNA TTLNA TTLNA TTLNA TTLNA TTLNA Total TX power available TX antenna gain Body loss TX EIRP per traffic channel RX antenna gain RX cable and connector losses Receiver noise figure Thermal noise density Cell loading Noise rise due to interference Total effect of noise Information rate Effective required Eb/No RX sensitivity Soft handoff gain Fast Fading Margin Log normal fade margin dBm dBi dB dBm dBi dB dB dBm/Hz % dB dBm/Hz dBHz dB dBm dB dB dB 21 2 2 21 18 3 3 -174 50 3.01 21 2 2 21 18 0 2.72 -174 50 3.01 21 2 2 21 18 3 21 2 2 21 18 0 21 2 0 23 18 3 3 -174 50 3.01 21 2 0 23 18 0 2.72 -174 50 3.01

3 2.723 -174 50 3.01 -174 50 3.01

-171 -171.3 39.00 39.00 7.21 7.21

-171 -171.3 40.86 40.86 6.06 6.06

-171 -171.3 48.06 48.06 3.45 3.45

-121.82 -122.10 -121.12 -121.40 -116.76 -116.90 4.5 1.50 11.6 20 20 15 10 4.5 1.50 11.6 20 20 15 10 4.5 1.50 11.6 20 20 15 10 4.5 1.50 11.6 20 20 15 10 4.5 1.50 11.6 20 20 15 10 4.5 1.50 11.6 20 20 15 10

In-building penetration loss (dense urban) dB In-building penetration loss (urban) dB In-building (suburban) penetration loss dB

In-building penetration loss (rural) dB Maximum path loss dense urban Maximum path loss urban dB dB

129.22 132.50 128.52 131.80 126.16 129.30 129.22 132.50 128.52 131.80 126.16 129.30 1.9518 2.6235 2.0223 2.5058 1.7340 2.1289

Maximum cell range COST231 urban km

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0223 2.1726 3. which will be discussed in the following section. 12000 per second.1289 1. when loading is below 63% of its pole capacity.0 . the cell radius is a function of cell loading.7340 2. Since UMTS operating at imbalanced service.8956 2. higher data rate in the downlink than the uplink.4342 2. summarised the 2G and UMTS maximum cell radius based on the link budget presented in tables 1-8 to 15. For 64 kbps data rate. the larger coverage in the downlink is needed to balance the lower data rate.5 Discussion The methods can be used to increase the coverage discussed in this section are cell loading in the uplink and downlink and antenna setting.7381 2.2032 1.6217 7.6235 2. It is seen that UMTS voice service.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 28 Figure 1-8 Cell radius vs. such as TTLNA and repeater.5058 1. The extension of coverage in the downlink by reducing the cell loading is even more significant than in the uplink.9518 2. i. are discussed in chapter 7. Other means of range extension.8870 3. when loading is below 79% of its pole capacity.8679 2. and therefore larger cell radius. To achieve higher coverage. Issue 1. since it has impact on the receiver sensitivity. The coverage and capacity curves for data rate of 12k. and for 384 kbps data rate.e. downlink can always larger cell radius than the uplink at the same loading. corresponding bit rate 7950. It can be seen from Figure 1-7 that for 12 kbps data rate.5. cell loading of 20% can be used in the UMTS link budget for the up link.Table 1-16. Table 1-16 Maximum Cell Radius Comparisons Service 850 900 1800 1900 1900 TTLNA TDMA (MHz) 850 1900 1900 TTLNA UMTS 7950 bit rate (kbps) 7950 TTLNA 12000 12000 TTLNA 64000 64000 TTLNA GSM (MHz) Cell Radius km 3. the downlink also can cover the uplink cell radius. in the uplink. Cell loading for data rate at 12 kbps . can overlay GSM 1900 with or without TTLNA and TDMA 1900 and 850 without TTLNA. 64k and 384k are provided in figures 1-7 to 9. Cell loading As discussed in chapter 1. Downlink Coverage Here the downlink coverage and capacity curves are produced using Lucent Technologies UMTS dimension tool.

5 0. Cell loading for data rate at 64 kbps Issue 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 29 .2 0.2 0.4 Cell Loading % 6 DownLink UpLink 5 Cell Radius km 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.2 1.6 0.6 DownLink UpLink 5 4 Cell Radius 3 2 1 0 0 0.4 0.1 0.8 1 1.8 0.9 1 Cell Loading % Figure 1-8 Cell radius vs.7 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.0 .

James.5 0. 2000. R. Prentice Hall PTR.com/rfsystems/ [6] Mobile Antenna Systems Handbook. in the meantime the serving cell will not suffer additional path loss. 1.7 0. Fujimoto J. Stan Sitebsky. Therefore the benefit is only one fold. [7] 3GPP 25.8 0.9 1 Cell Loading % Figure 1-8 Cell radius vs. Cell loading for data rate at 384 kbps Base station antenna Setting Another method of extent coverage is increasing the base station antenna height.2.lucent. It is clear reduced antenna height will reduce interference to surrounding base stations. K. it has the benefit of increased signal strength due to the antenna main beam directed more close to the surrounding area. 1999. GSM RF Engineering December 1999. September 2002 [4] GSM Frequencies http://www. It also increases path loss for the serving mobiles. To increase base station capacity.6 Reference [1] ETSI TR 101 112 V3.2 0. http://en0033svr06. the interferences to surrounding cell are reduced.1 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 30 .0 .6 0.0 (1998-04) Selection procedures for the choice of radio transmission technologies of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) [2] Handbook of CDMA System Design Engineering And Optimization.4 0.gsmworld. Artech House.shtml [5] Standard Link Budget.uk. If properly down tilt the antenna angle without reducing antenna height. Shen-De Lin. reducing the base station antenna height is not the best approach. Kyong Il Kim Ed. [3] CDMA 3G1x RF Engineering Guidelines. Further more.com/technology/spectrum/frequencies.101 UE Radio Transmission and Reception (FDD) Issue 1.6 DownLink UpLink 5 Cell Radius km 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.3 0. Mark Newbury.

The application layer is often defined to include layers 5. The reader will gain an understanding of many aspects of how UMTS handles packet data and the assumptions used to model this within a simulation environment. This layer handles the vagaries of the RF propagation channel by using: channel coding. Various scheduling schemes have been proposed. will give the reader a wider appreciation of packet data and that not covered by simulation tools. The mix is defined in term of traffic type and intensity for each user. at this layer. Network layer: This layer provides connectivity from network node to network node and is covered by IP. Further detailed discussion can be found in subsequent sections. RTT assessment. Equal rate produced a better user perceived performance. presentation and application layers. Some QoS is provided in terms of signalling when packets have been lost.0 . Lower Data link layer: MAC-d: The MAC schedules RLC frames onto the appropriate transport channel. interleaving and rate matching. expressed in terms of busy hour data session attempt (BHDSA). For the case of dedicated channels the MAC-d functionality is used.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 31 . Frame loss is detected and retransmission attempted. 2. TCP is used to provide the transport layer with the following main features: connection establishment and termination. MAC-sh: MAC-sh schedules RLC frames for users onto a shared channel. Application layer: This layer defines the traffic model parameters and the highest layer protocols. 6 and 7 of the ISO 7 layer model.1 Introduction This section gives a general overview of packet data and looks at each of the protocol layers in turn. detecting packet loss and initiating retransmissions. These are the main features of TCP which impact the user perceived performance and what gives packet data traffic models their bursty nature. 2. the session. The modelling of packet data flow can be achieved by either modelling the behaviour of TCP or by observing the packet inter-arrival statistics. starting at the highest. Upper data link layer: The RLC layer attempts to provide a reliable connection over the air interface. All the TCP related terms are described in the following sections. but equal time gives a higher sector capacity. Issue 1. it is hoped.2 Application Layer The application layer is described below. The user mix is also specified within this layer. if necessary. Depending on the required outcome then equal rate or equal time schemes can be used. slow start. windowing. Rate adaptation at a TTI interval has been considered and implemented. such as the DSCH. i. It is written from the viewpoint of modelling and simulation. for example HTTP or FTP. Physical layer: The physical layer is concerned with transmission of bits on the air interface.e. In addition information will be provided which.2 Packet Data This chapter provides detailed description of how packet data is handled in UMTS. Typical or average traffic sizes are defined together with the version of the protocol (if applicable). Transport layer: This layer provides reliable end-to-end connection.

Email.48 Mean 96 340 6 k −1 k x Note: 1. k 2. where k A typical web traffic model. This is synonymous with object. a model developed by Hyoung-Kee Choi and John Limb of Georgia Institute of Technology (GTE) [3] was considered. A Pareto distribution is given by probability density function p ( x ) = αk / x represents the smallest value. per sub-session used in the simulation is defined in Table 2-2. α +1 . Latterly. Table 2-1 Summary of traffic modelling parameters as suggested by Deng Parameter on time (seconds) off time (seconds) File request inter-arrival time (seconds) Distribution Weibull k=0. A similar process can be followed for modelling other application types. Traffic models have been defined for a variety of traffic types.000 document requests from 293 active users. theta=4.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 32 . It is also possible to define the traffic model in terms of the number of packets that are expected per sub session and the inter Issue 1. while determines the shape of the distribution. This model gives greater detail in describing many downlink parameters and quotes the traffic model in terms of a sub session. while Choi's looks more closely at down link data transfer profile. This model had many deficiencies and took rather a high level and abstracted approach to modelling of traffic. while ÿ is a scale factor. FTP (bulk transfer). Other bespoke enterprise applications.5. theta=90 Pareto a=0. Streaming (audio or video). defined at the application level. The web browsing model parameters. 'Calendaring'.1 Traffic model overview Traffic model definition is an area of great interest. Keep alive ('heartbeat') protocols (such as LCP [1]).2. Working parties and individuals have expended significant effort in defining such models. It is important to have models that are felt to be representative (if not that accurate) as these models are used for dimensioning of interfaces and network elements throughout the UTRAN.5.2. where parameter k determines the shape of the distribution.2. Shuang Deng of GTE Laboratories [2] derived a model that was considered for traffic modelling.88. A summary of Deng's parameters is given in table 2-1. By way of a detailed example the following description of how web browsing (using HTTP) model is provided. The main traffic models considered are: Web traffic (using HTTP [1]). is given in [3]. Data synchronization.2 Deriving a web traffic model Web traffic via HTTP is in general the most widely reviewed Internet traffic type. A Weibull distribution is given by probability density function p ( x ) = θ θ α e −( x / θ ) . The model was defined from over 20. 2. packet call. or web page.0 . It is often the case that assumptions need to be made in order to model applications. Other traffic types that may be added include: Net meeting. k=60 Weibull k=0. Deng's work concentrates on user requests in the reverse link.

30 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 0 150 Web page size (Kbytes) 300 Measured histogram Figure 2-1 Application level definition of the Web traffic model found in [3] Various types of web traffic models are observed. (b) and (c) are newer types of web pages due to the evolution of websites. the network or IP layer) and not at the application layer. user traffic intensity is tuned by means of changes to the number of sub sessions for a user. The implication here is that the model is therefore defined at a lower protocol layer (i.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 33 . A sub session comprises of a main object plus a number of in-line objects of varying sizes as defined. therefore the number of in-line objects can be zero.6 Note: In general the following is true: Whole page size = main object size + sum of all the in-line objects.2 92. 2. (a) Has a main document and in-line documents displayed in a window.e. (c) Shows two pages where the right page is initiated by a Java-script. Table 2-2 Application level definition of the Web traffic model found in [3] Parameter Request Size (bytes) Main object size (bytes) In-line object size (bytes) Number of in-line objects Parsing time (seconds) Viewing (off) time (seconds) Distribution Lognormal Lognormal Lognormal Gamma Gamma Weibull Mean 360 10710 7758 5. These are listed below and illustrated in Figure 2-2. Issue 1. Within the simulation.55 0.0 .14 30 Standard Deviation 106 25032 126168 11. (b) Shows a frame with four pages.arrival time of these packets.35 0.2.3 Generation of a web traffic model The mean sub session size based the parameters given in Table 2-2 is approximately 54 Kbytes. The in-line objects that we count are only those needs to be downloaded. This is a classical web page.

com (If the browser does not have the Internet protocol (IP) address of the URI cached locally. HTTP version 1. This is illustrated in Figure 2-3. it will request the IP address associated with the URI using the DNS look-up). The browser interprets the HTML code of the main document and identifies any embedded documents referenced in the page (in-line objects). 2. ON OFF ON Time Packet transfer initiated by HTTP requests Time Figure 2-3 An illustration of the on and off concept in a web traffic modelling.In-line Objects Framed pages in subwindows Main Object Window A scriptinitiated page in an independent window .4 HTTP versions HTTP is an application layer protocol and provides support for HTML and web based traffic.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 34 . All web pages follow the same format in terms of on and off time. B.0 . The browser opens a TCP connection and sends a request message to the server via HTTP. In describing the different versions of HTTP and their relative efficiency the sequence of events to receive a web page need to be explained.lucent. E. D. Viewing time is the period of inactivity for the browser. A.0 with keep-alive and multiple connections. The request the remaining in-line objects depends on the version of HTTP used: HTTP version 1. Figure 2-2 An illustration of various styles of web traffic. C. This is summarised as follows: The user types in a URI in the browser for example: http://www. Choi [3] defines the off time to be 30 seconds. The off time is also called the viewing time. Issue 1.0. The browser requests the remaining in-line objects. with the individual packets shown above.2. The blue boxes show the on time. The server parses the request and returns the main document (which is mostly HTML code) to the browser in a series of TCP segments.

1 is the most recent and efficient Protocol.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 35 . HTTP 1. This is added at the end of the arrival of the main page and prior to the request of the first in-line object. Most servers now support HTTP 1.1. 2.2. In summary: currently HTTP 1. Issue 1.1 The versions of HTTP are described below.0 For this version of HTTP a TCP connection is opened and closed for the main object and each inline object.2.HTTP version 1. The parsing time is the time for the browser to determine the number of in-line objects that are required. Internet Explorer defaults to HTTP 1.1 with persistent and pipelined connections.0 .1 Version 1.with keep alive multiple connections This is one of the most frequently used versions of HTTP.4.0 (pure version). This version establishes and closes a TCP connection for transferring the main object and then opens multiple TCP connections (up to a maximum) for the transfer of the in-line objects.2 Version 1. This operation saves on round trip times and TCP slow start. An example of client server communications is given in Figure 2-4. TCP connections are left open in expectation of remaining in-line objects being requested. 2. The operation is essentially serial and as such is inefficient due to the roundtrip delays incurred in setting up and closing TCP connections. On period Off period On period On period Off period Off period Server Client Client parses main file Server reads from disk Server Client Client opens TCP connection Client sends request for main file Client parses main file Client opens TCP connectio n Client sends request for 1st In-line file Figure 2-4 HTTP version 1.4.0 with Keep-Alive is the most frequently used.0 .

The single TCP connection is then used to transfer the remaining data in a pipelined fashion.server reads from disk Server Client Client opens TCP connection Client sends request for main file Client parses main file client sends request for 1st In-line file client sends request for 5th In-line file Client opens connection client sends request for 2nd Inline file Client opens connection client sends request for 3rd Inline file Client opens connection client sends request for 4th Inline file Figure 2-5 HTTP version 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 36 .2. An example is given: The Web service type consists of web pages downloaded using HTTPv1. Again a TCP connection is established and closed for the main object. This protocol uses caching in an efficient manner and also supports compression.0 with keep-alive multiple connections. There are 17 web page downloads per user session. 2. In addition VPN or non-VPN can be specified. Following this a TCP connection is opened and multiple requests are sent for the inline objects.1 . The use of VPN will affect user performance due to increased encapsulation of packets and additional delays at servers.0 . The transport layer is simulated using TCP and system latency values are assumed.3 Version 1. Server reads from disk End of File #1 End of File #2 Server Client Client opens TCP connection Client sends request for main file Client parses main file Client sends 4 requests per packet Figure 2-6 HTTP version 1.1 with persistent pipelined connections.with persistent pipelined connections This version of HTTP is the most efficient type.5 Mixing traffic types It is possible to mix traffic types and the rates required on a user or traffic type basis. The mean web page size is 53kbytes.2. The mean 'thinking time' is 30 seconds.1.4. Issue 1. 2.

Depending on the type of network maximum segment size (MSS) can default to either 536 or 1460 bytes.The FTP service type consists of 2 FTP 'gets' (transfer from network to UE) each of size 2 Mbytes.0 . and so on. The Mix service type potentially consists of all the service types defined above but weighted by the BHDSA probabilities: Web: 0. With encapsulation of the TCP/IP header.3. The session types.65kbytes. Features such as Karn's algorithm (back-off of retransmission timer) and TCP Reno (sending delayed acknowledgements).May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 37 .3 FTP: 0. 2. Each email has a size of 39. Less notable TCP features include: Nagle Algorithm or similar to handle small packets.1 TCP Notable features of TCP impacting user performance include: TCP connection establishment and termination. adding 20 bytes each. the MTU becomes 576 or 1500 bytes. Sequence numbering . The Email service type consists of 10 email downloads and 8 email uploads. TCP half close.1 Email: 0.3 Transport Layer This layer provides reliable end-to-end connection. 2. The transport layer can be provided by TCP. are randomized.4 That is to say that there is a 10% chance there will be an FTP session for a given user in the busy hour. Applications are fragmented by TCP to SDUs or segments which are packets sent across the network. Windowing (defaults to 16Kbytes). where more than one is apparent for a given user. Slow starting (providing congestion avoidance both at the receiver and at intermediate routers). TCP keep alive. RTT assessment. It is a possibility that for the traffic mix model then a user has no service types apparent during the busy hour. detecting packet loss and initiating retransmissions. Congestion avoidance algorithms such as fast recovery. fast retransmission on duplicate ACKs. The off time between the emails is 120 seconds. establishment and termination are given in Figure 2-7 below. Retransmission schemes: Round trip timeout. More overhead may be added at lower protocol layers. A number greater than one will mean that more than one session will be seen in the busy hour.used to track segment loss and to allow RTT assessment. MSS and MTU configuration (MSS defaults to either 536 or 1460 bytes). The off time between the FTPs is 30 seconds. Issue 1.

FIN = finish. Note: SYN = synchronization. ACK = acknowledge REQ= request An example of slow start for data transfer after connection setup and prior to the close is given in Figure 2-8. Note the exampling timing references (in millisecond) and the window size (win) opening following successful acknowledgements.0 . Issue 1.UE SYN Network SYN SYN ACK REQ Data FIN FIN ACK FIN FIN ACK Figure 2-7 Simulation of the connection establishment and termination.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 38 .

May 2003 39 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions .UE Network server Data t = 1897 t = 1788 t = 2208 win = 1 win = 2 ACK t = 2317/2337 t = 2628 t = 2737/2757 t = 2777/2797 t = 2648 t = 3048 win = 3 win = 4 win = 5 ACK 16Kbyte window size Max (win) = 30 Data t = 3468 Figure 2-8 An example of TCP slow start Figure 2-9 gives a full example of a FTP transfer using TCP.0 . 5000 4500 4000 Buffer sizes (bits) 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1000 2000 Time (ms) TCP Establishment TCP Slow Start TCP Termination SYN SYN SYN ACK FIN FIN ACK Request SDUs Downlink Uplink ~RTT Request ACK ACK FIN FIN ACK 3000 4000 Figure 2-9 Example packet trace from simulation showing the transfer of an 8Kbyte file using FTP Issue 1.

It is to be considered that no paging delay is included in the DCH setup time and hence a delay of 600ms is assumed. A server round trip time of 190ms is used.0 .9 Core Network total 31.0 Issue 1. across the wider Internet and the delays experienced in servers.43 SRNC 5.9 31.3 NodeB 2.8 Iur 2.0 20. Delay parameters and discussed in turn below.0 2. 53ms UE NodeB 83ms 31. This is attributed to the delay experienced outside the core network.9 ms in the uplink over the intra RNC case. This is obtained from experimental measurements and seems a reasonable estimate in representation of this physical quantity.43 12.5ms 31. The delay can be modelled as a mean value. These figures are obtained from the end-to-end performance requirements documents.5ms RNC CN 190ms Server Figure 2-10 Representation of the end-to-end delay assumptions within the UTRAN. One important consideration is the latency when setting up DCH. Figure 2-10 below gives the packet delay experienced through the UTRAN and Core network.9 DRNC 5. Table 2-3 Components forming the UTRAN packet delay budget Downlink Area Delay (ms) Core Network 26. It is often the case that traffic is user originated. it is important to understand the impact of delay in addition to that of protocols.7ms in the downlink and 12.0 Uu 20.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 40 . From delay budget analysis it is apparent that there is a DCH setup time of 600ms for user-originated attempt and 1500ms for a network-originated attempt (increase due to the paging delay).0 Uplink Area Core Network Iu Core Network total SRNC Iur DRNC Iub NodeB Uu Delay (ms) 29.53 Iu 1. however measurements indicate that in reality this element has a lognormal distribution with a large standard deviation.8 Iub 1.53 1. The values associated with the dashed lines are modelled as transmission delay lines The delay budget comprises of the individual elements given in Table 2-3 below.3.9 10.0 1.3 22.2 Network element latency To understand how packet performance within the UTRAN is influenced.2. This covers the packet switched user plane delays only and considers the inter RNC case: this adds a total of 8.

For the case of dedicated channels the MAC-d functionality is used.4 Network and Data Link Layer The layers above the physical layer are called network layer (Layer 3) and data link layer (Layer 2).2 2.12.4 MAC-sh MAC-sh schedules RLC frames for users onto a shared channel. interleaving and rate matching. 2. Layers 2 and 3 are briefly described in this section.8 UE UTRAN total 15.3 MAC-d The MAC schedules RLC frames onto the appropriate transport channel.1 Network layer This layer provides connectivity from network node to network node and is covered by IP. 2. See section 2.4. In order to provide a reliable connect at the layer then headers.4. This state diagram is taken from [4]. Frame loss is detected and retransmission attempted.4. More detail on the RLC is given in later sections. This layer handles the vagaries of the RF propagation channel by using: channel coding. Data link layer is split into two sublayers called Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol and Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol. This layer adds encapsulation overhead to impact performance. 2.UE UTRAN total 15.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 41 .5.5 Physical Layer The physical layer is concerned with transmission of bits on the air interface.2 RLC The RLC layer attempts to provide a reliable connection over the air interface between the UE and RNC. A UE can reside in a number of states when using packet data. TCP segments are segmented at the RLC layer. such as the DSCH.1 Channel structure The channel structure can be divided into a number of distinct areas. 2. The second is the DSCH which has a number of scheduling schemes associated. sequence number and status messages are implemented. The third is the ability to pass data over the FACH/RACH channels ahead of. Issue 1. being assigned a DCH.4. 2. The first is the DCH case where an inactivity timer controls the reuse of the dedicated channels. The general case sees all transport channel types being used with a suitable RRM algorithm controlling all aspects including admission to the network and managing users while they are connected to the network. in some cases.0 83. 2. This is shown in Figure 2-11.0 . For a given spreading factor a given number of RLC frames can be transmitted in a given interval.0 52.

propagation and traffic model conditions result in limitation of resources due to either code or down link power. In the uplink there is no concern regarding channelisation codes as each user has full use of the spreading tree. Different network.0 . Connected Mode URA PCH Tinactivity Cell DCH Cell FACH Idle Mode Figure 2-12 UE connected states supported for DCH (release u01.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 42 . Issue 1. available to carry traffic. The inactivity timer is used as a means for sharing DCH resource with many users.Connected Mode URA_PCH CELL_PCH Cell_DCH Cell_FACH Idle Mode Figure 2-11 General case of UE idle and connected modes. Also as packet data traffic models show asymmetric behaviour (biased in the downlink by at least a ratio of 4 to 1) then power limitation is only an issue in the downlink. when the buffers are empty the inactivity timer is reset and begins timing out. 2.2 DCH The simulation models the UE Connected Mode and its transition between URA PCH (UE in UTRAN Registration Area Page Channel state) and Cell DCH states. A diagram is given in Figure 2-12 with the inactivity timer (T_inactivity) represented.01 users within the system can be modelled as a user pool. Regarding the air interface then there is a notional number of DCH. When the inactivity timer counter reaches the threshold value then the DCH is released for that user and available for other users. DCH availability is variable and is based on the power required of users already on the network.01) Specifically for the case of u01. The number of DCH available is dependant on both channelisation code and available power. together with the admission thresholds that are being used.5. Channelisation code availability is fixed (for a given data rate) in the sector. This user pool is considered to reside in UE connected mode and according to the traffic model present traffic to be carried across the network and the air interface. User RLC buffer occupancy is monitored in both the down and up link. termed a DCH pool.

Data to be transferred by a user requires a DCH from the available pool. an inactivity timer is reset and begins timing out. Issue 1. DCH occupancy and mean aggregate throughput of the cell. Statistics on this queuing behaviour may be collected. In the case of dropping the user will retry (manually or automatically) later. From these observations an optimum inactivity timer value can be inferred. Once the timer expires the channel is reallocated and is available for other users. If at any instant. Simulation considers the interaction of all the events introduced above to produce values such as mean sub session transfer time. M users occupy the DCH pool. In a similar way the DCH setup time means no data can be transferred on the DCH during this time. The sub session transfer time is comprised of elements shown in Figure 2-14. users from the queue are given priority. This state contributes to a reduction in effective occupancy of the DCH. From Figure 2-13 below it is given that N is greater than the average value M. It is interesting to understand how excessive queuing delay impacts traffic model behaviour.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 43 . This blocking may be regarded as a QoS concept.0 . and how this can be modelled. and then the air interface resources are fully occupied. based on traffic model and loading. In reality it may be the case the user is queued or dropped. Inactivity timer starts Inactivity timer expires and DCH released ‘Queuing’ or retry time DCH setup (600-1500ms) On Time Off time Figure 2-14 Elements affecting sub session transfer time The quantity Queuing time is used to model the attempt by the UE to establish a DCH in the case where the M DCHs are fully occupied and retries are being made to establish the (M+n)th (n = 1… ) DCH connection. Figure 2-15 gives a representation of how DCHs are shared by use of an inactivity timer. A user leaves the queue when DCH resource is available and taken up. In the case of web browsing traffic it may be the case that the off time is not greater than the inactivity timer and so the DCH remains unused but still allocated to an inactive user. User Pool N DCH Pool M Figure 2-13 Representation of simulation where N users contend for M DCH Whenever a particular user is allocated a DCH and there is no data to be transferred. Minimum delay requirements (implied by queuing delay exhibited by a user in heavy traffic conditions) can be set. The arrival of the (M+1)th user results in that user being placed into a queue and when a DCH becomes available is removed from the queue and is allowed access to the DCH. This inactivity is considered at the RNC side for the downlink stream.

It should be noted that for light traffic at certain period of time the inactivity timer has expired and the DCH is unoccupied.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 44 . the resource is shared by means of the inactivity timer. Red bars represent the buffer occupancy per user in the downlink. This is in part due to no incident users from the user pool in a low occupancy situation.DCH tinactivity User pool … Figure 2-15 High-level representation of how DCH case configuration is handled within the simulation For a single DCH Figure 2-16 and Figure 2-17 show how for light and heavy traffic. Issue 1.0 . While for heavy traffic the DCH is occupied all the time by different users from the user pool for different periods. The green dashed line indicates the assignment of the DCH for that user.low traffic load. This depicts user packet profiles together with the associated DCH allocation state for that particular DCH (shown in green dash). Figure 2-16 Example output from simulation for a given user . respectively.

Each PDU is of 320bits. The green dashed line indicates the assignment of the DCH for that user. Issue 1. SF #1 SF #2 SF #3 SF #4 SF #5 Inactivity timer expired Figure 2-18 Representation of the DCH configuration. The number of PDUs transmitted in a TTI varies depending on the spreading factor. This is updated every TTI ~20ms.0 .May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 45 . Incoming SDUs influenced by the higher layer traffic model. Red bars represent the buffer occupancy per user in the downlink. RLC buffers for individual users’ PDUs.high traffic load. SDUs populate RLC buffers PDUs.Figure 2-17 Example output from simulation for a given user . User 1 Inactivity timer running User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 MAC-d defines the scheme whereby data is inserted into transport channels. Figure 2-18 shows how user data is scheduled onto the DCH using the inactivity timer.

DSCH #1 User pool … DSCH #n Figure 2-19 High-level representation of the DSCH configuration. Incoming SDUs influenced by the higher layer traffic model. SF #1 SF #2 SF #n Depending on the spreading factors used. User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 MAC-sh defines the scheduling scheme.g. This is updated every TTI ~20ms. Figure 2-20 Representation of the DSCH configuration within the simulation.May 2003 46 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions . RLC buffers for individual users’ PDUs.6 DSCH Figure 2-19 gives a representation of how the DSCH handles users. Each TTI it is possible for several users to transmit a number of RLC frames. depending on how many spreading codes are available. and the power available.0 . This takes into account the required delay between DPCH and the associated PDSCH due to TFCI signalling on the DPCCH. Every TTI (assumed to be 20ms) a number of PDUs are transmitted according to the spreading factor used for the transport channel. SDUs populate RLC buffers PDUs.2. Issue 1. Discussion of the DSCH is given below and detailed in Figure 2-20: Fragmentation of SDU (e. These are RLC frames. TCP segments) into PDUs. Each PDU is of 320bits. several users’ RLC PDUs can be transmitted in a TTI. The number of PDUs transmitted in a TTI varies depending on the spreading factor.

Code limitation scheme: A maximum number of high data rate users are permitted on a DSCH in a given TTI. 128kbps. This conserves BTS power. 2. Equal time. [5] compare an equal rate (minimal power assignment) scheme with maximal total rate (with a round robin fairness) scheme. [6] report that using a scheme that bases an admission algorithm on total BTS power rather than power requirements on a channel basis sees better performance. The following basic schemes are considered: Round robin scheduling from user to user.6. not equal rate. however for the case of the DPCCH soft handoff is supported. Power outage is not permitted. 256kbps. However. Milhailescu et al. rate adaptation may also be performed if based on the following two limitation schemes. TCP segment jitter on the DSCH may cause segments to expire the RTO. 64kbps and 32kbps. This has an impact to reduce the number of spreading codes required for DPCCH. Many schemes have been proposed giving precedence to different aspects. High power users at the cell edge reduces throughput for the equal rate scheme. This can be applied to any number of data rates. See section 2. This could have a notional value of 1sec.0 . Users are served with the same number of TTIs but not with the same data rate. This can be applied to any number of data rates.1 Scheduling schemes for DSCH The DSCH scheduling of user packets onto the shared transport channel is a key performance issue. Issue 1. The result of the inactivity timer is to reduce the 'true' number of active users to be ~40% the number of simultaneous users. It is possible to support up to 3 DSCHs with a minimum spreading factor of 4.1.2 Review of other scheduling schemes An efficient scheduling algorithm for common or shared channels is an area of research that attracts contributions from many groups and individuals.6. Rate adaptation: Rate adaptation is performed if a user's power requirement will cause the total BTS power to exceed 100%. There is provision of an inactivity timer associated with user on the DSCH. Control channel (DPCCH) power requirements are considered as part of the total power. This is delay related rather than being caused by packet loss.11. Power limitation scheme: If a user's power requirements are beyond a certain percentage of the total BTS power then high data rate services are not permitted for that user. Other high spreading factor codes are used to carry the DPCCH. An issue for the DSCH is TCP performance and retransmission avoidance. 2. The DSCH does not support soft handoff.Every TTI the MAC-sh serves the users based on the defined scheduling algorithm. Notional rates available are: 384kbps. A user is only permitted to transmit in a TTI if the total of its power and the total instantaneous power is less than 100%.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 47 . This is based on packet code usage and no requirements to support voice users. Knutsson et al. The maximal total rate scheme sees best performance by serving high power users with a low data rate. Changing from a dedicated transport channel to a shared transport channel can also present sharp changes in RTT and so needs to take TCP behaviour into account. The use of RTT measurements can give an indication of this jitter.

it is possible to assess the power used by a particular user.2.3 DSCH The discussion in this section is particular to the behaviour of the DSCH. All users are allowed access at the beginning of their session. It is possible to have code blocking for the control channel. If a user is allocated a power percentage (derived from the system level simulation results) then when packet is being transmitted it is assumed that only the control channel power is being used.7.1 Blocking The blocking probability is defined as the number of failed attempts to gain access to the system against all attempts. 2. i. The DSCH QoS relies on excess transfer time delay and TCP segment jitter. user allocated power * DPCCH faction.3 25 2. Code availability is also checked.e.1 From a modelling and simulation perspective It is often assumed that a certain percentage of BTS power is set aside for overhead channels. The figure quoted is usually 23%.7.7. If a user (existing or new) enters the network a check is made based on the current averaged total BTS power.7 Power Calculation 2.2. This delay is in addition to the expected delay on an equivalent DCH.2 Multiplexing gain Multiplexing gain is a measure of how many users can be supported (for a given QoS) on an average number of DCH. This is done across all the active transport channels.7. The DPCCH power fractions are different for different service rate.2. As a percentage of full transmission on the DPDCH the DPCCH factions are shown in table below: Table 2-4 Percentage of different services Date Rate (kbps) 384 256 144 128 64 32 Percentage 6 6 11 11 13. No code blocking experienced for transport channel due to DSCH. A user requires access to the system in the case where the inactivity timer has expired and a DCH is required.2 DCH The discussion in this section is particular to the behaviour of the DCH. 2.7.0 . Issue 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 48 . If power usage < Thr_CAC (or Thr_DBC) then the user is allowed access. The inactivity timer is used in this calculation 2. Instantaneous power (or loading) is calculated based on whether the pipe is being used for transmission at that instant. Based on a ratio of how many bits are being transmitted when data is being sent to when it is not.

2. This is from the outset when the TCP session is opened to when the session is finally fully closed.2 Sector Carrier Throughput This is the total data throughput per sector over a defined period . For 40 users the mean arrive rate is 1 user per 90 seconds.most likely to be the busy hour.3 Mean transfer time This is the mean time for an object to be transferred. 14 Number of active sessions 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Time (secs) Figure 2-21 Representation of users arriving and leaving a packet simulation. The action of users arriving and completing a session is shown in the figure.8. A fixed delay (default 4 seconds) is allowed before a blocked call is retried. there is a probability of ~15% of any one session being active at a given point in time.7. Issue 1. Four cases of transfer time are defined.8. The mean number of active sessions (observed at 100ms intervals) is 6. Throughput is calculated at the RLC layer (including retransmissions due to the expiration of the inactivity timer and the retransmission of eroded RLC frames). As the mean user session duration is ~550 seconds.2.8. The arrival of the next user is drawn from an exponential distribution to obey a Poisson arrival process. 40 users will start at some point during the busy hour (0 to 3600 seconds). and transfer time with the initial delay included where blocking was experienced. 2.1 Number of users Figure 2-21 represents various concepts in defining the number of users in a simulation. Downlink and uplink objects. and finally where this delay is not included. In this example 40 users are defined and will begin a session during an hour.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 49 . Statistics are collected from 1200 seconds.0 .7.8 Parameters in Packet Data Analysis 2. The mean number of active sessions is 6.

Si.8.2) N objects per DCH/DSCH. M number of DCH/DSCHs. and finally where this delay is not included. Four cases of transfer rate are defined. Four cases of transfer time are defined.1) NM T mean transfer time.j transfer time for object i on DCH/DSCH j. j = Si .5 Mean rate per user over simulation This is the mean transfer rate per user over the duration of the simulation.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 50 . j (2. Issue 1. i =0 Thi (2. 2. Rt mean transfer rate.3) tN u Th the mean transfer rate.4 Mean transfer rate during transfer time The mean transfer rate is the application layer (net) object size divided by the transfer time. Thi total RLC throughput for DCH/DSCH i.M N T = N objects per DCH/DSCH.0 . M number of DCH/DSCHs. which is defined in section 2. Ti. j Ti . and transfer time with the initial delay included where blocking was experienced.14. j (2. M N j =0 i =0 Ri .j net object size i on DCH/DSCH j. Downlink and uplink object transfer time.j transfer time for object i on DCH/DSCH j.8. t simulation duration. and at the RLC or application layer. j where Rt = NM Ri . M number of DCH/DSCHs. M Th = Nu number of users. Ti. j =0 i =0 Ti .j transfer rate for object i on DCH/DSCH j.5. Downlink and uplink rates. 2. Ri.

"Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).03 version 3.2... 1453-1457. 1996. Butovitsch. Proceedings of the 1996 ACM Sigmetrics International Conference on Measurement and Modelling of Computer Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications.11. Zander. 2.331 v3. "UTRAN Service Traffic Models".. M. Subsection 401 (UTRAN service Traffic models). "Radio resource management for packet transmission in UMTS W-CDMA system" . Casasola J. Lagrange.. X. [7] Reyes-Lecuona A. Limb J. Selection procedures for the choice of radio transmission technologies of the UMTS (UMTS 30. [11] Anderlind..2. Ph.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 51 . 1999. Proceedings of the IEEE ICNP '99... Godlewski.0 (1998-04) Technical Report 1998.. 1. 1997.. ETSI.9 [1] References http://www. J.E. JIE150-T990002 (UMTS File): Volume 101 (NAE R1. O. Issue 1. R. November.0 . Diaz-Estrella A.0)".. Protocol Specification (Release 1999). [5] Milhailescu.. pp 160-169 May. "A pageoriented WWW traffic model for wireless system Simulations" [8] Bhatoolaul D. "Self-similarity in World Wide Web Traffic Evidence and possible causes".org [2] Deng S. Persson. June 23-27.. E. Gonzalez-Parada E.0 (2002-06). [3] Choi H-K. [6] Knutsson.. Section 550 (Dimensioning). Tech Specification RAN. Yates. J. Number 2. IEEE communications letters.. "A Behavioral Model of Web Traffic". "Empirical model of WWW document arrivals at access link". Toronto. IEEE VTC '98..2. P.. Lucent Technologies. Canada. Casilari E. [4] 3GPP TS 25..w3.. C. TR 101 112 v3. [9] Corvella M. "A traffic model for non-real-time data users in a wireless radio network". [10] ETSI.. Dallas TX. IEEE VTC '99. C. pp 1797-1802. Volume 1. Chapter 60 (UMTS Functional Definitions).0). Radio Resource Control (RRC). 1996.. (Editor). "Downlink admission control strategies for CDMA systems in a Manhattan environment". 573-577. and Bestavros A.

2 Load Estimation The RAN regularly estimates the current load in the system. The interference is originated not only from the own cell (intra-cell interference) but also from other cells (inter-cell interference). For network operators it is therefore essential to make most efficient and economic use of the scarce radio resources. Efficient management of the available radio resources is the key to good network quality and high efficiency (maximum number of users in the network). facilitating better quality of service. 3. which is also specified in the 3GPP standards. Issue 1. they can also lower their resource consumption to the level. one user's signal will interfere with the signals of the other users in the system. Load control algorithms shall be able to handle an overload situation. In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. Resources are signal power. for example. The load estimate is then used by the different load control mechanism. congestion control (ConC) and dynamic bearer control (DBC). call admission control. UMTS load control consists of load estimation. D. When a user occupies fewer resources for a certain service through the application of efficient algorithms. The system may become unstable in high load situations. In the following we give a brief overview of the algorithms. Equivalently.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 52 . 3. The measurements of Received Total Wideband Power and Transmitted Carrier Power are performed in the NodeB. The theoretical background of the load estimation and control can be found in [2]. The load_UL is estimated in the uplink from the Received Total Wideband Power as specified in the 3GPP standards. bandwidth and codes. the following problems need to be addressed in UMTS systems: A. the more users can be served by the network which.3 Load Control The chapter deals with the overload control algorithms. Lucent uses event triggered measurement reporting. this will also cause less interference to other users and therefore. The resource consumption depends upon service data rate and QoS requirements. B. in turn. users operate over a common broadband radio channel so that at any instance. The more efficiently a system allocates the resources to the specific services requested by the users. This problem becomes more complex when the required resources are more than the available ones. The detailed algorithm is specified in [1]. which is sufficient for their service. makes the services more economic. congestion control and dynamic bearer control. Due to its WCDMA nature. C.0 . To improve efficiency and to save capacity over the Iub interface. In the downlink the load_DL is determined by the Transmitted Carrier Power. The algorithms are call admission control (CAC).1 Introduction The radio channel capacity is generally the most limiting factor for the overall network capacity of mobile radio systems.

The parameters. In the downlink. The uplink load_UL and the downlink load_DL can then be calculated by: 1 NR 1 load _ DL = 1 − PR load _ UL = 1 − (3. congestion control and dynamic bearer control. the system loading is divided into four areas according to the three thresholds described beforehand.1) According to [1] a filtering of the measurements is performed in the BTS using a simple forgetting factor filter.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions (3.2) 53 .0 . are: Uplink_Dynamic_Bearer_Control_Threshold (thr_DBC_UL) Uplink_Call_Admission_Control_Threshold (thr_CAC_UL) Uplink_Congestion_Control_Threshold (thr_ConC_UL) Downlink_Dynamic_Bearer_Control_Threshold (thr_DBC_DL) Downlink_Call_Admission_Control_Threshold (thr_CAC_DL) Downlink_Congestion_Control_Threshold (thr_ConC_DL) As illustrated in the Figure 3-1. which can be set by the OAM interface. the Noise Rise (NR) in dB is given by the difference of the Received Total Wideband Power in dBm and the background noise in dBm. the Power Rise (PR) in dB is defined as the difference between the Transmitted Carrier Power in dBm and the pre-defined pilot power in dBm. the updated filtered value Fn is given by Fn = (1 − a ) ⋅ Fn −1 + a ⋅ M n Issue 1. Three uplink and three downlink load control parameters are used by the call admission control.25 all services granted thr_DBC High speed data blocked thr_CAC all services blocked thr_ConC data dropped 90 100 20 noise rise [dB] power rise [dB] 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 current load (UL & DL) [%] 80 Figure 3-1 Usage of the load thresholds (example). In the uplink. Having the filter factor a. which is estimated from the Received Total Wideband Power measurements.

On the reception of an RRC connection establishment request. Issue 1. thr_ConC. Call admission control shall avoid overload situations and bases its decisions on interference and resource measurements.May 2003 54 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions . Because the MS transmit power is limited. In such scenario. C. the power control of a certain number of users comes to no solution. which is sufficient for load control purposes. i. In the following we present the guidelines for the congestion control threshold setting. then the RRC connection establishment request is denied. the interference at the NodeB. which may lead to undesirable load control behaviour. the CPICH transmit power is fixed. load >= thr_ConC for either direction. the power rise has to be limited. From the stability point of view. are prevented. If load > thr_CAC for at least one direction. from a coverage point of view the uplink noise rise NR and the downlink power rise PR has to be limited due to the following reasons: A.Here Fn-1 denotes the old filtered result and Mn is the latest received measurement result. the coverage is limited by the ability of an MS to detect the pilot signal (CPICH). UTRAN reduces the offered traffic until the load < thr_ConC. The filtering ensures that large fluctuations in the reported load measurements. In both directions the transmit power that is dedicated to one user is limited. the default setting of the congestion control thresholds is: thr_ConC_UL = thr_ConC_DL = 90% (3-4) 3. congestion should happen only very rarely as a means of a fallback solution to preserve system stability. Because of its direct impact to ongoing transmissions. The filter coefficient k is set by OAM. and hence the noise rise.0 .1. the call admission control algorithm checks the load of the cell against the call admission threshold thr_CAC in uplink and downlink: If load <= thr_CAC for the uplink and the downlink.3 Congestion Control The congestion control function block is used to monitor. 3. The relation between k and filter factor a is [3] a = 2−k 2 (3. Emergency services get higher priority by checking the load against the usually higher threshold thr_ConC . It can be seen from figure 3-1 that this is the case in the loading region larger than 90%. Furthermore. detect and handle situations when the system is becoming overloaded or getting close to an overload situation with the already connected users. have to be limited.e. In the downlink.4 Call Admission Control The call admission control procedures are used in order to admit or deny new users in the RRC connection establishment scenario. When an overload situation is detected in a cell. it becomes clear from equation (3-1). Because. the total transmit power and.3) The pre-defined value of k = 6 for both directions lead to a filter factor of approximately a of 0. then the RRC connection establishment request is granted. the noise rise and power rise have to be limited. that the system might become unstable in case of higher loads. this yields a filter window of about 1sec. The downlink interference is merely determined by the received powers seen from the own NodeB and from adjacent NodeBs. In the uplink the coverage is limited by the ability of the NodeB to receive a RACH message with a certain probability even from MS at the cell edges. This is achieved by interrupting all the active data radio bearer (RB) of that cell. With an internal BTS measurement period of 100 ms. B. hence. To maintain the radio links at the cell edges (even in case of soft handover). which might lead to a dropping of more than one user. Because we assume that the system stability is the most restricting target.

May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 55 . while Figure 3-4 illustrates the blocking behaviour in the same scenario. i. it seems that larger threshold settings would lead to better results. thr_CAC = 50%) lowers the dropping probability while the blocking probability increases. is shown for different thr_CAC. thr_CAC = 90%) decreases the blocking probability. the offered traffic for different threshold settings of thr_CAC.According to the previous section.0 . To obtain a deeper insight into the network behaviour the different causes for outage are now considered. the congestion threshold is set to thr_ConC = 90% for both directions. On the other hand. which is simply the sum of blocking and dropping.e.g. Figure 3-3 shows the blocking probability vs. 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] thr_CAC = 50% thr_CAC = 75% thr_CAC = 90% outage probability Figure 3-2 Outage probability (blocking + dropping) for different thr_CAC settings Issue 1. From both figures it becomes clear that there is a trade-off between blocking and dropping by adjusting thr_CAC [1].g. In Figure 3-2 the outage probability. lower outage. while the dropping becomes larger. setting the threshold higher (e. More restrictive threshold setting (e. From that figure no exact rule for setting of thr_CAC can be derived.

May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 56 .40% blocking probability 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] thr_CAC = 50% thr_CAC = 75% thr_CAC = 90% Figure 3-3 Blocking probability vs.5) In equation (3. Issue 1.0 .5) dropping is assumed to have a larger impact onto the GoS. offered traffic for different thr_CAC settings 20% dropping probability 10% 0% 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] thr_CAC = 50% thr_CAC = 75% thr_CAC = 90% Figure 3-4 Dropping probability vs. offered traffic for different thr_CAC settings To investigate the impact of this threshold setting onto the system performance more in detail. since dropping an existing user is assumed to be more detrimental than blocking a new user. simulations have been performed at a constant offered traffic with again thr_ConC = 90% and variable thr_CAC. which is given from Pblock and Pdrop by GoS = Pblock + 10 ⋅ Pdrop (3. For combining the blocking and dropping results we define the grade of service GoS.

from equation (3-1) follows that these are exactly the thr_CAC. A similar behaviour is also given for the noise rise in the uplink [1]. This behaviour indicates that the exact setting is not that critical within a certain region. which have been adjusted here. Issue 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 57 . where the GoS is minimised.5). In the observed scenario this optimum is aligned at thresholds about thr_CAC = 75% with a flat curve around this point. An example for the power rise behaviour is presented in Figure 3-6 within the same scenario as in figures. when the offered traffic becomes very high. Blocking by different settings of thr_CAC From the investigations presented in this sub-section we conclude the following optimal setting for the default call admission threshold: thr_CAC_UL = thr_CAC_DL = 75% Another interesting result can be observed. For thr_CAC = 90% this relation is not given. From this illustration it is obvious that an optimal setting of thr_CAC can be found. respectively. 40% blocking probability 30% 20% 10% 0% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% offered traffic [Erlang per site] P_block P_drop GoS Figure 3-5 Dropping vs. This observation might lead to another optimisation criteria for setting thr_CAC. which is different from the GoS approach used here. which in general is between 70% and 80% for the given thr_ConC and the used GoS definition in equation (3. However. when looking at the power rise and noise rise for the different CAC threshold settings.The result of this analysis is depicted in Figure 3-5. 3-3 and 3-4. From Figure 3-6 it becomes clear that for the threshold settings thr_CAC = 50% and thr_CAC = 75% the power rise can be soft limited to PRmax = 3dB and PRmax = 6dB.0 . because at this level the blocking is no more the dominant factor.

03. In the second case the trigger is a Cell_Update message from the UE. this is replaced by the simple load check against the threshold thr_DBC for the high data rate service (i. From that. An algorithm for performing this check is planned for u01. then the service request is granted.5 Dynamic Bearer Control Dynamic bearer control is used in two-fold: Firstly.e.g. The setting of the DBC threshold thr_DBC is directly related to the CAC threshold thr_CAC. the default threshold setting for DBC is given by (thr_DBC = thr_CAC . Secondly. 384k).01 version. when transferring from URA_PCH state to CELL_DCH for the support of packet data.03 voice) according to the QoS of the requested service. when establishing a new RB. i. e. Issue 1. if load + consumption < thr_CAC?). The resource consumption of the 384k service has to be taken for the worst case.0 . An estimate gives a consumption of roughly 25%. The default setting for thr_DBC can be found as follows: We start with the optimal CAC threshold of 75%. offered traffic for different thr_CAC settings 3.25%): thr_DBC_UL = thr_DBC_DL = 50% 3. then the service request is denied. For high data rate services DBC has to perform a check of the sum of recent system load and expected resource consumption against the threshold thr_CAC (i. In the u01.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 58 . In both scenarios the dynamic bearer control performs a check of the cell load against the thresholds thr_DBC (high data rate user) or thr_CAC (low data rate user and in u01.8 mean power rise [dB] 6 4 2 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] thr_CAC = 50% thr_CAC = 75% thr_CAC = 90% Figure 3-6 Mean power rise vs.e.e. In the first case dynamic bearer control is triggered on the reception of a RB assignment request message from the CN. If the load check fails for at least one of the directions. a mobile user at the cell edges. during the transition from idle mode to connected mode after the successful establishment of the RRC connection. If the load check passes for the uplink and the downlink. check.6 Conclusions In this chapter we investigated the load control algorithms and the optimal parameter settings have been found in Table 3-1.

rel. Bernhard: " A Framework for Load Control in 3rd Generation CDMA Networks." IEEE GLOBECOM 2001.100%.lucent. Pampel.com/ [5] J. 99 STEAM Tool: http://steam. IEE. Mueckenheim.…. Gunreben: "Performance Evaluation of Connection Admission Control for W-CDMA Networks using Dynamic System Simulations.….100%. 2001 [3] [4] 3GPP UMTS TS 25. step size 1% Default value 50% 50% 75% 75% 90% 90% 3. 2000 Issue 1. step size 1% 0. P. Leuven Oct.7 Reference [1] Mueckenheim.100%.Table 3-1 Parameter settings for load control algorithms Parameter name thr_DBC_UL thr_DBC_DL thr_CAC_UL thr_CAC_DL thr_ConC_UL thr_ConC_DL Parameter range 0.100%. Bernhard. Pampel.100%. Bernhard.….0 . pages 297 . London. U. Holger. Jens. San Antonio Nov.…. step size 1% 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 59 .….de. In IEE Conference on 3G Mobile Communication Technologies 3G2002. [2] J. step size 1% 0." IEEE SCVT-2000. Application of load control in 3G CDMA networks for improved system level modelling and performance analysis.433: NBAP Specification. step size 1% 0. and U.301. step size 1% 0. H.100%. Urs.…. Mueckenheim.

supports handovers. another neighbouring cell will become responsible for maintaining the connection of the UE to access network. Instead. we have a mobile assisted handover (MAHO).May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 60 . which means that the UE reports measurements to the UTRAN if certain reporting criteria are met.1 Overview The support of wide area mobility is an essential feature of mobile cellular radio networks. Handover is a family of procedures that add or remove one or several radio links between one UE and UTRAN when a RRC connection exists and the position of the User Equipment is known on cell level in the UTRAN. However. The criteria are set by the UTRAN.4 Handover 4.2 Handover gain 4.GSM Handover) Soft/Softer handover enables the system to operate at lower power levels and/or achieve better connection quality. Handovers in UMTS are required not only to maintain the continuity of a call as the UE moves around in the network of contiguously laid out cells but also to maintain the quality of individual radio links and radio access network. Generally. the connection to the network will not be lost when the UE leaves the coverage area of the originating cell where the call has been setup. The figure below illustrates the basic principle of soft handover where a UE manages active radio links to more than one BTS. In this chapter we first discuss the theory behind handover gain. During soft handover the UE maintains at least two radio links to the UTRAN. UMTS . handover is a set of procedures that add or remove one or more dedicated radio links between the user equipment (UE) and the UTRAN. 3GPP standards specify a variety of handovers: Soft and Softer Handover (FDD mode only) Hard Handover (intra-frequency and inter-frequency handover) (FDD and TDD modes) Inter-System Handover (e. Handover may be triggered for many different reasons depending on the features implemented in the network and UE capability. We then provide the necessary information to understand the UMTS handover algorithms and analysis on the impact of relevant RF parameters.g. For UMTS. the UE has active radio links to three BTSs Issue 1. 4. Soft handover is a category of handover procedures where the radio links are added and abandoned adaptively in a way such that the new link is added before the old one is abandoned. This means that once a User Equipment (UE) has established a connection to the network and start/continues to move around. Based on the measurements sent by UE.2. outage probabilities with and without handovers for different mobile speeds. In this example.0 .1 Introduction UMTS uses WCDMA technology on air interface and like any other mobile cellular radio technology. the UTRAN decides to add/drop/replace radio links. the main purpose of handover is to maintain the quality of an individual radio link and the quality of the radio access network when the UE moves around such that the serving cell(s) needs to be changed.

say two base stations. The difference in shadow fading margin is called handover gain. the transmission power needs to be raised to account for the level required to overcome the distance loss. the fraction of time the received power is below the required threshold. d. including CDMA systems. are vulnerable to the shadowfading phenomenon. In network planning. but the probability to have outage from both the base stations is smaller and the resulting Pout is thus smaller than in the single cell case. to provide adequate coverage to the area being served by a base-station. In case of a single base station.2.0 . Empirical data shows µ is around 4 (depends upon clutter type) and σ is normally assumed to be 8. the probability for outage relative to one base station is the same. In case of multiple base stations. Depending on how the hand over is done. Handover gain is the gain brought by handover to maintain specified reliability at the boundary. and a lognormal shadow fading loss. The amount of transmit power needs to be raised to account for shadow fading is known as the fading margin. is a function of fading margin.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions a (d . there is a probability Pout to have outage at distance r from the base station. the outage probability.Figure 4-1 UE in Soft Handover 4. at a point at distance r from. The shadow fading factor has been reported to display an Issue 1. the signal attenuation is proportional to (4. Without any handover.1) where a is the attenuation in dB due to shadow fading. which is modelled as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable with standard deviation σ. Consequently.3 Fading Factor It is common practice to model signal attenuation as the product of the µth power of distance. which has a lognormal distribution. this reduces the shadowing fading margin needed in multiple cell case. 61 . the gain may be different.ξ ) = d µ 10−ξ / 10 .2. ξ. Therefore for a mobile located at a distance d from the base station. 4.2 Fading Margin and Handover Gains It is known that mobile wireless systems.

then the correlation of ξ and ξ’ can be written as (4.3) (4.4) is called the decay factor. That is if ξ. D0 is the correlation length for shadow fading phenomenon.8 140 Mobile Speed (km/h) 0.8. ξ’ are the shadow fading exponents for points separated by D meters.2 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Correlation length (m) 160 180 200 Figure 4-2 Variation of decay factor with mobile speed and correlation length 4.5 60 0. urban environments.ξ (t + T )] = σ 2 exp( − vT / D0 ) = ασ 2 where (4. the decay factor is below 0.4 40 0.2) Where. Figure 4-2 is an illustration of the decay factor as a function of D0 and v with sampling interval of 200ms. It can be seen that only when the correlation length is below 50 meters and vehicular speed greater than 60km/h. Since in the dense urban environment. the correlation length is known to be below 50 meters and the vehicular speed is normally less than 60km/h.4 Outage Probability without Handover Issue 1.9 160 0. which is of the order of a few hundred meters in suburban environments and 20-50 meters in dense.6 100 80 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 62 . ξ ′] = σ 2 exp( − D / D0 ) E [ξ (t ). which is E [ξ . the shadow fading will display an exponential "time correlation". and T is the sampling intervals.0 . α = exp( − vT / D0 ) Decay Factor alpha 200 180 0.85.2.exponential spatial correlation. For a mobile moving at a speed of v meters per second.7 120 0.3 20 0. the decay factor can be assumed to be greater than or equal to 0.

the mobile will issue a request to be handed over to the other base-station j' (j'=3-j).6 Results and Discussion Issue 1. exp π 2 ( y) = 2σ 2 σ 2π (4. exp 2σ 2 σ 2π (4. is the correlation between two base stations. (4. y3 = ( − ∆(d2 ) + A) / B . (4.9) 1) 1) y1 = ( ∆(d − A) / B .2. [4] has produced a model for hard handover with hysteresis and connection delay.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 63 . then the actual handover takes place at (n+k)T where k is non-negative integer. Rege et al. 4. et al.5 Outage Probability with Handover Kiran M. With the hysteresis threshold equal to 0 and connection delay kT equal to 0. if and only if the received power (from that mobile) at base-station j' exceeds the received power at base-station j by at lest D dB. of the lognormal shadow fading that is Pout = Pr(ς > γ ) = 1 σ 2π ∞ γ e −(ς / σ ) / 2 dς = Q 2 γ σ . The outage probability is given as Pout = Where.2.12) 1) ∆(d = 10µ log10 d 2−d and ∆(d2 ) = 10µ log10 2−d . −γ d −∞ π 1 ( y )dy + −γ d +10 µ log10 −∞ 2 −d d π 2 ( y )dy (4.7) π1( y) = − y2 1 {Q ( y1 ) + P1[Q ( y2 ) − Q ( y1 )]}. f ( x )dx (4. ∞ (4.8) − y2 1 {1 − Q ( y3 ) + P2 [Q ( y3 ) − Q ( y4 )]}. It is further assumed that if the mobile issues such request at time nT. In the model the mobile equipment samples the signal every T seconds. y2 = ( ∆(d2 ) − A) / B . Assume that the mobile is connected to base station j (1/ 2) at time nT. (4. ξ.13) d is the normalised distance from mobile to base-station.0 . and the standard deviation. Then. σ. B = σ (1 − ρ )[2 − α 2 k (1 − ρ )] .If there is no handover.10) A = α k (1 − ρ ) y . y4 = ( ∆(d + A) / B . this hard handover model collapses to the soft handover model of Viterbi. d (4.6) x 4.5) where Q(x) is the frequently used function for the area under the tail of the Gaussian probability density function and defined as Q (x ) = 1 2π ∞ e −t 2 /2 dt .11) P1 = 1) ∆(d f ( x )dx − ∆(d2 ) −∞ ∞ 1) ∆(d f ( x )dx + and P2=1-P1. the outage probability depends only on the fading margin.

9 k=2.06 0.4 Handoff Gains (in dB) 4. in turn. Table 4-1 Typical handover gains Outage Probability 10% 1% Hard handover Gain 3.3 3.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 64 .5. Correlation=0.05 0. The plots depict the effect of handover gains on outage probability.07 Outage Probability 0.02 0.6 3. the hard handoff model collapses to the soft handoff model. With the hysteresis threshold equal to 0 and connection delay kT equal to 0. T= 0.4 3.1 HardHandoff SoftHandoff 0.09 0. Speed=60(km/h) 0. mobile speed. The gain values to be used for applications like link budget depends upon factors like planned coverage (outage probability). which. Issue 1. 50% cell site-to-site correlation and exponential spatial correlation with 50m correlation distance.The results produced in Figure 4. D0=50 m. propagation environment (correlation length) and handover delay. is smaller than the one offered by no-handover.03 0.0 .2s. Figures 4-4&5 below illustrate the outage probability versus fading margin plots for mobile speed of 60 km/h and 10 km/h respectively in dense urban environment (D0=50m).1 4. lognormal shadow fading with 8dB standard deviation.8 5 5.9 Soft handover Gain 4. For a given outage probability. mobile speed of 60 km/h.2 4.04 0.8 4 4.6 4. No-handover is the case where the mobile is served by one base station up to the cell boundary.2 3.08 0. Hysteresis=2dB. the fading margin is observed to increase with speed for hard handover case (loss of handover gain). The typical values for hard and soft handover gains corresponding to outage probability of 10% and 1% are listed in Table 4-1.01 0 3.2 Figure 4-3 Effect of Soft and hard handover gains on outage probability It's observed that the fade margin offered by soft handovers is smaller than the one offered by hard handovers.3 use a sampling interval of 400ms.

2s. Hysteresis=2dB.5. Correlation=0.10 0 k=2. fading margin for UE 10km/h in dense urban environment Issue 1.5. Speed=10(km/h) 10 -1 Outage Probability 10 -2 10 -3 10 -4 NoHandover HardHandover SoftHandover 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Fading Margin (in dB) 14 16 18 20 Figure 4-5 Outage probability vs. Correlation=0.2s. fading margin for UE 60km/h in dense urban environment 10 0 k=2. D0=50 m.0 . Hysteresis=2dB. T= 0. Speed=60(km/h) 10 -1 Outage Probability 10 -2 10 -3 10 -4 NoHandover HardHandover SoftHandover 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Fading Margin (in dB) 14 16 18 20 Figure 4-4 Outage probability vs.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 65 . T= 0. D0=50 m.

15) Where. the neighbouring FDD cell information for each cell of the active set. If the cell cannot be identified the SHO algorithm does not add that link. Fn is the updated filtered measurement result Fn-1 is the old filtered measurement result Mn is the latest received measurement result from physical layer k is the filter coefficient Filter coefficient represents weight given to previous measurements. Higher the filter coefficient value.0 . With reference to Soft and Softer Handover. the UE has simultaneous links on to more than one NodeBs which may be connected to one or different RNCs. the radio links exist between UE and different cells (sectors) belonging to one NodeB. which ought to be included in the neighbour list. k=0 means no filtering performed. the 'Active Set' is generally defined as the set of cells the UE is simultaneously connected to. It is important to note that a detected cell can become part of active set if the RNC can identify the cell from one of the neighbour lists of all active set cells. This list is transmitted to the UE in the measurement control message. The main inputs to the algorithm are the active cells list (Active set). These radio links are combined at the SRNC using macrodiversity. when in Cell-DCH state. Figure 4-6 below demonstrates the idea. the more pronounced is the effect of previous measurements on the updated filtered measurement.14) (4. Its purpose is to reduce the UE's response time to detect new pilots. The UE performs filtering of measured quantity before UE event evaluation according to the formula given below.3 Soft Handover Algorithm While in soft handover. (4. The radio links use the same frequency and UL scrambling code but different DL scrambling codes. but stores that event.4. where a better quality "leg" is used most of the time. The output of the algorithm is an ordered list of cell pilots to be monitored by the UE. The filtering is expressed by the following formula: Fn =(1-a) Fn-1 + a Mn a = 1/2(k/2). The links are combined in NodeB using micro-diversity. Filtering is not performed on measurements reported on RACH and for cell-reselection in connected or idle mode. This may help identify cells at OMC.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 66 . Issue 1. The Soft and Softer Handover procedure is composed of the following steps: a) Measurements b) Filtering of Measurements c) Reporting of Measurement results d) The Soft Handover Algorithm at RNC e) Execution of Handover Lucent's proprietary Neighbour List Selection Algorithm (NLSA) is used to set-up a list of the most effective pilot neighbours to be monitored by the UE. In softer handover. the CPICH Ec/Io for the active cells and cell priority group values. The quantity to be measured by UE is normally P-CPICH Ec/Io which is indicated by UTRAN.

Through soft/softer handover. or replaced in (Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal) the active set.0 .May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 67 . Figure. 1B and 1C. or replaced in the Active Set (Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal). The processing of measurements and reporting them to RNC when certain event gets triggered is the responsibility of UE. The most relevant parameters impacting the triggering events are: AS_Th: Event Threshold for macro diversity (reporting range) AS_Th_Hyst: Hysteresis for the above threshold AS_Rep_Hyst: Replacement hysteresis DT: Time to trigger CIO: Cell Individual Offset AS_Max_Size: Maximum size of active set Issue 1. the soft handover algorithm in RNC evaluates if any cell should be added to (Radio Link Addition). The triggering of events makes up a substantial part of the SHO algorithm.7 below depicts an example of a soft/softer handover algorithm taking three pilots (P-CPICH) into consideration. Based on the measurements of the active and monitored set cells. removed from (Radio Link Removal). the SHO entity in UE evaluates if any cell should be added to (Radio Link Addition).0 -20 Measured Quantity -40 -60 -80 -100 k=0 k=1 k=4 -120 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 4-6 Impact of Layer 3 filter coefficient The filtered measurements trigger the reporting events that constitute the basic input of the SHO Algorithm at RNC. Based on the measurements of the set of cells monitored.01 are 1A. The events relevant to handover in u01. a UE can add new radio links to new cells while keeping its old connections and also may remove some of its radio links if they are not needed anymore. removed from (Radio Link Removal).

Event 1C is triggered. This is due to the fact that in case of one or two active radio links this scenario is uplink limited and.CIO2 As_Rep_Hyst/2-CIO3 +CIO1 CPICH 2 CPICH 3 Time Event 1A Add Cell 2 Event 1C Replace Cell 1 with Cell 3 Event 1B Remove Cell 3 Cell 1 Connected Figure 4-7 Example soft handover algorithm If a candidate pilot (CPICH2) is below the best server (CPICH1) atmost by (AS_Th . The best cell outside active set (CPICH3) is added and the worst cell in the active set (CPICH1) is removed. When the main limitation is BTS power. 4. The add and drop margin were set to 4dB and 6dB for this analysis and the replacement hysteresis was set to 2dB. limiting the active set Issue 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 68 . for lower data rates and for voice users.4 Active set size analysis The network performance evaluation and analysis has been conducted for four different values of the active set size (1.∆T Measurement Quantity CPICH 1 ∆T ∆T As_Th + As_Th_Hyst/2 –CIO3 AS_Th – AS_Th_Hyst/2 . Hence. depending on the traffic mix. If a pilot in active set (CPICH3) is below the best server (CPICH2) at least by (As_Th + As_Th_Hyst/2 -CIO3) for a period equal to 'Time-to-trigger'. However. Radio Link Addition is performed. Event 1A is triggered and measurements are reported to RNC. Event 1B is triggered and the worst pilot (CPICH3) is removed from the active set. 4 and 16 links). it also turns out that there is only a very small difference between an active set size limit of 4 and 16. increasing the active set size would lead to increase in outage probability. Combined radio link addition and removal is performed. the bigger active set size results in performance improvements. soft handover. Figure 4-8 and Figure 4-9 show the combined blocking and dropping (outage) probability and the mean power rise as a function of the offered traffic per site. No cell individual offsets were used. On the other hand. Radio link removal is performed. 2. The results in Figure 4-8 clearly indicate the performance improvement that can be achieved with soft handover when going from one link towards two links. hence.AS_Th_Hyst/2 CIO2 ) for a period of 'Time-to-trigger' and the active set is not full. the performance is observed to become worse.0 . If Active Set is full and a new candidate pilot (CPICH3) is better than the worst existing pilot in the active set (CPICH1) atleast by (As_Rep_Hyst/2-CIO3 +CIO1) for a period equal to 'Time-to-trigger'. helps to outage probability. While using more active links (4 or 16). It's assumed here that the Active Set Size is 2. which is understood to mainly improve the network performance in the uplink. Higher percentage of high data rate users in the traffic mix will drive the network towards DL limited scenario earlier. The reason is that now the system becomes downlink limited.

May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 69 . 4. It should be noted that only one default value for all different supported data rates could be used in the network. the mean number of handover operations per call and the mean link holding time are compared in Figures 4-10. 4-11 and 412 for a maximum active set size of 1. there is only a small difference between an active set size limit of 4 and 16. and 16. 4 and 16 links. 2. 4. 2. As it could have been conjectured. the overhead becomes bigger for a larger active set size limit. The soft handover overhead (the mean number of links established per MS).size to 3 or 4 appears reasonable from the performance point of view. 2. 40% outage probability 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] 1link 2links 4links 16links Figure 4-8 Outage probability (blocking + dropping) for an active set size limit of 1.0 . and 16. which indicates that more than four links have rarely been Issue 1. 6 mean power rise [dB] 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] 1link 2links 4links 16links Figure 4-9 Power rise PR for an active set size limit of 1. However.

is only about 41 s.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 70 . 2.5 s.. and 16 mean number of handover operations per call 4 3 2 1 0 1link 2links 4links 16links active set size Figure 4-11 Mean number of handover operations for an active set size limit of 1.used. remove or replace link) per call.85 active links.e. There are about 4 soft handover operations (add. on the average every MS had about 1.0 . 4. 2. i. Figure 4-12 indicates that the mean time a link remains active..5 1 0. one operation every 22. For an active set size limit of 4 the soft handover overhead became about 85%.5 0 1link 2links 4links 16links active set size Figure 4-10 Mean number of active links for an active set size limit of 1. i. 4. 2 mean number of active links 1.e. and 16 Issue 1.

Figures 13 and 14 show the blocking probability and the mean power rise as a function of the offered traffic per site. 4dB/6 dB. 2dB/ 4dB) results in better performance in DL limited scenarios whereas less restrictive settings (e. In contrast. As in the previous case. The difference in the power rise doesn't appear to be big. 2. even an increase of 0. Six different settings for the add and drop margin were considered for the performance evaluation. 4dB/ 6dB) yield better performance in UL limited scenarios. and 16 4. 4.g. for an uplink limited scenario the opposite behaviour is observed. and 2dB/ 6dB.g. The active set size was limited to 4 links in this case. Issue 1.0 .5dB corresponds to a substantial decrease in the system capacity.5 Impact of add/drop threshold Similar network performance evaluation studies have been carried out in order to find reasonable values for the add and drop margins.45 mean link holding time 40 35 30 25 1link 2links 4links 16links active set size Figure 4-12 Mean link holding time for an active set size limit of 1. 3dB/ 5dB. namely 2dB/ 4dB. 3dB/ 6dB. The results indicate the performance differences that can be achieved by appropriately selecting the add and drop margins. the dropping probability was negligible. 2dB/ 5dB.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 71 . Nevertheless. The reason follows directly from the previous sections: With four links the system is downlink limited and any addition of SHO leg to the active set increases the outage probability. From the blocking probability point of view margins with more restrictive settings (e.

It turns out that those settings that give the best performance in terms of blocking probability and noise rise also show a very good performance by means of overhead in the network. 6 mean power rise [dB] 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] 2dB/ 4dB 3dB/ 6dB 3dB/ 5dB 2dB/ 6dB 4dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 5dB Figure 4-14 Power rise PR for different add and drop margins. The soft handover overhead (the mean number of links established per MS). 16 and 17. Add and drop margins of 2dB and 5dB result in a very moderate soft handover overhead and a low mean number of handover operations per call while we can achieve a very good performance in terms of the power rise and the outage probability. the mean number of handover operations per call and the mean link holding time that can be achieved with the different add / drop margin settings are compared in figures Error! Reference source not found. The simulation results also clearly show the increase in the overhead and in the number of handover operations when adding new links earlier and dropping them later (compare case 4dB/ 6dB to 3dB/ Issue 1.0 .May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 72 .40% outage probability 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 15 25 35 45 55 offered traffic [Erlang per site] 2dB/ 4dB 3dB/ 6dB 3dB/ 5dB 2dB/ 6dB 4dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 5dB Figure 4-13 Outage probability (blocking + dropping) for different add and drop margins.5.

2 mean number of active links 1.0 .May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 73 .5 0 2dB/ 4dB 3dB/ 5dB 4dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 5dB 3dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 6dB add/ drop margins Figure 4-15 Mean number of active links for different add and drop margins mean number of handover operations per call 4 3 2 1 0 2dB/ 4dB 3dB/ 5dB 4dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 5dB 3dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 6dB add/ drop margins Figure 4-16 Mean number of handover operations for different add and drop margins Issue 1. for example). Comparable results have been also observed for the uplink [5]. Obviously.5 1 0.5dB or 2dB/ 4dB. a bigger hysteresis of 3dB or even 4dB results in an increased mean link holding time.

i. because DSCH is not allowed to go into SHO. soft handover parameters that result in a good system performance also have a positive impact on the system overhead. The solution could be to have the associated DCH in soft HO.45 mean link holding time 40 35 30 25 2dB/ 4dB 3dB/ 5dB 4dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 5dB 3dB/ 6dB 2dB/ 6dB add/ drop margins Figure 4-17 Mean link holding time for different add and drop margins 4. soft handover overhead and mean link holding time. Issue 1. this will result in a better overall system performance. The investigation focused on two main soft handover parameters. and their impact on network performance parameters such as blocking probability. In combination with the inherent ARQ function which helps to overcome temporary radio link failures that occur more often with smaller number of active links. due to the transmission on multiple radio links.6 Conclusions The impact of the UMTS soft handover algorithms and parameter settings on the overall network performance has been analysed. noise rise. when the network is downlink limited it is probable that the performance becomes worse with more active soft handover links. especially for the 384k data service. Therefore. In application of DSCH will also help to overcome the problem. high rate data). In contrast. it has to be noted that diversity gain of the maximum ratio combining with more than two links is not yet included in the STEAM model and hence the results presented here might be conservative compared with reality. namely the active set size limit and the add/ drop/ replace margins. The results allow to select appropriate parameters for the soft handover algorithm and to determine guidelines for network dimensioning.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 74 . soft handover may result in a power rise which becomes the limiting factor. One possible solution to overcome the increased power rise in the downlink is to limit the active set size to a maximum number of two. It has turned out that from the downlink performance point of view (e. Especially in the downlink. while DSCH will only be transmitted from one (usually the strongest) NodeB.e.g. However. low rate data. soft handover in uplink limited networks yields always a significant performance gain [5].0 . the number of handover operations per call and the mean link holding time is also very good compared to other parameter sets. looking at the power rise). For the selection of appropriate handover parameters we need to consider both uplink and downlink performance (see also [5]) and we need also to take into account the service categories (voice.

KM.0 [2] 3GPP 25. Peng.6. v. London March 2000 Issue 1.331: RRC Protocol Specification.0 [3] UMTS SAE documents [4] Document Number(s): ITD-95-26511Q.6. WC [5] U. CF. Gunreben: "Evaluation of W-CDMA Network Performance and Impact of Soft Handover using Dynamic Network Simulations. 31450-950110-01TM Title: Analysis of Fade Margins for Soft and Hard Hand-offs Author(s): Rege. Mueckenheim.4. S. v.3. 3. v.10. J. Nanda.922: Radio Resource Management Strategies. Pampel.0 .7 Reference [1] 3GPP 25.0. H. 3.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 75 . Bernhard. Weaver." IEE Conference on 3G Mobile Communication Technologies 3G2000. P.

This document addresses the issue of downlink scrambling code planning for efficient use of scrambling code groups in the neighbouring cells. The primary Common Control Channel (CCPCH) and primary Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) are always transmitted using the primary scrambling code. Section 3 covers the procedure for three different stages of cell search involving slot and frame synchronisation. The other downlink physical channels can be transmitted with either the primary scrambling code or a secondary scrambling code from the set associated with the primary scrambling code. Secondary scrambling codes can also be used to transmit signal in part of the cell (or sector) by using narrow beams in case of base station employs intelligent antennas. These codes are divided into 64 groups of 8 scrambling codes in each group. Table 5-1 Scrambling codes grouping Primary code # Code #1 Code #2 Code #3 Code #4 Code #5 Code #6 Code #7 Code #8 Code group 1 0 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 Code group 2 128 144 160 176 192 208 224 240 … … … … … … … … … Code group 64 8064 8080 8096 8112 8128 8144 8160 8176 There is a one-to-one mapping between each primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes in a set such that i:th primary scrambling code corresponds to i:th set of secondary scrambling codes. The j:th scrambling code group consists of primary scrambling codes 16*8*j+16*k. To facilitate cell search and fast acquisition the 512 primary scrambling codes for downlink are further divided into 64 groups with each group containing 8 scrambling codes pre defined in standards [1].0 . which consists of 38400 chips for the chip rate of 3. In section 4 code planning strategy is discussed in terms of initial cell search and synchronisation.2 Scrambling Codes In UMTS. There are 512 primary downlink scrambling codes that are reused throughout a system.143 Gold sequences truncated to one frame interval. where j=0…63 and k=0…7 as mentioned in the following table 1. Each cell (or sector) is allocated only one primary scrambling code. a cell or a sector is identified by its downlink scrambling code. Thus in the first stage the UE detects a cell. During the initial cell search UE essentially aims to determine which of these codes is used by the detected cell.5 Scrambling Code Allocation 5. but only 512 codes are used as a primary scrambling codes chosen with steps of 16 whereas the remaining 15 codes in between are considered to be secondary scrambling codes. and a code reuse distance is derived followed by conclusion and references in the subsequent sections. There are 218 -1 possible scrambling codes numbered from 0 to 262. In section two a brief introduction of scrambling codes and their grouping is presented. Finally a simple code allocation scheme is proposed for hexagonal cell sites with three sectors per site. in the second stage the UE determines the code group and finally in the third stage the UE acquires the cell specific downlink scrambling codes.1 Introduction UMTS-FDD mode utilises 512 possible downlink scrambling codes. These 512 codes are based on length 218 -1 = 262.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 76 . 5.84 Mcps. and code group identification.142 that can be generated. Also cross correlation values are analysed to study the impact of same code group in the neighbouring cells. Issue 1.

the best code planning strategy is a trade-off between the processing load on the UE and the synchronisation time or effectively the performance of synchronisation procedure [5]. In the first stage of the initial cell search. PSC is common for all the cells in the system. P-SCH. which carries the primary synchronisation code (PSC). the UE uses the PSC for slot synchronisation. Once the code group from the 64 groups is identified. represent one scrambling code group out of 64 groups Figure 5-1 Frame structure for S-SCH for Code group identification 5. One way of code planning such a network would be to use different scrambling codes belonging to the same code group or alternatively. The SSCs pattern for each code group is given in table 3 from [2]. The PSC is repeated in every slot. A frame of 15 slots as shown in figure 1. For instance.May 2003 77 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions . the Secondary Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) and the CPICH. different codes could be assigned which are taken from exactly 6 different code groups. the UE determines the frame boundary and scrambling code group to which the cell belongs by using Secondary Synchronisation Codes (SSC). and this code is already known to the UE.0 . each of length 256 chips. Unlike CPICH. In the second stage. Another method of downlink scrambling code planning is to assign code groups to neighbouring cells/sectors which have smaller cross correlation values with other codes of the group so that during Issue 1. which identifies a code group. consists of 15 such Secondary Synchronisation Codes chosen from a set of 16 SSCs.5. Finally in the third stage. is constructed by generalised hierarchical Golay sequence [2]. Consequently.4 Scrambling Code Planning In UMTS FDD networks. consider the case of a simple network comprising of only 6 adjacent cells. neither P-SCH nor S-SCH is scrambled by the downlink scrambling code. The UMTS specification imposes no major restrictions regarding code planning. three channels are used. used for SSC. There are 16 unique sequences each of length 256. the neighbouring cells can be allocated with scrambling codes in various strategies. The former eventually oversimplifies the second stage of synchronisation and imposes all the required processing on the third stage. The choice of the allocation scheme has impact on processing requirements and synchronisation performance at the UE [4]. namely the Primary Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH).3 Cell Search and Synchronisation During initial cell search. One Radio Frame = 10ms = 38400 Slot # 0 2560 chips SSC code # 1 Length = 256 chips SSC code # 2 Length = 256 chips SSC code # 15 Length = 256 chips Slot # 1 Slot # 14 Frame Boundar 15 SSC Code sequence. whereas the latter puts all the processing on the second stage and totally eliminates the third stage. the UE acquires the downlink scrambling code. when the mobile is switched on or in idle mode when inactive (searching for a neighbouring cell). and can thus be used for detecting slot boundary. It is transmitted once every slot. the site-specific primary scrambling code can easily be detected by correlating over 8 possible codes within that selected group using CPICH [3] Secondary synchronisation codes vary from slot to slot.

006 0.004 0.5 Code Allocation Strategy For cell planning. …64 according to the following algorithm. The matrix (32´32) plot of figure 2 shows the cross correlation values within first 32 scrambling codes (i. 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 0. the UE will correctly identify the code in stage 3 of the cell search process. The code groups which shows poor cross correlation characteristics can be allocated as far away as possible. Issue 1.6 Code Assignment Scheme A simple approach of allocating 512 available scrambling codes is shown in figure 4 where the cell with three sector each is allocated code group indexing from Code_group_number =1.014 0.01 0. From the figure it can be concluded that cross correlation values are almost negligible to assume that the codes are orthogonal and therefore impose no significant requirement on code planning.016 0. Then the distance d between the ith cell and the nth ring is given by: d = 2 R n 2 + i 2 − ni (5.012 0.0 .002 Figure 5-2Cross correlation values of first 32 codes within 2 code groups including both primary and secondary scrambling codes 5. Figure 3 shows a symmetrical layout of hexagonal cells with 3 sectors per cell each providing 120° sector coverage. It is reasonable to assume that the codes in the groups are nearly orthogonal.initial cell search.008 0.e. two primary and 30 secondary scrambling codes).2. By considering the rotational symmetry of a hexagonal grid system and using the notion of hexagonal "rings" of cells around a centre (or a reference) cell it is easier to define the co-ordinates of a particular cell in the ring. it is convenient to divide the geographical coverage area into hexagonal cells. Let i denote the index to the cell in the nth ring as illustrated in figure 3. However it should be noted that cross correlation values are generated for only first 10 shifts of the codes and maximum value out of 10 is recorded.May 2003 78 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions .1) 5.

3.0 . Only 57 code groups are used to fill one cluster of scrambling codes to maintain the symmetry so that the same pattern can be replicated in the next cluster.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 79 . and c indexes from 1 to 6 to cover the first tier of neighbouring cells and likewise for n=2 c=1.Let s be the index of the sth sector (i.1) we can work out the code (group) reuse distance or neighbouring cluster distance. Code_group_num = 3*c*n+s Else if n = 2. Code_group_number =18+3*c*(n-1)+s Else if n = 3.e.2.e.2. s=1. 5. Next we use c to index the cth cell in the nth ring in the counter clockwise direction as labelled in the figure 3.7 Code Reuse Distance From the geometry of figure 4 and using equation (5. We start with the centre cell as a reference (i. n=0 and c = 0 case) such that Code_group_number = c*n + s If n = 1. However it is advisable to reserve some code groups in case the operator wishes to expand the network with more sectors per cell site to cover hotspots or to improve the capacity. … 12.3) in a cell. Code_group_number =54+3*c*(n-2)+s 32 32 33 34 35 38 39 37 14 40 41 42 17 43 44 45 48 46 49 50 39 37 14 40 41 42 17 43 44 45 48 46 49 50 51 47 18 21 19 52 54 53 20 16 15 2 3 6 4 57 55 56 5 1 13 10 9 7 22 23 24 8 38 51 47 18 21 19 52 54 35 36 11 34 53 20 16 15 2 3 6 4 57 55 33 31 30 28 27 25 26 29 32 56 5 1 13 10 9 7 22 23 44 45 48 46 49 50 51 47 43 24 8 36 11 31 30 28 27 25 41 42 17 18 19 21 52 54 53 20 16 40 26 29 39 37 14 15 2 3 6 4 57 55 56 5 1 13 10 9 7 22 23 24 8 38 35 36 11 33 34 31 30 28 26 25 27 29 Figure 5-3 Allocation of scrambling code group for a cluster of 57 sites The layout of Figure 5-3 follows the above code allocation scheme and it fulfils the criteria of having different code groups assigned to the neighbouring cells. for the first ring n=1. In the case of 3 sectors per cell and using all available 57 distinct code groups in one cluster.. the code reuse distance will be: Issue 1. For example.

In reality. More general formula for the distance between the reference cell to the ith cell in the nth ring is given by table 2 [6]. d will be approximately 13 km which provides sufficient path loss for the code group to be used again. This would overall require more efficient code planning for capacity improvement. The cross correlation values among different code groups have not been tested in real multipath channel which may imposed further restrictions on allocation of code groups in the adjacent sectors. Use of Intelligent antennas in future may require multiple downlink scrambling codes for individual beams for sector coverage. Hence these issues demand more robust code planning strategy for UMTS. Assuming the value of a typical value of cell radius.0 . 2 and 3 from the reference cell to the same code group in the adjacent cluster. up to 6 sectors per cell) coverage per cell. Concept of Space Time (or Time Switch) Transmit Diversity can further be enhanced to Code Switch Transmit Diversity. The arrangement of various code groups in different sectors seems to be sufficient to provide minimum interference between clusters. The availability of allocating 64 code groups is enough to ensure that the neighbouring cells can be served on different code groups up to the second tiers of cells. The value of d is the reuse distance for the code group 1. there may be the case that some cell sites have more than 3 sectors which would also reduce the reuse distance. However it should be noted that the calculation of code reuse distance is based on constant cell radius of all the cells.8 Conclusion The strategy adopted in allocating downlink scrambling code group is straightforward and easy to implement. In case of high traffic density further cell splitting will be required and therefore efficient reuse of codes will be more demanding. Issue 1. network operators may wish to have more reserve codes to use with hierarchical cell structure and variable number of sector (i.2) Above calculation of d is based on n=5 and i=2.e.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 80 . Besides. Table 5-2 Distance between cells n 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 : n i 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 : i Distance 2R = Rc √3 2R √3 =3 Rc 4R =2 Rc √3 2R √7 = Rc √21 2R √7 = Rc √21 6R = 3 Rc √3 2R √13 = Rc √39 4R √3 =6 Rc 2R √13 = Rc √39 8R = 4Rc √3 2R √21 = 6 Rc √7 2R √19 = Rc √57 2R √19 = Rc √57 2R √21 = 6 Rc √7 10R = 5Rc √3 : 2R √(n2 + i2 –ni) 5. In practice the coverage area may not be truly represented by hexagons and therefore cell radius cannot be assumed constant.d = 2 R 19 = Rc 57 (5.

May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions .Table 5-3 Allocation of SSCs for secondary SCH Slot number Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 Group 9 Group 10 Group 11 Group 12 Group 13 Group 14 Group 15 Group 16 Group 17 Group 18 Group 19 Group 20 Group 21 Group 22 Group 23 Group 24 Group 25 Group 26 Group 27 Group 28 Group 29 Group 30 Group 31 Group 32 Group 33 Group 34 Group 35 Group 36 Group 37 Group 38 Group 39 Group 40 Group 41 Group 42 Group 43 Group 44 Group 45 Group 46 Group 47 Group 48 Group 49 Group 50 Group 51 Group 52 Group 53 #0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 #1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 12 15 16 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 16 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 10 13 14 5 #2 2 5 1 3 16 4 11 6 10 13 8 10 12 14 2 15 9 14 12 15 4 3 5 12 6 8 7 13 9 11 2 9 12 14 5 13 3 15 4 4 6 5 9 16 12 4 8 16 7 15 10 11 7 8 #3 8 16 15 1 6 7 3 6 10 2 5 9 9 10 15 6 11 4 13 5 3 12 10 3 16 2 9 12 9 7 13 7 15 16 12 4 2 3 5 6 5 14 16 10 11 10 8 11 15 4 15 5 9 14 #4 9 7 5 8 6 4 4 14 4 14 7 16 9 14 15 16 15 13 14 4 7 11 16 15 12 9 5 12 3 2 3 7 2 5 5 2 13 11 16 11 16 4 10 5 14 6 16 4 4 16 16 4 14 16 #5 10 3 5 6 11 1 10 9 11 2 2 7 4 1 16 2 7 2 7 14 6 9 11 5 16 15 4 7 12 11 3 16 12 9 2 13 16 6 14 12 9 6 4 10 5 5 11 15 8 4 5 12 10 13 #6 15 14 12 5 15 5 9 10 7 6 4 9 13 15 10 13 6 9 2 3 10 13 3 8 3 14 9 15 8 9 12 13 4 2 14 8 8 14 7 13 15 12 16 4 11 9 12 3 15 8 4 4 13 6 #7 8 16 16 2 5 5 2 2 13 5 3 15 16 15 7 14 4 10 8 16 13 5 10 3 13 3 11 10 14 4 9 3 10 9 14 11 10 10 11 6 5 13 15 9 13 15 4 15 12 7 6 11 8 14 #8 10 3 6 5 12 3 11 13 16 5 8 1 5 8 8 10 16 12 14 7 12 8 11 5 13 14 2 5 15 16 7 12 13 16 8 6 8 15 4 12 9 5 3 9 3 4 15 11 3 7 16 6 7 13 #9 16 10 11 8 1 6 2 9 11 13 3 8 1 5 1 11 5 16 2 8 5 2 8 14 6 9 14 2 12 7 16 2 15 11 15 4 13 10 11 14 10 13 5 16 6 15 11 12 16 15 4 6 8 7 #10 2 5 2 4 15 2 10 2 13 10 2 16 13 11 10 7 2 8 1 6 14 14 5 12 7 5 5 15 14 16 6 13 13 11 3 6 11 6 14 4 6 6 10 15 14 5 4 12 4 12 3 5 10 8 #11 7 12 16 4 12 8 12 5 6 9 6 8 5 4 8 4 12 5 13 2 16 7 13 9 9 5 14 5 5 9 9 12 4 5 9 8 11 7 9 5 4 11 5 6 6 16 7 4 16 11 15 3 4 15 #12 15 14 11 6 16 7 12 14 4 1 6 15 12 10 2 5 13 3 11 10 8 4 3 8 2 15 11 13 3 14 16 9 5 7 12 15 16 7 9 13 15 11 15 3 13 16 16 7 12 3 9 14 4 6 #13 7 12 15 3 11 6 9 1 1 14 4 2 4 5 16 12 3 15 8 11 2 10 13 9 12 8 16 7 2 14 13 16 5 4 15 15 3 14 7 5 4 12 6 5 4 9 3 8 11 16 6 13 13 15 #14 16 10 12 7 2 8 3 13 16 10 5 2 8 4 9 3 14 6 11 13 11 15 8 14 7 12 16 4 15 4 12 6 10 14 9 11 5 3 5 14 10 14 6 15 4 10 15 16 11 12 9 12 9 7 81 Issue 1.0 .

[3] 3G Ts 25.lucent. Issue 1. CDMA Systems Engineering Hand Book.213 v3.com/flig/projects/umts/Documents/ran_perm/R99_perm. [2] 3G Ts 25.htm. Cell search algorithms and optimisation in W-CDMA. pages 815-819. Artech House. pages 81-86. Miller. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference 'VTC 2000' Vol.lucent.2. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference 'VTC 2000' Vol.de.de.3rd September 1999.lucent.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 82 .0 http://pc1www.com/flig/projects/umts/Documents/ran_perm/R99_perm. [5] TSG-RAN Working Group 1 meeting #7 30th August .htm.Group 54 Group 55 Group 56 Group 57 Group 58 Group 59 Group 60 Group 61 Group 62 Group 63 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 9 9 6 6 7 9 10 10 13 10 11 12 11 13 9 6 10 12 15 13 12 10 7 8 10 8 12 6 15 10 15 15 10 13 7 10 8 5 14 11 12 13 8 5 11 9 11 12 8 15 9 14 5 7 6 8 9 8 6 15 13 9 8 7 12 12 7 9 7 9 13 14 7 6 9 5 8 7 16 16 11 15 12 16 12 11 9 6 8 12 14 11 12 14 11 10 5 7 7 14 10 11 10 15 8 11 12 8 13 13 16 13 6 8 8 12 6 11 14 16 15 12 9 16 6 7 7 11 5 14 14 16 11 15 10 7 6 9 16 11 16 10 5.de.211 v3.2.0 http://pc1www. Eric Wang and Tony Ottosson.com/flig/projects/UMTS/Documents/ Jhong Sam Lee and Leonard E. Code Planning Strategy for UMTS FDD Networks.3. 1998. [4] Stamatis kourtis. Analysis of Scrambling Code Group Schemes http://pc1www.9 References [1] Yi Pin.0 .3.

beamwidth (elevation/azimuth). however. When they are co-located. it is anticipated that the existing GSM antennas will be replaced with dual (or tri) band GSM/UMTS antennas. gain. Cellular TDMA. A narrow band 2GHz and an 1800MHZ(or 900MHz) are incorporated within the same radome. Internally fitted with a diplexer to separate 2GHz and 1800MHz for each polarisation Operates over UMTS/GSM1800/GSM900 and Tri Band Dual-Element Antennas (Two antennas elements housed in one radome) Two radiating elements for each polarisation and operate over UMTS band.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions .1 Introduction This chapter focuses on the main items associated with the antennas that are used together to form the antenna system. and Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) etc. Table 6-1 Type of antenna Single-Element Antennas Narrow Band Operates over a frequency band 1920 to 2170 MHz (UMTS channels). precaution shall be taken to avoid/minimize the harmful mutual interference. PCS CDMA. electrical. which are currently available for UTRAN networks and likely to work with the existing 2G network. One element operates over UMTS and GSM1800 channels and the other element 83 Issue 1. Due to deployment constraints. Broad Band These are dual band antennas operate on GSM1800/UMTS frequencies. Cellular CDMA. Or can be shared by two UMTS networks. PCS TDMA. and commercial. the service providers with current GSM networks will simply wish to add UMTS base stations at their GSM sites. overload. thereby degrading their system performance. if a service provider wants to co-locate a UMTS BS with other RF station(s). mechanical. mutual interference between stations always exists and that may cause receiver desensitization. owing to weight and space limits. This section primarily concentrates on electrical performance.0 . Primarily aimed at one element being used for GSM 1800 and the other for UMTS. polarisation (single or dual) and number of radiating elements housed in a single radome. This document highlights the principal antenna system arrangements and components that may be used. sometimes it is desirable that the UMTS Base Station (BS) can be co-located with RF stations of other communications systems. blocking and/or Inter-Modulation Product (IMP). function and application are outlined in Table 6-1.6 Antenna systems 6. PCS GSM. together with the design factors to be considered. Detailed discussion of antenna isolations are also discussed in this chapter. such as GSM.2 Antenna Types Antennas can be mainly categorised in terms of their operating frequency (Narrow or broad band). Detailed analysis of the options and their respective merits will be required on a site-by-site basis. 6. site acquisition difficulties and other reasons. In many areas. their main characteristics. it is most likely that UMTS networks will be deployed by existing 2G operators. Therefore. Single polarisation requires two connectors and dual polarisation require 4 connectors. and economic/ environmental constraints. Initially. it should be recognised that the actual choice of an antenna for a particular site will depend on a large variety of factors. In the early stages of implementing UTRANs. Most of the GSM networks will be operating at 900MHz. Both elements operate over 2GHz within the same radome. One connector is required for single polarisation and two connectors for dual polarisation. For each type of antenna. AMPS. some at 1800MHz and a few at both 900MHz and 1800MHz.

Unless an internal diplexer is fitted. it is possible to combine the data from the two signals and improve the reliability of reception. 1800 MHz and 900 MHz band signals.3.3 (Band 3) 16 (Band 1) 18. 6. single polarisation antennas of this type are normally fitted with three connectors. and dual polarisation antennas are fitted with six connectors. The benefit derived from diversity reception can be represented by a factor called 'Diversity Gain' that can be included in the reverse-link path power budget and included in the Lucent link level simulation which reflects the Eb/No. operates over 900MHz and are incorporated within the same radome and therefore also refer to as a Tri band antenna The concept of dual elements can be extended further to produce a three element array that comprises either three separate radiating elements (or three arrays) for each polarisation that is required. and a dual polarised antenna will have four connectors. To achieve diversity gain.5 (Band 3) 9 (Band 1) 5. Owing to the large number of connectors involved. owing to the fact that the signals have travelled slightly different paths.commonly referred to as Tri band Antennas internally fitted with a triplexer for each polarisation that separates 2GHz. Alternatively polarization diversity can be achieved by using two elements in a single radome commonly referred to as diversely polarized antennas.5 (Band 1) 18 (Band 2) 18. the correlation between the diversity antenna elements). several manufacturers fit internal diplexers to combine one pair of frequency bands onto one connector. one set for +45° polarisation and one set for -45° polarisation. Each of these is briefly explained.5 (Band 3) 15. it may be available with a number of optional facilities. and is widely used in GSM and/or TDMA networks.5 (Band 2) 19 (Band 3) Size (HxWxD) /mm 1936 x 262 x 99 Weight /kg 19 2000x300 x 145 18 2200x300x100 16 6. horizontally 2 ½ m) known as Space Diversity. using maximal ratio combining a diversity gain of 3-4 dB can be achieved depending on the required frame error rate (FER) and the propagation conditions (i.3 Common Options for UMTS Regardless of whether the UMTS antenna is single.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 84 . dual. Table 6-2 Comparison of Size of Multi-band Antennas Operating Bandwidth/MHz 870-960 (Band 1) 1710-1880 (Band 2) 1920 -2170 (Band 3) 890-960 (Band 1) 1710-1880 (Band 2) 1900 -2170 (Band 3) 824-960 (Band 1) 1710-1880 (Band 2) 1920 -2170 (Band 3) Azimuth Beamwidth 65 (Band 1) 60 (Band 2) 60 (Band 3) 65 (Band 1) 65 (Band 2) 65 (Band 3) 65 (Band 1) 65 (Band 2) 65 (Band 3) Elevation Beamwidth 9 (Band 1) 9.0 . instead of two physically separated antennas and therefore Issue 1. Such a single polarised antenna will then have two connectors. and its associated merits and demerits itemised in the following sub-sections.5 (Band 2) 9.g.1 Reception Diversity If two base station receivers are fed by separate antennas and receive a signal from a mobile.5 (Band 2) 5 (Band 3) 7 (Band 1) 5 (Band 2) 5 (Band 3) Gain/dBi 16 (Band 1) 16 (Band 2) 16. These devices operate over three frequency bands.e. In case of diversely polarised antennas only one antenna radome needs to be installed. Under normal conditions. one (or more) includes the UMTS channels (1920 to 2170MHz). This technique is referred to as Diversity Reception. or tri-band device. In this case three connectors for each polarisation are used. two antennas (or more antennas) can either be separated by distance (e.

operating in different bands. Issue 1. on a frequent basis. B. and adjusting antennas can generate increased complaints from local residents. Avoids the need to visit each base station site in order to change the down-tilt: It has been reported that site visits. However there is a reduction in diversity gain of 0.7dB to 3.4 Diplexers and Triplexers Diplexers and Triplexers are used to combine (or divide) two and three signal frequency bands respectively. These factors have been discussed in detail in terms of using covert antennas [1].benefits in reduced size and weight. This can be achieved by two means: A.9dB in suburban and 1.3.3. 6. Ability to remotely maintain a database of the actual down-tilt in use at each site. When upgrading an existing 1800MHz antenna system (or dual 900/1800MHz band) for simultaneous operation at 2GHz. It is normally possible to use the existing 1800MHz feeder for both services. in order to constrain cell area and maximise signal level within the cell. This prevents staff making local changes at base stations and not recording the results. Remote adjustment of electrical down-tilt may be used to alter antenna radiation pattern. Electrically controlling the phase shifters by an electrical signal either applying directly to antenna elements or through an equipment room. In addition to fixed electric tilt (FET) a few antennas have been recently introduced that have the facility to vary the electric down-tilt between 2° and 8°. and hence the cell coverage area. 6. C. This has several benefits: A.0 . Several manufacturers of UTRAN antennas have remotely controlled electrically operated variable down-tilt antennas so that the electrical down-tilt can be done from the equipment room and/or the network operations and maintenance centre. the additional frequency dependent feeder loss is unlikely to be significant.6dB in urban areas from using polarisation diversity rather than space diversity. cost and weight. The electrical tilt is usually fixed at the time of manufacture and cannot be subsequently changed. 6. Manually operating the phase shifter. This down-tilt can be achieved by mechanically tilting the whole antenna assembly or electrically altering the phase of the signals applied to the individual elements that comprise the antenna. Balancing cost and operating frequency has lead to the use of cables of diameter ½" to 1 " with corresponding loss of 10.2 Remote Electric Tilt Networks commonly use antennas that are down-tilted in the elevation plane. to a larger area when the traffic density in the office area falls outside working hours Extend cover from the urban area to more of the outlying sub-urban areas when more subscribers are likely to be at home in the evenings and weekends Other issues regarding loading of antenna mast and environmental viewpoint need to be considered at the time of installation. B. UMTS networks impose no additional restrictions on the choice of antenna feeder cable compared to those applicable to GSM networks. which is usually a microstrip device that is generally adjusted by a user adjustable knob.71dB per 100m length at 2GHz in the cellular radio. This permits two or three BTSs.3.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 85 . thereby producing a composite beam that is tilted known as electrical down-tilt. Larger diameter cables provide less attenuation than small diameter cables.3 Feeder Cable The choice of particular feeder cable mostly depends on the feeder loss. It has been proposed that this may be useful to: Extend cells that cover office areas during working hours. to share a common antenna or antenna feeder. climbing masts. provided that the additional loss associated with the dual (GSM/UMTS) band diplexers (cross-band couplers) is acceptable.

3. 2 and 3. Divide a composite Band 1 and Band 2 signal input on port 3. Provide inter port isolation between ports 1 and 2. and present the Band 1 signal on port one. and Band 3 signal input on port 4.5 General Transceiver EMC Most multiple channel BTS transmitters use a single transmitter output stage for each RF channel that is radiated. In order to avoid problem of out of band emission that are causing interference to systems operating in different bands a filter can be fitted to the transmitter output. the Band 2 signal on port two. It Issue 1.2 Triplexers A triplexer is a four port device used for any of the following purposes: Combine a Band 1 signal on port one with a Band 2 signal on port two and a Band 3 signal on port 3.Isolation between the ports for each band is necessary to avoid high power transmitted signals from one band impairing the performance of the receiver(s) operating on the other bands.0 . each having slightly different effects when transmitter isolation is evaluated: Filter Combining Hybrid Combining As UMTS equipment will be most commonly operated in close proximity to GSM systems. use of spurious suppression filters may be needed and it depends on the type of antenna system that is used.3.May 2003 86 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions . Divide a composite Band 1. This simplifies design.4. Provide inter port isolation between ports 1. and present the composite signal on port 4. and present the Band 1 signal on port one. If high power signals from one of the combined transmitters enters the output stages of a transmitter operating on a different channel.3. and present the composite signal on port 3. Remote Antennas mounted at large distances from the BTS equipment rack the cable loss could be 3-4dB at 2GHz. installation and maintenance. Diplexers may take the following configurations: 900MHz and 2GHz 1800MHz and 2GHz 6. intermodulation products may be generated. which could fall in a receive band and therefore degrade receiver performance. and the Band 2 signal on port two. Therefore the overall receiver system Noise Figure (NF) which is typically 3dB (in Lucent's case) must take into account the cable loss resulting in effective NF of ~ 6-7dB without using TTLNA.1 Diplexers Diplexers are three port devices used for the following purposes: Combine a Band 1 signal on port one with a Band 2 signal on port two. 6. from which the power is combined. and the Band 3 signal on port 3. Two principal means of transmitter combining are used. The triplexer can be used instead of two separate dual band diplexers (one for 1800MHz and 2000MHz and one for 900MHz and 1800-2000MHz). Use of Antenna Masthead amplifier (also called TTLNA) will be essential to compensate for most of the loss in the base receiver antenna feeder cable. 6.4. Band 2.

will affect the receivers of other systems. If a new UMTS antenna is added. 6.4.4. The worst case may occur when the new UMTS antenna has to be mounted on an existing masthead antenna platform. on which two existing antennas are usually mounted at the far ends. 6. The criteria for determining the required antenna isolations between the co-located stations will be specified. Out of band desensitisation and intermodulation products. Receiver selectivity. In this section.3 to 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 87 .1 Overview If the base station site is on a building.will be essential for Wanted and Unwanted transmission. A typical example showing the required antenna isolations between Lucent A-Block UMTS OneBTS and Lucent adjacent-block BS will be presented. it is usually possible to separate the new UMTS antennas from any existing antennas used by other networks by a considerable extent.0 . Subsequently the arrangements of different components of the antenna system can be integrated to provide overall optimum performance.2 Mathematical Model for Mutual Interference Evaluation Issue 1. it may be necessary to mount the new UMTS antenna much closer to any existing antennas. Site Survey (SS) which is an important step in the process of co-locating a UMTS OneBTS with any other RF station(s) will then be explained. However.5m as shown in the arrangement below. which are shared by different systems operating on different bands. spectrum spacing and antenna separation between the colocated stations. Figure 6-1 Shared Masthead Antenna Mount The degree of degradation is dependent on the strength of interfering signal that is determined by transmit/receive (TX/RX) unit performance. In-band adjacent channel rejection. a set of mathematical models used to evaluate mutual interference between two co-located RF communications stations will be introduced first. for space diversity reception. Therefore sites. Use of dual or tri-band antennas involves diplexers or triplexers with the options of using separate or common feeders. The models will then be generalized for the cases in which more than two RF stations are co-located (called multiple co-located RF stations hereafter). when the antenna support structure is a mast or tower.4 Antenna Isolation 6. the maximum spacing from either of the antennas will be 1. These are often triangular. for example of side 2600 mm as shown in figure 6-1. Finally. Among various combinations some of the most common scenarios are discussed below.

e. Note that the term antenna isolation (called isolation hereafter) refers to the path loss from the interfering transmitter antenna connector (i.e.LTX_rej .L isolation + 10 log10(Winterfered/Winterfering) where Iaff_J4 = acceptable interference level (dBm) at the affected station’s J4 Issue 1. (b) receiver IMP interference. In this discussion. The required isolation shall be determined using the criteria provided in Section 3. It can be imagined from Figure 1 that the interference power (i. rejection). Four types of degradation must be considered: (a) receiver desensitization. The receiver overload and blocking are caused by strong total interfering power from the interfering BS. 6.1 Receiver Desensitization Receiver desensitization is defined as the degradation in receiver sensitivity due to an increase in the receiver noise floor.. we assume that the TX band of the interfering station is adjacent to the RX band of the interfered station.e. the interfering station generates a substantial amount of spurious emissions. the isolation includes the propagation loss through the air and the effective antenna gains (i.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions spurious (6. as indicated in Figure 1. spurious emissions) generated at the TX amplifier output of the interfering station is filtered by the TX filter. attenuated by the isolation between two stations.4. The IMP interference is generated by a combination of carriers received from the co-located stations. the J4 port) to the affected receiver antenna connector. without modifying the existing TX/RX units.2. The receiver desensitization is caused by strong spurious emission received from the interfering station.. the interference power received at the J4 port of the interfered station can be expressed as: Iaff_J4 = CTX_amp + ICRTX_amp . and result in an increase in the receiver noise floor. the spurious emissions falling in the RX band of the interfered station may be too strong..1) 88 . and (ii) RX filter and receiver front end (i.e. INTERFERING STATION INTERFERED STATION TRANSMIT UNIT J4 TX AMP TX Filter RECEIVE UNIT J4 RX Filter Receiver Antenna Isolation TX Carrier & Interference Levels @ AMP Output TX Carrier Level Specified @ J4 Received Interference Level @ J4 Received Interference Level @ Rcvr Input Figure 6-2 Schematics diagram showing mutual interference between two co-located The RF components which are very important in evaluating the mutual interference between two colocated stations are (i) TX amplifier and TX filter of the interfering station. an appropriate isolation shall be maintained between the co-located stations. If the isolation between two stations is not sufficient and/or the interfering station's TX filter does not provide enough out-of-band attenuation (i.Figure 6-2 is a schematics diagram showing the mutual interference between two co-located RF stations..0 . low noise amplifier) of the affected station. antenna gain minus cable loss) of both stations. In other words. and then received by the RX unit at the affected station. (c) receiver overload and (d) receiver blocking [1]. Therefore. Therefore..e. To minimize the degradation.

in dBm). Substituting Equation (4) into Equation (2)..2 Intermodulation Product Interference Due to nonlinearity of receiver gain transfer function.6) Issue 1. we will focus our attentions on the IMP3. which will be specified in Section 3.2) (6. low noise amplifier) and presented at its output.Iaff_J4 + BWAF Note that the BWAF is the Bandwidth Adjustment Factor that is defined as: BWAF = 10 log10(Winterfered/Winterfering) spurious (6. these IMPs may be too strong.5) 6.LTX_rej ) .May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 89 .. we can determine the required isolation based on an acceptable Iaff_J4 . The natures of IMPs have been studied and the results are reported in many literature. and they may have adverse effects on the receiver performance. the CTX_amp can be calculated by: CTX_amp = CTX_J4 + LTX_pass where LTX_pass is the interfering BS TX filter insertion loss in the passband. they may cause the interference and degrade the receiver performance. the IMPs will be generated in the receiver (i. to minimize receiver degradation caused by IMP3 interference.2.3) If the level of TX carrier power is specified at J4 (denoted as CTX_J4 . if the strengths of received interfering carriers are too strong. Mathematically. we can express Equation (1) in an alternate form as: spurious spurious L isolation = CTX_amp + ICRTX amp . It has been pointed out in those reports that the third order IMPs (IMP3) are the stronger ones.e. From Equation (6).4. (6. i. If falling in the RX band of the interfered system. Therefore. Sometimes. the strengths of IMP3s shall be lower than an acceptable level.0 . the IMP3 (in dBm) which is generated by two carriers of equal strength (so-called 2Tone IMP3) can be calculated by: IMP3 = 3 x CRX_rcvr .LTX_rej = nominal maximum carrier power level (dBm) at the TX amplifier output ICRTX_amp = interference-to-carrier ratio (dBc) of the TX amplifier = interfering BS TX filter rejection (dB) in the affected station’s RX band CTX_amp L isolation = isolation (dB) between the J4 ports of co-located stations Winterfered = interfered system channel bandwidth (KHz) Winterfering = interference level measurement bandwidth (KHz) Swapping parameters I aff_J4 and L isolation .2 x TOI where: TOI = Third Order Intercept point (dBm) specified at receiver input CRX _rcvr = interference carrier level at interfered station’s receiver input (dBm) Note that.e. the CRX_rcvr for achieving an adequate IMP3 level can be obtained by: (6.4) L isolation = CTX_J4 + ICRTX_amp + ( LTX_pass . in the following discussions.LTX_rej .Iaff_J4 + BWAF spurious (6.

the receiver may become inactive to the incoming carriers whose frequencies are only a few tens MHz outside its operation band.g. we can also express the CRX_rcvr as: CRX_rcvr = CTX_J4 . Due to this fact.e... its amplification gain is decreased (i. i. IMP 3 L isolation = CTX_J4 . low noise amplifier) is designed to operate properly within a specific bandwidth. it will be attenuated.g. When a receiver is driven into overload.. therefore. the receiver behaves as an active band-pass filter in a sense that it has uniform gain (e. we can determine the required isolation based on an acceptable CRX_rcvr . Issue 1. it seems that these carriers are not received by the receiver. Therefore.CRX_tot_rcvr (6. the power of these incoming carriers is totally rejected by the receiver. the level of total carrier power received from the interfering station shall be well below its 1 dB compression point (P1dB ). In other words.CRX_rcvr = IMP3 + 2 × TOI 3 (6.L isolation .LRX_cxr_rej .. which is so-called. IMP 3 (6.7).8) where: CTX_J4 IMP 3 L isolation = nominal maximum TX carrier power (dBm) at interfering station’s J4 = isolation (dB) between J4 ports for achieving a specified CRX_rcvr = affected RX filter rejection (before the low noise amplifier) in dB for the carrier power received from the interfering station LRX_cxr_rej Swapping L isolation and CRX_rcvr. 18 dB) within its operation band and has high attenuation (i.9) 6. the operation band. loss) outside the band. Similarly. away from the operation band. Otherwise.3 Receiver Overload Receiver overload is caused by too strong received power at a receiver. To prevent the receiver from being overloaded. depressed).4.0 . In some cases. the isolation (denoted as L isolation ) between two co-located stations needed to suppress total interfering carrier power received at the affected station’s receiver to an acceptable level can be expressed as: over − load L isolation over − load = CTX _tot_J4 . we shall point out that the Equation (10) given above is applied only under the condition that the colocated stations are operating in the adjacent bands (e.10) where: CTX_tot_J4 = total carrier power (dBm) transmitted at J4 port of interfering station CRX_tot_rcvr = total carrier power (dBm) received at J4 port of affected station L isolation = isolation (dB) between J4 ports for achieving an acceptable CRX_tot_rcvr LRX_cxr_rej = affected RX RF filter rejection (before the low noise amplifier) in dB for total carrier power received from the interfering station Note that every receiver (i. The acceptable level will be specified in Section 3. referring to Figure 1..LRX_cxr_rej IMP 3 (6. The degree of attenuation is dependent on the receiver design and how far is the carrier.CRX_rcvr Note that the CRX_rcvr is determined by the acceptable IMP3 level as indicated in Equation (6. If the received signal is falling in the operation band.. PCS at A-Block and PCS at D-Block) in which the receiver of interfered station is active to the carriers from the interfering stations.7) Referring to Figure 1.LRX_cxr_rej .e. in frequency.2.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions over − load 90 .e. its strength will be amplified.e.

4.0 . the level of IMP3 products generated shall be 10 dB below its receiver noise floor. therefore. At the affected station. In other words. is away from the operation band.. Due to this fact. At the affected station. the strength of affected spurious emissions received from the interfering station(s) shall be 10 dB below its receiver noise floor to prevent receiver desensitization. the receiver may become inactive to the incoming carriers whose frequencies are only a few tens MHz outside its operation band. it will be attenuated.g. receiver blocking). and the affected receiver filters (including RF.e. its strength will be amplified. To achieve this goal. In some cases.2.6. which is so-called.4. loss) outside the band.11) L isolation = isolation (dB) between J4 ports for achieving an acceptable C ‘RX_tot_rcvr L’RX_cxr_rej = affected RX RF. Otherwise. in frequency. the total carrier power received from the interfering station shall be below a tolerable level. the three types of degradation mentioned above shall be avoided and/or minimized.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 91 . 18 dB) within its operation band and has high attenuation (i. the interference power may cause receiver noise rise or desensitization (i. To prevent the receiver from being desensitized. PCS at A-Block and PCS at D-Block) in which the receiver of interfered station is active to the carriers from the interfering stations. the antenna isolation between the co-located stations shall be maintained to meet the criteria given below: A. IF and baseband filter rejection (dB) for total carrier power received from the interfering station Note that every receiver (i. the receiver behaves as an active band-pass filter in a sense that it has uniform gain (e. At the affected station.g. the strength of total interfering carrier power received from the interfering station(s) shall be 5 dB below its receiver 1 dB compression point (P1dB ) to prevent receiver overload. the power of these incoming carriers is totally rejected by the receiver.e. B.3 Antenna Isolation Criteria and Safe Antenna Isolation To ensure proper system performance. The acceptable level will be specified in Section 3.. Therefore. the isolation (denoted as L isolation ) between two co-located stations required to reduce total interfering carrier power received at the affected station’s receiver to an acceptable level can be expressed as: blocking L isolation = CTX _tot_J4 . the operation band.L’RX_cxr_rej – C ‘RX_tot_rcvr where: CTX_tot_J4 = total carrier power (dBm) transmitted at J4 port of the interfering station C ‘RX_tot_rcvr = total carrier power (dBm) received at J4 port of the affected station blocking (6. Referring to Figure 1.. C. low noise amplifier) is designed to operate properly within a specific bandwidth.. IF and baseband filters) and/or the isolation between two stations do not provide sufficient attenuation for the total carrier power.4 Receiver Blocking When an affected BS receives strong carrier power from an interfering BS. it seems that these carriers are not received by the receiver.e. blocking 6. we shall point out that the Equation (10) given above is applied only under the condition that the colocated stations are operating in the adjacent bands (e. Issue 1.. The degree of attenuation is dependent on the receiver design and how far the carrier. If the received signal is falling in the operation band.

respectively. These guidelines assume an affected receiver and a dominant interfering transmitter generating much higher level of interference than other interfering transmitters. the maximum receiver degradation of both stations is approximately 0.May 2003 AffectedReceiver PCS TDMA Minicell Block D simplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block D OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS CDMA Modcell Block D OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS GSM Nominal Block D OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block D duplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A IsolationRequired(dB) 30. the strength of total interfering carrier power attenuated by the affected system receive filters shall be 10 dB below the receiver noise floor to prevent receiver blocking. say Station A and Station B.0 0. Therefore.D. Table 6-3 The recommended antenna isolation between UMTS1900 OneBTS in Block A and adjacent systems in Block D Interfering Transmitter OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block D simplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block D OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS CDMA Modcell Block D OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS GSM Nominal Block D OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block D duplex Issue 1.4. In deriving the isolation guidelines. need to be calculated. one for the interference from Station A to Station B and the other one for the interference from Station B to Station A. in order to meet all the criteria listed above. the RX sensitivity of the interfered system is degraded only by 0. As mentioned at the beginning of this section.0 0. The term isolation refers to the path loss between the operating OneBTS antenna connector and the antenna connectors of other systems. At the affected station. Similarly.0 . B (1950-1965 MHz for BS transmission) and C (1975-1990 MHz for BS transmission).8 10. Using the safe antenna isolation (SAI). 6-6 and 6-7 show the antenna isolation guidelines between Block A (1930-1945 MHz for BS transmission) UMTS1900 OneBTS and other systems operating in Blocks D (1945-1950 MHz for BS transmission). The isolation guidelines serve as examples and could be different based on the equipment installed.0 9.2 23. Note that. two sets of required antenna isolations.1 28.0 0. we consider the following BS products: Lucent UMTS1900 OneBTS Release 21 with low loss filter panels and one 2-Power Amplifier Module (2PAM with a 40 W transmit power at J4) Lucent PCS CDMA Modcell with duplexers and 3 carriers per antenna Lucent PCS TDMA Minicell with simplex and duplex filters PCS 1900 nominal BTS (GSM based technology complying with J-STD-007 "Minimum Performance Standard for the PCS 1900 System") with 4 carriers per antenna. the TX unit of Station A will affect the RX unit of Station B.0 92 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions . the largest antenna isolation is determined by the Criterion 1. Using this antenna isolation. For example. to avoid/minimize the degradation to both stations.4 UMTS1900 PCS Antenna Isolation This section provides the isolation guidelines between UMTS1900 OneBTS (A Block) and other Lucent systems (except GSM) operating in the PCS Spectrum. and vise versa. the largest antenna isolations (called safe antenna isolation) obtained in these two sets shall be utilized. including the propagation loss through the air and both effective antenna gains.0 31.8 0. the largest antenna isolation shall be chosen.4 dB.4 dB. which is considered acceptable for most of communications systems. considering two (2) co-located RF stations. the mutual interference always exists between the colocated stations. In most of cases. 6. Tables 6-5.

It is to be understood that the isolation estimates are provided as starting points.0 .0 49.2 32.0 Table 6-5The recommended antenna isolation required between UMTS1900 OneBTS in Block A and adjacent systems in Block C Interfering Transmitter OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block C simplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block C OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS CDMA Modcell Block C OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS GSM Nominal Block C OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block C duplex AffectedReceiver PCS TDMA Minicell Block C simplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block C OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS CDMA Modcell Block C OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS GSM Nominal Block C OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block C duplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A IsolationRequired(dB) 55.0 50. It is also to be understood that the calculated isolation estimates may change with further refinements in the method of analysis.0 49.2 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 93 .2 20.5 23.2 15.2 23. measurement data should be taken to ensure that the antenna isolation is achieved.0 The above isolation guidelines serve as examples and should be changed based on the BS products equipped.8 49.3 28.3 28.8 49. It is found that Criterion 1 (used to ensure the system received spurious emissions 10 dB below the receiver noise floor) is the dominant factor in determining the antenna isolation guideline.2 0.0 50.0 50. The isolation guidelines from Lucent Technologies equipment to the other systems are derived based on Criterion 1 Issue 1.Table 6-4 The recommended antenna isolation required between UMTS1900 OneBTS in Block A and adjacent systems in Block B Interfering Transmitter OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block B simplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block B OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS CDMA Modcell Block B OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS GSM Nominal Block B OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block B duplex AffectedReceiver PCS TDMA Minicell Block B simplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block B OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS CDMA Modcell Block B OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS GSM Nominal Block B OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A PCS TDMA Minicell Block B duplex OneBTS UMTS 1900 Block A IsolationRequired(dB) 49. Since it is difficult to predict actual path loss by the propagation model.2 32.0 50.

there is no physical separation.2dB 1800MHz signal attenuation 60dB 60dB 1800MHz port Wanted signal attenuation 0. As shown in Figure 6-3. Assuming dual band antenna (two antennas housed in a single radome) is used i. two antennas are connected to their BTS racks via two separate feeder cables each having a loss of 3dB.30 = -137 dB = -113+137 = 24 dB ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ Figure 6-3 Isolation between UMTS and 900 BTS with separation Note that in the above example the two antennas can be physical separated rather than located in a single radome to achieve further isolation. 6.e. Assumptions for a common GSM 900/1800 and UMTS feeder Dual band or Tri-band antenna -No internal diplexer Inter-port isolation 30dB Diplexers/Triplexer 2GHz signal attenuation 900MHz port Wanted signal attenuation 0.1 UMTS co-siting with GSM 900 Consider a simple example of UMTS system co-siting with a GSM 900 network.4.5dB 900MHz signal attenuation 60dB 2GHz signal attenuation 60dB 2GHz port Wanted signal attenuation 900MHz signal attenuation 1800MHz signal attenuation 0.4. To work out achieved isolation from a UMTS transmitter to a GSM 900 receiver we proceed as follows: UMTS Tx spurious emission in the GSM 900 region Attenuation due to feeder cables Isolation due to cross coupling loss GSM 1800 receiver tolerance Isolation achieved Isolation Margin = -101 dBm = -3 dB ´2 = 30 dB = -113 dBm = -101 -3´2 .5dB 60dB 60dB Issue 1.5.5 UMTS GSM Antenna Isolation 6.0 . For instance -45 dB instead of -30 dB used in the test cases discussed later.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 94 .since the receiver information of the other systems (such as 3rd order intercept and 1 dB compression point) is not available.

UMTS Tx spurious emission in the GSM 1800 region = -98 dBm (at 100 KHz BW) Band width correction factor for 200 kHz = +3 dB GSM 1800 receiver tolerance = -113 dBm Diplexer attenuation from 2 GHz port to common port at 1800 MHz = -60 dB Diplexer attenuation from common port to 1800 MHz = -0. there are many other potential areas of interaction between the front ends that require analysis. we consider an example of using a diplexer in case an operator wishes to use a single broadband antenna to cover both GSM 1800 and UMTS band.5 dBm Isolation Margin = 42.2 UMTS co-siting with GSM 1800 In this section. Isolation using diplexer between UMTS and GSM 1800 BTS with common feeder. In the cases discussed below.5. third order product generation. it is assumed that common feeder cables are used where diplexers or triplexers are fitted. alternatively the diplexer can be fitted at the antenna port but then two separate cables will be required to the BTS racks. Figure 6-4 Isolation using diplexer between UMTS and GSM 1800 BTS with common feeder When considering the co-siting of FDD UMTS equipment alongside existing GSM/DCS systems.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions -98dBm +3dB -3dB -45dB -10dB -3dB -156dBm (Addition of all above) -113dBm (Threshold) no interference -155. Resulting power at GSM receiver Issue 1. In particular these interaction affects areas of receiver blocking due to co-channel (or adjacent channel interference).0 .5 dB Net resulting power at the GSM 1800 receiver = -155. Figure 3. bandwidth correction factor to 200kHz GSM channel bandwidth Antenna feeder attenuation Antenna physical decoupling Antenna frequency selective decoupling Antenna feeder attenuation Resulting power at GSM receiver GSM 900 receiver MDS (Minimum Discernible Signal) Conclusion For Dual (or Triband) antenna fitted with ith diplexer (or triplexer).4. In this situation the only isolation would be due to diplexer as shown in Figure 6-4. harmonics and spurious emission.6. Most common scenarios would be where GSM 900/1800 receiver is likely to be affected by a UMTS transmitter and vice versa. Case 1: Interference to GSM 900 receiver from UMTS transmitter Table 6-6 Co-channel interference between 890 to 915MHz from a UMTS transmitter UMTS transmitter spurious power Power measured in 100kHz.2dBm 95 .5 dB 1710 to 2170 MHz ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿþýüûúûù ÿ ÿ One feeder cable on mast per polarisation per sector. However. Attenuation 3 dB @ 2GHz.

5dBm GSM 1800 receiver MDS Conclusion For dual band antenna (with separate 1800 and UMTS elements) fitted with diplexer (or Tri band antenna fitted with triplexer for additional 900 MHz elementResulting power at GSM receiver Conclusion no interference Similar analysis can be made for adjacent channel interference and out of band spurious signals falling in the GSM 1800 MHz band. Table 6-7 Co-channel interference between 1710 to 1785 MHz from a UMTS transmitter UMTS transmitter spurious power Power measured in 100kHz. Case 2: Interference to GSM 1800 receiver from a UMTS transmitter Following calculation is based on one UMTS channel per GSM sector (cell).3dBm For dual band antenna (with separate 900 MHz and UMTS elements) fitted with diplexer (or Tri band antenna fitted with triplexer for additional 1800 MHz element) Resulting power at UMTS receiver Conclusion Issue 1.8dBm (Addition of all above) -123dBm (Threshold) Interference power ~40dB above MDS of the UMTS receiver. -82. Case 3: Interference to UMTS receiver from a GSM 900 transmitter Following calculation is based for 4 GSM channels per UMTS sector (cell).Conclusion no interference Similar analysis can be made for adjacent channel interference and out of band spurious signals falling in the GSM 900 MHz band.May 2003 No interference 96 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions . bandwidth correction factor to 200kHz GSM channel bandwidth Antenna feeder attenuation Antenna physical decoupling Antenna frequency selective decoupling Antenna feeder attenuation Resulting power at GSM receiver -98dBm +3dB -3dB -45dB -2dB -3dB -148dBm (Addition of all above) -113dBm (Threshold) no interference -155.2dB +6dB -3dB -45dB -10dB -3dB -82. bandwidth correctionfactor to 5MHz UMTS channel bandwidth Correction factor for 4 GSM channels Antenna feeder attenuation Antenna physical decoupling Antenna frequency selective decoupling Antenna feeder attenuation Resulting power at UMTS receiver UMTS receiver MDS Conclusion -30dBm +2. Table 6-8 Co channel interference between 1920 to 1980MHz from a GSM transmitter GSM 900 transmitter spurious power Power measured in 3MHz.0 .

0 .8dBm (Addition of all above) -123dBm (Threshold) Interference power ~48dB above MDS of the UMTS receiver. Note: The values for Tx spurious emission and receiver tolerances or receiver sensitivity (MDS) for different systems are taken from ETSI/3GPP document and from manufacturer specifications.L int erferring G int erferred = G int errferred .2dB +6dB -3dB -45dB -2dB -3dB -74.3dBm Interference power ~40dB above the MDS.G int erferring .G int erferred With G int erferring = G int errferring . 6.L int erferred where: effective RX _ antenna RX _ cable effective TX _ antenna TX _ cable effective effective (6. Case 4: Interference to UMTS receiver from a GSM 1800 transmitter Table 6-9 Co-channel interference between 1920 to 1980MHz GSM 1800 transmitter spurious power Power measured in 3MHz. based on ETSI standard performance.May 2003 97 . between the J4 ports of two co-located stations can be expressed as: Lisolation = Lprop ( d ) .6 Antenna Separation between two Co-located RF Stations Antenna isolation. -82.4. Lisolation (in dB).The above calculation indicates that an additional 40dB of isolation between the GSM 900 transmitter and the UMTS receiver is required. They are used here as guidelines to illustrate the concept. The above calculation indicates that an additional 48dB of isolation between the GSM 1800 transmitter and the UMTS receiver is required. bandwidth correction factor to 5MHz UMTS channel bandwidth Correction factor for 4 channels Antenna feeder attenuation Antenna physical decoupling Antenna frequency selective decoupling Antenna feeder attenuation Resulting power at UMTS receiver UMTS receiver MDS Conclusion For dual band antenna (with separate 1800 and UMTS elements) fitted with diplexer (or Tri band antenna fitted with triplexer for additional 900 MHz element) Resulting power at UMTS receiver Conclusion -30dBm +2. based on ETSI standard performance.12) Lprop = propagation loss between co-located stations (dB) = interfering station TX antenna gain (dBi) in the interfered station RX band and in the direction pointing to the interfered station TX _ antenna G int errferring RX _ antenna G int errferred = interfered station RX antenna gain (dBi) in its RX band and in the direction pointing to the interfering station TX _ cable L int erferring = interfering station’s TX antenna cable loss (dB) = interfered station’s RX antenna cable loss (dB) Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions L int erferred RX _ cable Issue 1.

LOS).20 log10( f ) effective Note that Equation (14) is useful only under the condition that the free-space propagation loss model is valid (e.4.e. However.37. G int erferring and G int erferred are known.93 ] .G int erferred where: f = frequency of interference (spurious emissions or interfering carrier) (MHz) d = antenna separation between two co-located stations (feet) effective effective (6. in reality. However.14) effective with SUM = Lisolation + G int erferring + G int erferred + 37. due to a generalized description/explanation.G int erferring . which is a relative quantity used to expressed the difference in gain between the antenna under test and an isotropic radiator.93 . The antenna gain is conventionally specified in dBi.g. more than 2) co-located RF stations. effective effective 6. diffraction and/or scattering caused by the support structures that are close to the stations.0 . if f. due to the effects caused by nearby antenna support structures as mentioned above. it is recommended that the required antenna separation shall be determined experimentally. Issue 1. Equation (12) can be expressed explicitly as: TX _ antenna RX _ antenna TX _ antenna RX _ antenna Lisolation = [ 20 log10( f ) + 20 log10( d ) . If there is line-of-sight (LOS) between the co-located stations and the free space propagation loss model can be applied. now we are ready to expand the scope of discussion to include interference among multiple (i. and G int erferring and G int erferred can be accurately estimated.7 Mutual Interference among Multiple Co-located RF Stations Having sufficient knowledge about how to deal with two co-located stations. the concepts and conclusions provided herein can be extended and applied to the cases having any number of co-located stations.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 98 .. the G int errferring and G int errferred may not be the same as that specified by the antenna manufacturer..Note that the G int errferring and G int errferred are the actual antenna TX/RX gains that take into account all the reflection. it is very difficult to generate a mathematical model to accurately predict the antenna pattern and its gain.13) Therefore. Therefore. the antenna separation d needed to achieve the isolation requirement Lisolation can be determined by the following equation: d = 10 SUM/20 effective effective (6. For illustration purposes. we only consider five co-located RF stations as shown in Figure 6-5. Therefore.

Station B. we assume that.e. The solid lines represent the mutual interference between the existing stations. To simplify the discussion. It means that the interference power received at each existing station was at its acceptable level. whereas the dashed lines indicate the mutual interference between the new station and the existing stations.e. we will briefly describe the approaches for determining a location for the new station (i. Station A.Station B (existing) Station C (existing) Station A (existing) Station D (existing) Station E (new) Figure 6-5 Mutual Interference among Five Co-located RF Stations.RX Unit Performance Specifications Allowing the new station to install in the co-located area is under the condition that all the existing stations have sufficient sensitivity margins to tolerate/accept additional interference coming from the new station without causing any undesired degradation.e. it is a cumbersome and time-consuming task to deal with the multiple stations co-location issue.1 Interference from A New Station to Existing Stations As explained in the beginning of this section.4.. Station E) in the co-location area.TX Unit Performance Specifications · All Existing Stations . for the new station. The degree of difficulty depends on the number of co-located stations considered. In this section.e.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 99 . before installing the new station. As indicated in Figure 6-5. all the existing stations were functioning normally. In order to limit the additional interference to Issue 1. Station E) at the location as specified by the dashed circle. The decision of whether to allow the new station to co-locate with the existing stations is mainly determined by two factors (i) inclusion of new station shall not degrade the RF performance of all the existing stations. 6.0 . there are four existing stations (i.. to evaluate the interference from the new station (i. and a service provider is planning to install a new station (i. Station E) to each existing station. based on the drawing given in Figure 6-5.7. we need to have the following information: · New Station . Station C and Station D) in the site area. and (ii) the levels of total interference received from all the existing stations shall meet the four criteria as set forth in Section 3... Due to difficulties in gathering the required TX/RX unit specifications for all of the existing stations.

that is the largest of antenna isolations obtained in (A) and (B). The major tasks needed to be completed during the site survey are listed below: A. Note that those antenna isolations may be different from that obtained in (A). appropriate antenna isolation between the new station and each existing station shall be maintained. in order to achieve more accurate and reasonable results. UMTS OneBTS).. 6. Those margins may be too conservative. and perform IMP3 study to evaluate the IMP3 interference before and after the new station is installed.an acceptable level.May 2003 100 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions .g.7. Perform receiver overload study based on the frequencies and strengths of carriers measured in A. C. B. the accurate and meaningful results can only be achieved through direct measurement. In the following discussion.RX Unit Performance Specifications · All Existing Stations . Due to lack of sufficient information. the total interference coming from all the existing stations shall be considered. Note that all the measurements given above shall be performed right at the location selected for the new cell site. It is a very important step in the process of setting up a new station (e. D. we assume that the new station is a UMTS OneBTS. which is either standalone or co-located with other stations. To achieve more accurate results.3 Antenna Isolation/Separation Estimations Due to difficulties in obtaining all the TX/RX unit performance specifications and accurately predicting all the antenna gains/patterns in the field.4. thereby resulting in an over-estimated antenna isolation results that are much larger than that are actually required. between the new station and each existing station shall be chosen.5 Site Survey As explained above. To ensure the interference received at the new station and all the existing stations at their acceptable levels.0 .7.. we suggest that the same type of RX/TX antenna Issue 1. Due to this reason.g. and therefore shall be performed after the location is selected and before the equipment is installed for the new station. TX/RX filter rejection factors etc. we recommend that. Site survey is an approach to fulfill the measurement. Measure the strengths of spurious emissions falling in the new station's RX band. Measure the frequencies and strengths of all the existing carriers.4.). 6.2 Interference from Existing Stations to New Station To determine the interference from all the existing stations to the new station. we usually add and/or make a lot of assumptions to include relatively large margins on the TX/RX unit performance (e.TX Unit Performance Specifications To evaluate the degradation at the new station. 6. another set of required antenna isolations between the new station and each existing station shall be maintained. The tasks need to be performed in the site survey will be briefly described. it is impossible to derive a mathematical equation to estimate the required antenna isolations/separations between the new and all the existing stations. In order to meet the criteria set forth in Section 3. the antenna isolations/separations shall be determined experimentally. we need to have the following information: · New Station . Perform receiver blocking study based on the frequencies and strengths of carriers measured in A. the safe antenna isolation. to ensure proper operation for all the co-located stations under study.

its gain. when the co-located stations are operating in different bands whose frequencies are far apart (e. and its main beam shall be pointing to the desired direction. antenna performance deteriorates very rapidly.IMP3 Interference The purpose of Task 1 is to evaluate the difference in the IMP3 interference in the co-located site before and after the new station is installed. if e 1 in e Issue 1.16) Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 101 .. To determine the IMP3 interference. antenna's gain and radiation pattern are degraded in an unpredictably way. cellular service at 850 MHz. at the same and/or adjacent bands. PCS at 1900 MHz. Note that sometimes the interference coming from the hidden station(s) may be the strongest one.. it is meaningless to use the "in-band" antenna gain/pattern information (i.5. However.). which usually occurs at frequencies much higher or lower than the operation band. the frequencies of all the IMP3 are calculated. specifications) provided by the antenna manufacturer to evaluate the "out-of-band" interference effect. The tasks of site survey outlined at the beginning of this section are the easy. we shall first measure the frequencies of all the existing carriers at the location chosen for the new station. radiation pattern and terminal impedance (so-called antenna impedance) change with frequency. Normally it is very narrow.chosen for the UMTS1900 OneBTS shall be utilized for the measurements (1) and (2) listed above. To closely simulate the real situation. and the IMP3 interference can then be evaluated.0 . which requires more attention. The out-of-band performance information is not important for normal use of an antenna. As mentioned earlier. etc. If mismatch becomes very high. the antenna shall be installed as close to the proposed antenna height as possible. and e and e n in out = n =1 an e n in (6. The general form of the nonlinear transfer function for a receiver can be expressed by an infinite power series as: ∞ e where a are coefficients. correct and straightforward approaches for evaluating interference received from the known and/or unknown stations. Within the operation band. The antenna specifications may be useful only when dealing with the co-located stations. Based on the reasons described above. when operating outside the band.g. the infinite series in Equation (15) may be approximated by the first three terms as: a a 3 in a Furthermore.e. and its terminal impedance becomes mismatched to the feeding system. respectively. the IMPs are generated due to nonlinearity of the gain transfer function. Using the frequency data obtained in the measurement. which are operating. Here we assume that the transfer function is quasi-linear which implies that the coefficient Equation (15) is much larger than the coefficients through ∞ . about 5% to 10% of its central frequency. a signal is reflected and no power can be transmitted and received by the antenna. The reason for using the exact RX/TX antenna chosen for the new UMTS1900 OneBTS in the measurements is that the antenna is a frequency sensitive device. whereas the "unknown stations" are the hidden stations whose locations are not known.May 2003 out = a ein + a e 1 2 2 in + a e 3 (6. These specifications are valid only within the bandwidth (so-called operation band) designed for the antenna. The performances of these quantities (so-called antenna specifications) are provided by the antenna manufacturer. antenna performance meets the nominal specifications. 6. is 2 in sufficiently small.15) out are the carriers at input and output of the receiver.1 Task 1 . and therefore is not included in the specifications provided for the customers. The "known stations" are the stations whose locations are explicitly known. it is obvious that.

. (2α + γ). (α . This measurement is performed by attaching a bandpass filter.β). 6. Note that more the IMP3s are generated. all the affecting IMP3s will be suppressed to the acceptable level.5. (2γ . it is a reasonable assumption that these IMP3 frequencies do not fall in any of existing station’s RX band. and tuning the scanning bandwidth to cover the entire new station's RX band. (3β). (α .γ). affecting carriers) of these damaging IMP3 products shall be identified and their strengths shall be determined. higher the chance that the co-located stations will be polluted by the MP3s.g.β). low noise amplifier and spectrum analyzer at the J4 port.α). which is the summation of all the carrier power measured.0 . Issue 1.Spurious Emissions The purpose of Task 2 is to measure the strength of total spurious emissions received from all the existing stations. Since it is very difficult to generate a mathematical model to accurately estimate the strength of IMP3 products. Detailed derivation and the nature of the IMP3s are given in literatures. setting an appropriate resolution bandwidth. Interested reader can refer to these documents for more information.2 Task 2 . (2α .The IMP3s are generated by the third term in Equation (16). hopefully that. (2β + γ). a combination of the existing carrier(s) and the new carrier(s) from the new station will generate additional IMP3s and increase the number of IMP3s in an exponentially way. (2γ .γ). The power strength of each carrier can be accurately determined by connecting the exact RX RF filter between the J4 port and spectrum analyzer. (2β + α). (2β . If the affecting carriers exist outside the RX band. thereby substantially reducing the levels of damaging IMP3s.β + γ). the causes (i. if some of IMP3 frequencies are falling in the new station’s RX band. For any three carrier frequencies (e.. the work of Task 1 is completed. α. Therefore.β . a 1 dB reduction in the carrier levels results in a 3 dB drop in IMP3 power.e. Note that the level of total spurious emissions measured shall meet the Criterion 1 provided in Section 3. all the IMP3 frequencies existing at the co-located site before the new station is installed can be determined using the measured carrier frequencies obtained in Task 1 of the site survey. we recommend that. with the RX filter. (2β .γ). shall meet the Criterion 3 set forth in Section 3.γ). If it is truth. if this situation occurs. (3γ) (2α + β).α).Receiver Overload Receiver overload is determined by the total power of all the carriers received at the receiver's input. Note that the total power. in general. 6.5. (α + β + γ). (2γ + α). a set of IMP3s will be generated and their frequencies are given below: (3α).May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 102 . (α + β . Since all the receivers have a similar transfer function as that given in Equation (16) and every three carriers will generate a set of IMP3 frequencies as listed above.3 Task 3 . If the new station in installed. (2γ + β). the IMP3 strength be determined through direct measurement. Since having been harmonically co-located. including the existing stations and new station. their strengths may be suppressed dramatically. due to extra rejection provided by the RX filter. Note that. It is an ideal situation that the new IMP3 frequencies do not fall in the RX band of any co-located station. β and γ). However. (2α .

401-380-xxx.com/rfsystems/ [4] Antenna Engineering Handbook. Also from power budget aspect to avoid extra path losses. by R. interaction of GSM and UMTS systems demonstrates that even if both systems are operating according to the ETSI/3GPP standards.6.401-380-373 http://en0033svr06.7 REFERENCES [1] Shen-De Lin. "Antenna Isolation Guidelines Between PCS CDMA Systems in C Block and Other Systems Operating in PCS Spectrum. Lucent Technologies White Paper. Therefore in some cases require additional filter at the GSM BTS output antenna feeder to attenuate out-of-band emissions and to provide further EMC between collocated UMTS and GSM BTS.uk.0. [2] Timothy Hurley. This is due to the fact that. so that the use of common feeder cables can reduce cable cost with additional benefit of less weight constraints on the support structure. Issue 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 103 . which is the summation of all the carrier power measured. diplexers/triplexers and filters it is possible to collocate the UTRAN network with the existing GSM 900/1800 networks. Finally the possibility of new antenna types for future deployment is discussed. [3] Tthe GSM-UMTS Transition . Briefly describing the use of multi-band antennas.RF Engineering Guideline (EG: GSMUTR). But care should be taken for using common feeder cable for an existing 900MHz band with UTRAN service.lucent. August 2000. [5] Intelligent Antenna Solutions.0 .4 Task 4 . at relatively large distance between the antenna mast and BTS rack the cable performance may not be similar for both the services due to large frequency separation. Note that the total power. and connecting the exact RF RX filter between the J4 port and spectrum analyzer. they could use a common feeder. The cases discussed above it seems that a UMTS receiver is most likely to be affected by GSM 1800 transmitter even when if diplexer (or triplexer) is used. When both the GSM and UMTS elements array are contained in a single radome.Receiver Blocking Receiver blocking is determined by the total power of all the carriers received at the receiver's input. it is recommended to use separate feeders for different systems. Johnson. Issue 3". 6. The power strength of each carrier can be estimated by taking into account IF and baseband RX filter rejection. for diversity combining and the configuration of antenna components such as feeder cables. shall meet the Criterion 4 provided in Section 3. C. It would help in particular if the BTS rack is located at considerable distance from the antenna mast. Hence in the above analysis. Issue 2. it is possible for spurious emissions from one system may cause interference to the other. August 25. 1998. This chapter discussed the characteristics of various antennas available for UTRAN networks and their functionality with the existing GSM networks.6 Conclusion From the above cases it can be concluded that use of diplexers and triplexers can reduce the interference power at the GSM or UMTS receiver with an added advantage of using common feeder cable.5. even though they require different electrical down-tilts. 6. UMTS Antenna Systems: RF Engineering Guideline.

1 Overview This chapter describes results obtained by investigations of inter radio access technology (RAT) handover algorithms. 15]. 7. cdma2000. GSM/GPRS. In this chapter only inter-RAT handovers form UMTS FDD to GSM are considered.g. In case where it is not possible to perform inter-RAT measurements (separate receiver chain and/or compressed mode not implemented) or if inter-RAT measurements using the compressed mode shall be avoided because of the capacity losses.GSM handover is absolutely necessary due to the limited UMTS coverage of the first upcoming UMTS networks. especially between UMTS FDD and GSM systems. The decision to perform an inter-RAT handover is usually connected with some measurements from the target system. By having only a single receiver chain.2. the power has to be increased to keep the target SIR at the desired level.2 Inter-RAT handover Algorithms Inter-RAT handovers are hard handovers to another radio access technology (RAT).7 Inter Radio Access Technology Handover 7. compressed mode should only be used when it is really needed. Three possibilities exist [19]: A. Firstly. Should be handed over to GSM.1 General aspects The UMTS FDD . If a UE needs to make an inter-RAT handover. The impact of the mobile's velocity and the UMTS/GSM network load on it are also revealed. Therefore. from NAS (non-access stratum) point of view.2. and covers both data base assisted handover (DAHO) and mobile assisted handover (MAHO) algorithms including effects caused by delayed handover execution. only UMTS islands will be available while the existing GSM networks already provide nearly full (country wide) coverage. During this time period the interference in the system will be increased which obviously has a negative impact on the system capacity [16]. 7. i. i. 7. the database assisted handover (DAHO) offers a viable alternative [17].2 Service based handover Before preparing an inter-RAT handover (DAHO or MAHO). IS-95. Because the spreading factor is being reduced in those slots where the compressed mode is being applied. the target cell is previously known via cell mapping. DAHO requires a fixed known cell mapping between the different systems and/or layers.e. the UE (user equipment) is going to perform measurements on the new system and the results are being transmitted to the network for evaluation purposes. the UE needs to make measurements in some idle periods in the downlink transmission of the dedicated channel (DCH) that are created by using the compressed mode [14. Parameter settings for certain inter-RAT handover algorithms are determined.0 . Issue 1. This kind of procedure is called mobile assisted handover (MAHO).e.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 104 . Such inter-RAT measurements are possible for a UE currently connected to a UMTS network if the UE has implemented two independent receiver chains or when the UE supports the compressed mode (CM). e. the RAB (radio access bearer) should be handed over to GSM as soon as possible although the final decision whether to perform a handover to GSM is still made in UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio access network) (case: should). it is checked if a handover from UMTS to GSM for the actual connection is allowed or not. etc.

if the parameter service based handover is set to should and GSM neighbour cells are available. It can be seen that one ore more UMTS cells (omnidirectional or sectorised) may be mapped to one GSM cell.e.e.2. The database assisted handover is described in more detail in [17. i. The decision to perform a handover is made without any measurements from the UE on the new target system. yes GSM cells? no yes should? no yes should not? no yes border cell? no inter-RAT HO allowed inter-RAT HO not allowed Figure 7-1 Flow diagram for the decision if inter-RAT handover is allowed or not 7. Should not be handed over to GSM. i.3 Database assisted handover Database assisted handover (DAHO) is a terminology given to a handover where the decision to execute the handover operation is based solely on precise knowledge of the network architecture and structure. This means that UTRAN shall not initiate handover to GSM for the UE unless the RABs with this indication have first been released with the normal release procedures (case: shall not). Moreover. Inter-RAT handover is as a matter of principle allowed in every UMTS cell. In Figure 7-1 the flow diagram for the decision if inter-RAT handover is allowed or not is depicted. the RAB should remain in UMTS as long as possible although the final decision whether to perform a handover to GSM is still made in UTRAN (case: should not). only the network has. 18]. Thus the UE has no knowledge on the target channel(s). C. Figure 7-2 shows three typical examples for valid cell mappings.B. cell or system. from NAS point of view. UMTS-GSM DAHO can be performed in the case where the geographical coverage area of the GSM cell includes the geographical coverage area of the UMTS cell. Issue 1. inter-RAT handover is allowed in UMTS cells.0 . the RAB shall never be handed over to GSM.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 105 . if the UMTS active set contains a border cell and if the parameter service based handover is set to should not as well as GSM neighbour cells exist. Shall not be handed over to GSM. The last condition takes into account the first deployment phase of UMTS in which only the UMTS coverage is the limiting factor.

7. The following parameters can be set: A.GSM handover is triggered without performing any measurements.2. 7.2.3 Reporting event 1F If a primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold (parameter absolute threshold 1F) as well as the time to trigger condition (parameter time to trigger 1F) is fulfilled.GSM handover is triggered. If GSM neighbour cells exist. the UE is instructed to perform inter-RAT Issue 1.4. 20 7. If this handover fails. the UE is ordered to measure the quantity of the primary CPICHs of the active set. range: 0…5 seconds If all primary CPICHs are below this absolute threshold.UMTS UMTS UMTS GSM GSM GSM Figure 7-2 Examples for valid cell mappings. 7.0 .3. The algorithm for handover decision shall be based on the knowledge that the UE is currently connected to a UMTS cell that has a GSM target cell configured for DAHO (e.1 Service based handover type: "should" At the call setup as well as if the active set of the UE changes (in case of soft/softer handover) the GSM neighbour cell list is updated. the measurement reporting event 1F is started. The UMTS to GSM handover procedure will try to hand over the call to the first GSM cell in the list. the UMTS . 7. the RNC will use the other cells in the list for further handover attempts.g. In this case the number of handover operations in the network will be limited as handover will only take place in the border regions. Time to trigger 1F.2.2 Service based handover type: "should not" UMTS .1 Service based handover type: "should" The UMTS . If this is the case.GSM handover is only possible if the strongest active link of the active set connects the UE to a border cell. Up to three GSM target cells can be used for DAHO.4 Mobile assisted handover The mobile assisted handover (MAHO) is described in more detail in [18. The handover can only performed after an active set update (not immediately after the call setup). Nevertheless it would also be possible to use this feature in non-border cells.2.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 106 .3. Thus. range: -24…0 dB B. a measurement report is created.3. in border cells of the UMTS network). Absolute threshold 1F.2.

the UE is instructed to perform inter-RAT measurements.measurements. the inter-RAT measurements are immediately stopped.2 Service based handover type: "should not" If the mobile leaves a UMTS island. Measurement quantity GSM threshold 3C Time to trigger 3C RXLEV GSM cell Reporting event 3C Time Figure 7-3 Event triggered report 3C 7. before the connection breaks off. If the connection to a target GSM cell could not be established. If the UE does not succeed to establish the connection to the other radio access system. the inter-RAT measurements are immediately stopped. To trigger the inter-RAT handover the reporting event 3A is employed. range: -115…0 dBm. Upon successful completing the handover.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 107 . Measurements of the BCCH reception level of the GSM neighbour cells and measurements of the CPICH Ec/N0 of the UMTS active set are collected and filtered (parameter filter factor). GSM threshold 3C.4. The estimated quality of the active set in UTRAN is defined as [21]: Issue 1. Thus. a measurement report is created (see Figure 7-3). if possible. To trigger the inter-RAT handover the reporting event 3C is employed. range: 0…5 seconds This measurement report contains a list of the possible target GSM cells sorted in terms of receipt level.0 . Time to trigger 3C. Reporting Event 3A: If the estimated quality (CPICH Ec/N0) of the currently used UTRAN carrier is below a certain threshold (parameter utran threshold) and the estimated receipt level of the GSM cell is above a certain threshold (parameter gsm threshold 3A) as well as the time to trigger condition (parameter time to trigger 3A) is fulfilled. the first cell is the best cell. B. the UE should be handed over to GSM. If the active set contains a border cell and GSM neighbour cells are available. If GSM neighbour cells are no longer available. a measurement report is created (see Figure 7-4). Reporting Event 3C: If the estimated receipt level of a GSM cell is above a certain value (parameter gsm threshold 3C) as well as the time to trigger condition (parameter time to trigger 3C) is fulfilled. the UE will resume the connection to the UMTS cell. the next target cell is tried.2. If the active set no longer contains a border cell or no GSM neighbour cells are available anymore. the links to the UMTS cells are released. which is used as target for the inter-RAT handover. The following parameters can be set: A. As a UE in compressed mode consumes more resources. Measurements of the BCCH reception level of the GSM neighbour cells are collected and filtered (parameter filter factor). this mode is only used in UMTS border cells.

e. the duration of the RSSI (received signal strength indicator) measurements will take 480 ms.1) where quality means Ec/N0. Furthermore. the UE will resume the connection to the UMTS cell.5 seconds was assumed for the measurements (3 BSIC verifications and an extra 500 ms delay for different RSSI measurements).5 Timing assumptions For all the inter-RAT measurements. Thus. Measurement quantity GSM threshold 3A UTRAN quality RXLEV GSM cell Time to trigger 3A UTRAN threshold Reporting event 3A Time Figure 7-4 Event triggered report 3A If W (parameter weight) is set to zero.2. range: -115…0 dB Time to trigger 3A. The variables in the formula are defined as follows: QUTRAN is the estimated quality of the active set on the currently used UTRAN frequency. range: 0…5 seconds Weight. In [16] a typical delay of 5. the next target cell is tried. (7. MUTRAN is the estimated quality of the active set on the currently used UTRAN frequency expressed in another unit (linear). which is used as target for the inter-RAT handover.0 . range: -115…0 dBm UTRAN threshold. range: 0…1 The measurement report contains a list of the possible target GSM cells sorted in terms of reception level. If the connection to a target GSM cell could not be established.53 seconds by using compressed mode pattern 1 and about 1. i. NA is the number of cells in the active set. Issue 1. W is a weight parameter. the first cell is the best cell. The following parameters can be set: A. Upon successful completing the handover. 7.76 seconds by using pattern 5. the links to the UMTS cells are released. Otherwise.QUTRAN = 10 ⋅ Log M UTRAN = W ⋅10 ⋅ Log NA i =1 M i + (1 − W ) ⋅ 10 ⋅ Log M Best . MBest is the measurement result of the strongest cell in the active set. D. only the quality of the best cell is considered. 22]. If the UE does not succeed to establish the connection to the other radio access system. This procedure will take some time as it is reported in [16. B. Mi is a measurement result of cell i in the active set. measurements of the GSM system. which are performed for the purpose of inter-RAT handover it is recommended to use BSIC (base station identification code) verification. GSM threshold 3A. The BSIC verification of a single GSM cell requires about 1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 108 . the quality of the other links (in soft/softer handover) can be taken into consideration too. C.

using parameters in Table 71. In Figure 7-5 the UMTS island as well as the border cells.64 seconds compressed mode loss = 1 dB filter factor = 0. MAHO CM) are depicted. which can be configured by the parameter interRAT execution delay. the inter-RAT handover can be triggered in all cells.64 seconds The border cells are marked according to Figure 7-5 compressed mode loss = 0 dB The other parameters are the same as above. This is possible since all cells have the same cell radius.64 seconds compressed mode loss = 1 dB filter factor = 0. Issue 1. after the measurement report is received by the RNC (radio network controller). The border cells are marked according to Figure 7-5 filter factor = 0.Moreover. GSM target cells are mapped according to the description above. not only in border cells (exception in comparison to Figure 7-1). which are used for the service based handover type “should not” (DAHO.0 . 7. the interRAT handover is executed with a constant delay.1 utran threshold = -7 dB gsm threshold 3A = -80 dBm weight = 0 time to trigger 3A = 0. The 2 adjoining GSM cells in opposite to the first target cell are chosen as additional GSM target cells. But here. Table 7-1 Simulation Parameters Inter-RAT algorithm DAHO “should” Used parameters DAHO “should not” MAHO CM “should” MAHO CM “should not” MAHO “should not” The first GSM target cell is mapped to the GSM cell which lies directly under the corresponding UMTS cell.1 absolute threshold 1F = -7 dB time to trigger 1F = 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 109 .1 gsm threshold 3C = -80 dBm time to trigger 3C = 0.3 Parameter Settings for Inter-RAT In this section all inter-RAT handover parameter settings are investigated.

the GSM blocking probability rises if this threshold value is increased.3.border cell border cell border cell border cell border cell border cell border cell border cell border cell Figure 7-5 UMTS island and border cells 7. utilize the settings in Table 7-1.1 Parameter settings for the DAHO "should not" algorithm In the following sections the influence of the parameters absolute threshold 1F and time to trigger 1F on the outage probability (dropped/blocked calls) and finally on the overall carried traffic of the whole scenario is investigated. 7.3. The UMTS dropping probability rises if this threshold value is decreased. Issue 1.1 The influence of absolute threshold 1F In Figure 7-6. the outage probability in terms of GSM blocking probability and UMTS dropping probability as well as the overall carried traffic is depicted assuming a high GSM network load and a velocity of 30 km/h. But. The parameters. which are not varied.1.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 110 . It can be concluded that by using threshold values in the interval -5 … -8 dB the highest overall carried traffic can be reached.0 . By looking at the overall carried traffic this trade off can be observed too.

Threshold values in the interval -5 … -6 dB provide the highest overall carried traffic.00% -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 Absolute threshold 1F [dB] Figure 7-7 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and carried traffic as a function of the parameter absolute threshold 1F.60% 99.1.60% 0.80% dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100.60% 99.00% Figure 7-6 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and carried traffic as a function of the parameter absolute threshold 1F.40% 0.40% Outage probability 1. The trade off is preserved.80% 0.00% 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 Absolute threshold 1F [dB] 99.40% 0.80% 99. velocity = 30 km/h In Figure 7-7 the same investigations were done for a velocity of 90 km/h.60% Carried traffic Carried traffic 0.00% 99.40% 0. 7.2 The influence of time to trigger 1F In Figure 7-8 the influence of the parameter time to trigger 1F on the GSM blocking probability and the UMTS dropping probability as well as the overall carried traffic is shown. Issue 1. In contrast. but the UMTS dropping probability increases.28 seconds.20% 1. The results indicate that the UMTS dropping probability significantly rises for time to trigger values greater than 1. but the maximum carried traffic becomes slightly lower and the curve is more flat.80% 99.blocked GSM 1.3. It can be observed that the GSM blocking probability decreases.00% 99.20% 99. high GSM load. the UMTS dropping probability rises since the mobiles cover a larger distance from the serving UMTS island and may be dropped.May 2003 111 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions .20% 0.20% 99. high GSM load.00% 0. which helps to balance the traffic load between the cells.00% 0 -1 -2 -3 dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100. It seems to be that the maximum of the overall carried traffic is slightly shifted to the left. velocity = 90 km/h The reason for the first observation is that the blocking probability of the GSM network is reduced due to the mobility of the subscribers.20% 1.40% 99.20% 0.60% 1.00% Outage probability 0.0 . blocked GSM 1.

The GSM blocking probability is not effected by this parameter.00% 99.12 0.3.28 2.00% dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100.0 .2 Investigation of parameter settings for the MAHO CM "should not" algorithm In the following sections the influence of the parameters utran threshold.40% 99.56 5 Time to trigger 1F [s] Figure 7-9 Number of inter-RAT handovers as a function of the parameter time to trigger 1F In order to reduce the signalling traffic the time to trigger value may be set to the upper bound of the given range above.12 … 1.28 seems to be a good choice. Issue 1.00% 0 0.20% Carried traffic 0. 2200 2000 1800 #inter-RAT HO 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 112 .blocked GSM 3.64 1.64 1.50% 1.00% Outage probability 2.24 0.50% 0. weight and time to trigger 3A on the GSM blocking probability and the UMTS dropping probability and finally on the overall carried traffic of the whole network scenario is investigated.50% 2.00% 1. high GSM load The overall carried traffic in Figure 7-8 indicates that a duration in the range 0.12 0. The parameters which are not varied keep the settings in Table 6 (section MAHO CM "should not"). 7.00% Figure 7-8 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and carried traffic as a function of the parameter time to trigger 1F. The results in Figure 7-9 indicate that the number of inter-RAT handover decreases with higher time to trigger values.24 0.28 2.60% 99.50% 3.56 5 Time to trigger 1F [s] 99.80% 99.

7.3.2.1 The influence of UTRAN threshold
In Figure 7-10 the UMTS dropping probability as well as the GSM blocking probability as a function of the parameter utran threshold (measurement event 3A) are depicted assuming a high GSM network load and a velocity of 30 km/h. The measurement quality is here Ec/N0 and is measured in dB.
blocked GSM 6,00% 5,00% Outage probability 99,50% Carried traffic 4,00% 3,00% 2,00% 98,50% 1,00% 0,00% 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 Utran threshold in dB 98,00% 99,00% dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100,00%

Figure 7-10 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter UTRAN threshold, high GSM load, velocity = 30 km/h

It can be observed that the UMTS dropping probability rises as the threshold decreases. The reason is as follows: An inter-RAT handover can only be triggered if the actual Ec/N0 of the UE drops below the threshold utran threshold. Thus, for low threshold values the UE is allowed to move far away from the UMTS island before an inter-RAT handover can be triggered. Therefore, it is more likely that the UE/NodeB reaches its power limit and thus the call may be dropped. For threshold values in the range of -6 … 0 dB a large number of inter-RAT handovers takes place which causes that the GSM load further rises. Thus, new GSM calls will be blocked since no free traffic channels are available anymore. The number of blocked calls is higher for larger threshold values due to the higher number of inter-RAT handovers to the GSM network. Finally, there seems to be an optimum threshold value for this special simulation scenario when considering the overall carried traffic of the whole network which is shown in Figure 78 . By using the parameter setting utran threshold = -8 …-7 dB, an overall carried traffic of 99.95% can be reached.

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blocked GSM 25,00%

dropped UMTS

Carried traffic 100,00%

20,00% Outage probability

99,00% Carried traffic

15,00%

98,00%

10,00%

97,00%

5,00%

96,00%

0,00% 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 Utran threshold in dB

95,00%

Figure 7-11 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter utran threshold, high GSM load, velocity = 90 km/h

In Figure 7-11, the same investigations were done for a higher velocity, i.e. 90 km/h. As in section 8.3.3.1 was already observed, the GSM blocking probability decreases, but the UMTS dropping probability significantly increases. The reason for the first observation is that the blocking probability of the GSM network is reduced due to the mobility of the subscribers, which helps to balance the traffic load between the cells. In contrast, the UMTS dropping probability rises since the mobiles cover a larger distance from the serving UMTS island and may be dropped. The maximum overall carried traffic becomes slightly lower, approximately 99.91%. The highest overall carried traffic is reached for the parameter setting utran threshold = -4 …-6 dB. Thus, it can be confirmed that for higher mobile's velocities the utran threshold can be set to larger values. Finally, it is recommended that the utran threshold should be set to lower values of the given range since the number of inter-RAT handovers is here lower leading to a reduced signalling traffic. In the following the influence of the load of the UMTS island on the parameter setting utran threshold is investigated. In Figures 7-12&13 the results are depicted for an increased UMTS load of 50% and 100% assuming a velocity of 30 km/h, respectively. In comparison to Figure 7-11 (basic UMTS load) the GSM blocking probability significantly increases for an utran threshold in the interval -8…0 dB with higher UMTS load. The reason is that a large number of subscribers will be directed to the GSM network causing a significantly increased GSM load. Additionally, the UMTS dropping probability increases for an utran threshold in the interval -15…-8 dB when the UMTS load is increased up to 50%. If the UMTS load further rises (see Figure 81), the admission control algorithm becomes active and blocks incoming UMTS calls.

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blocked GSM

dropped UMTS

blocked UMTS

Carried traffic

7,00% 6,00% Outage probability 5,00% 4,00%

100,00% 99,50% 99,00% 98,50% Carried traffic Carried traffic

3,00% 2,00% 1,00% 0,00% 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 Utran threshold in dB 98,00% 97,50% 97,00%

Figure 7-12 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter utran threshold, high GSM load, 50% increased UMTS load, velocity = 30 km/h
blocked GSM dropped UMTS blocked UMTS Carried traffic

10,00% 9,00% 8,00% Outage probability 7,00% 6,00% 5,00% 4,00% 3,00% 2,00% 1,00% 0,00% 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 Utran threshold in dB

100,00% 99,00% 98,00% 97,00% 96,00% 95,00% 94,00%

Figure 7-13 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter utran threshold, high GSM load, 100% increased UMTS load, velocity = 30 km/h

The optimum parameter setting for the utran threshold is in the interval of -9…-7 dB for both the 50% increased UMTS load and the 100% increased UMTS load. The results indicate that the optimum threshold is slightly shifted to lower values for an increased UMTS load by assuming a high GSM load too. But, it can be concluded that the optimum threshold setting is relatively independent on the UMTS load and can be set to more or less -7 dB.

7.3.2.2 The influence of time to trigger 3A
For these investigations a high loaded GSM network and a velocity of 30 km/h were assumed. In Figure 7-14 the UMTS dropping probability as well as the GSM blocking probability are depicted as a function of the parameter time to trigger 3A. This parameter is used for triggering the inter-RAT handover. If both the estimated UTRAN quality is below a certain threshold and the estimated receipt level of the GSM cell is above a certain threshold for the duration of the parameter time to trigger 3A then a handover can be initiated. As can be observed from Figure 7-14 this duration should not be taken Issue 1.0 - May 2003 115 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions

40% 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 116 .50% Carried traffic 99. The overall carried traffic in Figure 7-14 indicates that a duration in the range 0.55% 99.60% 1. 2800 2600 2400 #inter-RAT HO 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 0 0.56 5 Time to trigger 3A [s] dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100. It can be observed that the carried traffic monotonic decreases with higher time to trigger values whereby the degree is much stronger as in case of the lower velocity.12…0.60% 0.90% 99. 90 km/h.20% 1.00% 1.64 1. high GSM load.24 0.64 1. i.00% 0.56 5 Time to trigger 3A [s] Figure 7-15 Number of inter-RAT handovers as a function of the parameter time to trigger 3A. velocity = 30 km/h In Figure 7-16 the same investigations are done for a higher velocity. According to Figure 84 the parameter setting for time to trigger 3A should be in the range 0.12 0.24 0.95% 99.70% 99.60% 99.64 seconds at the expense of an increased number of interRAT handovers.00% 0 0. In order to reduce the signalling traffic the time to trigger value may be set to the upper bound of the given range above.e. the results in Figure 83 indicate that the number of inter-RAT handover decreases with higher time to trigger values.40% 1.80% Outage probability 1.12 … 1.75% 99. if the inter-RAT handover execution is further delayed with a higher time to trigger setting. The GSM blocking probability is not much affected by this parameter. Therefore.28 seems to be a good choice.00% 99.too long because the dropping probability begins to rise in this case.0 .12 0. the probability rises that the call will be dropped.80% 99. velocity = 30 km/h Additionally.80% 0.28 2. This effect is caused by the fact that the mobile station is able to cover a larger distance from the UMTS island when it moves with a higher velocity.20% 0.65% 99.28 2. Issue 1.85% Figure 7-14 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter time to trigger 3A. blocked GSM 2.

00% 0 0.56 5 Time to trigger 3A [s] Figure 7-16 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter time to trigger 3A.00% Outage probability 8.2 and equation (7.28 2. Issue 1.00% 98. velocity = 90 km/h 7.64 1.1)).9) of this parameter can be used when assuming the chosen load conditions.2 can be observed since there is a trade off between GSM blocking and UMTS dropping probability.60% 98. a maximum at a weight factor of 0. In this case the number of inter-RAT handovers decreases as can be observed in Figure 7-18.12 0. This parameter is used to take into consideration the quality of the other links in the UMTS active set (in soft/softer handover) for the estimation of the UTRAN quality (see section 8.80% 99.40% 98.2.20% 98. From the overall carried traffic point of view in Figure 7-17 it can be concluded that a wide range (0 … 0. Thus.1)).2. In Figure 7-17 the UMTS dropping probability as well as the GSM blocking probability are depicted as a function of the parameter weight.20% 99. for the assumed parameters and load conditions the impact can be neglected.00% 0. Moreover. the GSM blocking probability slightly decreases with higher weight.00% 6.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 117 . the probability for a call dropping rises.3 The influence of weight For these investigations a high loaded GSM network and a velocity of 30 km/h were assumed.1.0 . the parameter can be used to decrease the number of inter-RAT handovers and thus reducing the signalling load while the overall performance of the network is almost maintained. But. Because the UTRAN quality is estimated better with increasing weight (see (7.00% Carried traffic 99. high GSM load. Finally.00% 2. It can be observed that the UMTS dropping probability rises as the weight increases.80% 98.00% 99.24 dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100.00% 10.blocked GSM 12. At most.40% 0.3.00% 4.60% 99. the inter-RAT handover will be triggered later.

high GSM load.80% 99.6 0.5 Weight 0. the probability that the UE/NodeB reaches its power limit and that the call is dropped rises.9 1 99.3 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 118 .5 Weight 0. velocity = 30 km/h 7.6 0.00% 99. Issue 1.05% 0.0 .7 0.3.1 0.4 0.7 0. velocity = 30 km/h 2200 2100 2000 #inter-RAT HO 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 0 0.9 Figure 7-18 Number of inter-RAT handovers as a function of the parameter weight.2 0.30% 0.20% 0.90% Carried traffic 1 Figure 7-17 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter weight.2.15% 0.4 0.85% 0.10% 99. Thus.00% 0 0.2 0.8 0. If the velocity rises the dropping probability increases too.1 0.8 0.4 The influence of the UE's velocity In Figure 7-19 the influence of the velocity on the UMTS dropping probability for several parameter settings of utran threshold is shown. Since the inter-RAT handover execution delay is constant the UE may cover a larger distance from the serving UMTS island within this duration when it moves with a higher velocity.95% 0.25% Outage probability dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100.3 0.blocked GSM 0.

high GSM load 7. It can be observed that for low velocities (< 30 km/h) the highest throughput can be reached with a utran threshold of -8 dB.00% 3 10 30 Utran threshold = -7 dB Utran threshold = -9 dB UMTS dropping probability 50 70 90 Velocity [kmph] Figure 7-19 UMTS dropping probability as a function of the velocity for different parameters utran threshold.00% 0. this effect has not such a strong influence on the carried traffic for the assumed network load conditions and parameter settings. high GSM load For lower values of the parameter utran threshold the dropping probability rises faster than for higher parameter settings.00% 1. the differences are lower when using higher utran thresholds.30% 3 10 30 50 70 90 Velocity [kmph] Utran threshold = -7 dB Utran threshold = -9 dB Figure 7-20 Overall carried traffic as a function of the velocity for different parameters utran threshold.00% 2.5 The influence of the inter-RAT handover execution delay In Figure 7-21 the overall carried traffic of the whole scenario as a function of the inter-RAT handover execution delay is depicted.2. It can be observed that the carried traffic is slightly decreased as the handover execution delay rises. The reason is the increased UMTS dropping probability.00% 3.00% UMTS dropping probability 99.Utran threshold = -6 dB Utran threshold = -8 dB 5.70% 99.50% 2. The reason is that in this case the UE may cover a larger distance from the serving UMTS island than in case of a higher utran threshold.50% 0. Issue 1.40% 99.50% 3.50% 4.50% 99. Moreover.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 119 .g. Utran threshold = -6 dB Utran threshold = -8 dB 100. For higher velocities the utran threshold should be set to higher values. Figure 7-20 the overall carried traffic of the whole network is shown.00% 4. When the velocity rises this effect will become stronger. However.60% 99.3.0 .50% 1. utran threshold = -6 dB. e.90% 99.80% 99.

6 0.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 120 .00% 99. Thus.00% 1. high GSM load.94% 99.00% 97.00% 95. As expected. Furthermore. high GSM load. velocity = 30 km/h Since the power consumption (and thus the interference) rises with increased compressed mode loss the number of inter-RAT handovers rises too (see Figure 7-23).5 1 1.98% Carried traffic 99.90% 0. 100% increased UMTS load.00% 96.8 Inter-RAT HO execution delay [s] Figure 7-21 Overall carried traffic as a function of the inter-RAT handover execution delay. blocked GSM forced dropped UMTS 2.08 1. velocity = 30 km/h 7.2.00% Carried traffic Figure 7-22 Outage probability (GSM blocking/UMTS dropping/UMTS forced dropping) and overall carried traffic as a function of the parameter compressed mode loss.56 1.3.00% 0 0.50% 0. the overall carried traffic decreases with higher values of the parameter compressed mode loss.0 .84 1.6 The influence of the compressed mode In Figure 7-22.50% 1. the GSM blocking probability increases. the UMTS dropping probability and the forced dropping (due to congestion control) increases due to the deterioration of the UMTS link quality leading to a higher power consumption.100.50% Outage probability 2. Issue 1.00% 0.00% 98. the influence of the parameter compressed mode loss on the outage probability and the overall carried traffic are depicted.32 1.96% 99.5 2 Compressed mode loss [dB] dropped UMTS Carried traffic 100.00% 99.92% 99.

The current version of the DAHO "should not" algorithm can be tuned mainly by the parameter absolute threshold 1F. This suffers from a large number of rejected handover tries.12…1. Thus. especially in high loaded GSM networks.28 seconds.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 121 . By help of this parameter the trade off between the dropping of UMTS calls and the blocking of GSM calls can be adjusted. The DAHO/MAHO CM "should not" algorithms offer the highest overall carried traffic of the whole network (both GSM and UMTS) when appropriate parameter settings are used (assuming a velocity of 30 km/h). It was found out that the threshold settings in the range of 4…-8 dB provide the best results in terms of the overall carried traffic.0 .4 Conclusions This chapter has described results obtained by investigations of inter-RAT handover algorithms and covers both data base assisted handover (DAHO) and mobile assisted handover (MAHO) algorithms. The current version of the MAHO CM "should not" algorithm can be tuned mainly by the parameter utran threshold. The time to trigger 3A parameter should be set in the range of 0. firstly it is recommend to set this parameter to 02. It is recommended that the Issue 1. It was found out that the threshold settings in the range of -5…9 dB provide the best results in terms of the overall carried traffic. It is recommended that the threshold should be set to lower values of the given range since the number of inter-RAT handovers is here lower leading to a reduced signalling traffic. Parameter settings for the inter-RAT handover types DAHO/MAHO CM "should not" were determined. When performing the DAHO "should" algorithm it is disadvantageous to have only a single GSM target cell. Moreover. The following conclusions can be drawn: The inter-RAT handover algorithms DAHO/MAHO CM "should" generate a large number of unnecessary inter-RAT handovers. However. velocity = 30 km/h 7. When more target cells are available a further target cell can be tried by the handover algorithm reducing the number of rejected handover tries. It is better to use time to trigger values at the upper bound since the number of inter-RAT handovers is lower here. in high loaded GSM networks this leads to blocking of GSM users.5 1 1.5 2 Compressed mode loss [dB] Figure 7-23 Number of inter-RAT handovers as a function of the parameter compressed mode loss.7500 7300 7100 #inter-RAT HO 6900 6700 6500 6300 6100 5900 5700 5500 0 0. By help of this parameter the trade off between the dropping of UMTS calls and the blocking of GSM calls can be adjusted. it is possible to reduce the number of inter-RAT handovers by help of an increase of the parameter weight tolerating a slightly increased dropping probability.

and impact to system performance" (Release 1999) [6] Urs Bernhard.de. -9 dB). Considering the DAHO/MAHO CM "should not" algorithms.lucent. It is better to use time to trigger values at the upper bound (reasons see above). -6 dB).7. -8.133 V3.28 seconds. January 2002. Version 0.7 [3] 3GPP TS 25. Version 00. The time to trigger 1F parameter should be set in the range of 0.6.threshold should be set to lower values of the given range (reasons see above).5 Reference [1] STEAM-Tool: http://steam.0 (2001-06) "RRC Protocol Specification" (Release 1999) [11] 3GPP TS 25. especially if the threshold values (utran threshold. November 2001.com/ [2] Enrico Jugl: "STEAM User Manual".6. absolute threshold 1F) are set lower than -7 dB because the UMTS dropping probability rises.g.0 . 7.331 V3. It can be concluded that with higher velocities the utran threshold or absolute threshold 1F should be set to larger values (e.41 [10] 3GPP TS 25. The usage of the compressed mode to obtain the required measurements leads to a decrease of the overall carried traffic of the system. Document Number 110.May 2003 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions 122 .6. Version 0. the overall carried traffic increases with higher velocity for threshold values greater than -7 dB because the GSM blocking probability decreases. Moreover.g.212 V3. In contrast.0 (2001-06) "Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD)" (Release 1999) [4] NFD-RRM-13 [5] 3GPP TSG RAN WG4 R4-010575 "Inter-system and FDD inter-frequency measurements with compressed mode. If the UMTS load is expected to be high and the GSM load too.12…1.GSM Handover Algorithm".2 [7] FDD-2356b [8] 3GPP TS 25. it is recommended to use lower values for the parameters utran threshold and absolute threshold 1F (e.0 (2001-06) "Requirements for Support of Radio Resource Management (FDD)" (Release 1999) Issue 1.0 (2001-06) "UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signalling" (Release 1999) [9] Enrico Jugl. Urs Bernhard: "UMTS FDD . Georg von Harten: "Database Assisted Handover (DAHO)". it is recommended to set the time to trigger values to a shorter duration when the mobiles move with high velocity. a higher velocity of the mobiles negatively effects the system performance in such a way that the overall carried traffic decreases.413 V3.

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