You are on page 1of 27

12/10/2013

US History Fall 2013 Semester Final


This final exam will have 65 multiple choice questions from Units 1-4.

Unit 1: Gilded Age


16 multiple choice questions on the final will be from Unit 1.

12/10/2013

The Transcontinental Railroad


The Transcontinental Railroad was completed during the Gilded Age in the 1860s and connected the east and west coast of the United States. One effect of the Transcontinental Railroad was that the cattle industry boomed and increased business and profits for ranchers. The effects of the railroad were: travel rime reduced, western migration was encouraged, the Open Range of the west was closed and Native Americans were forced off their land.

The Transcontinental Railroad


Many cities became important transportation centers because of the railroad system. Railroads encouraged the growth of cities, the settlement of the Western U.S. and the creation of a national market for trading and selling goods.

12/10/2013

Western Expansion
Settlers were moving westward in the mid-1800s because: 1. Cheap and/or free land 2. Affordable and quick transportation on the Transcontinental Railroad 3. The promise of great riches through the Gold Rush

Western Expansion
The Homestead Act gave settlers 160 acres of free land, as long as they committed to living and working on the land for 5 years. The Homestead Act encouraged western expansion.

12/10/2013

Western Expansion
This photograph shows how farmers on the Great Plains adapted to their environment by using materials found in nature to build their homes.

The Dawes Act


Dawes Act: gave the President the power to take control of Indian tribal land divide it into sections for individual Indian tribes. United States policy towards Native Americans changed dramatically with the passage of the Dawes Act because it wiped out 2/3 of Native Americans land in the western U.S.

12/10/2013

Urbanization
Urbanization: the growth of urban areas (cities) During the Gilded Age, many people lived in cities because thats where they could find jobs. However, cities became very crowded. A negative effect of urbanization were tenement apartments. There were too many people living in one, small apartment and it was very unsafe and unhealthy.

Urbanization
This magazine cover illustrates that during the Gilded Age (19th century), the U.S. began to change from a rural society (farms) to a urban society (cities).

12/10/2013

Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneur: a person who creates their own business or industry Andrew Carnegie was a famous entrepreneur of the Gilded Age. He made his riches in the steel business. Carnegie gave millions of dollars to charities. This is called philanthropy. There was a social issue that people worried about during the Gilded Age with big business leaders and their employees:
Was it right for business owners to pay low wages to their workers and also give millions to philanthropy?

Political Machines
Political machines were popular in big cities during the Gilded Age. Political machine: a group of people, led by a boss, who engage in illegal activities like bribery and voting fraud in order to control a certain city or area of a city The bosses of political machines often accepted bribes in return for certain favors.

12/10/2013

Immigration
Immigration during the Gilded Age led to a change in demographic patterns in the U.S. in the late 1800s. Demographic pattern: the statistics of a certain population (age, gender, job, where they live, etc.) Factory jobs in major east coast cities led to the growth of ethnic neighborhoods where many immigrants settled.
Italians in New York City Irish in Boston

New Gilded Age Laws


Interstate Commerce Act: regulated the railroad industry by requiring states to charge fair prices for railroad shipping Sherman Antitrust Act: outlawed monopolies The Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were efforts by the federal government to regulate aspects of big business

12/10/2013

Industrialization
Industrialization: the growth of industry (businesses and factories) A major effect of industrialization was that unskilled machine operators quickly replaced skilled craftsmen and artisans.

Unit 2: Progressive Era & Imperialism


15 multiple choice questions on the final will be from Unit 2.

12/10/2013

Populist Party
Populists were a group of farmers that formed a political party in order to try to get the government to listen to the needs of farmers. The Populist Party platform included: national income tax, free and unlimited coinage of silver and the direct election of US Senators.

Muckrakers
During the early 1900s, the term "muckrakers" was used to describe writers who exposed the evils in American society. Upton Sinclair was a famous muckraker who wrote the book The Jungle, which was an undercover story about the nasty conditions in meat packing plants. The Jungle was very important because it led to the members of Congress establishing a system for meat packing inspection.

12/10/2013

17th Amendment
The 17th Amendment says that senators will be elected directly the peoples vote, NOT by state legislatures. The goal of the 17th Amendment, was to make the Senate more responsive to the people.

Progressive Era Leaders


Jane Addams built settlement houses in Chicago to try to help immigrants transition to America. The settlement houses provided services like English lessons and childcare. Ida B. Wells was an African American who spoke out against lynching. Lynching is murder by hanging. Lynching was happening in southern states for no reason, so Ida B. Wells spoke out about it. Ida B. Wells wrote, In slave times, the Negro was kept subservient and submissive by the frequency and severity of the scourging [whipping], but with freedom, a new system of intimidation came into vogue; the Negro was it only scourged; he was lynched."

10

12/10/2013

Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War was Cuba & U.S. vs. Spain. The U.S. was helping Cuba fight for their independence from Spain. Yellow journalism: exaggerating details in news stories to get peoples attention and sell more newspaper copies
A cause of the Spanish-American War was yellow journalism. The USS Maine exploded in a harbor outside of Cuba and newspapers blamed it on Spain. This brought the U.S. into the war.

Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War marked a turning point in American foreign policy because the United States emerged as a new world power.

11

12/10/2013

Imperialism
Dollar Diplomacy: President Tafts idea to further American interests in Latin America by using the financial power of American business. Open Door Policy: All countries now had equal trading rights with China.
The main reason for establishing Open Door Policy was to protect U.S. trade in China.

Panama Canal
An important effect of the 1898 event illustrated by this map is that there was now increased public support for the construction of a canal to be built through Central America.

12

12/10/2013

Panama Canal
The cartoon shows the actions of President Roosevelt securing an area for building a canal. Imperialists like Alfred Thayer Mahan and Theodore Roosevelt believed it was important for the United States to build a canal through Panama because the canal would provide a shorter route between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

Federal Reserve System


President Wilson introduced the Federal Reserve System in order to guarantee an adequate money supply in the national economy.

13

12/10/2013

Initiative, referendum and recall


During the Progressive Era, many state and local governments adopted the initiative, referendum and recall. Together these procedures gave citizens a more direct voice in government .

Unit 3: World War I and 1920s


19 multiple choice questions on the final will be from Unit 3.

14

12/10/2013

World War I: US Entry


The U.S. entered World War I in 1917, 3 years after the war started. The U.S. entered the war because Germany was using unrestricted submarine warfare. The newspaper notice to the left was published shortly before the British ship Lusitania was sunk off the coast of Ireland. More than 100 Americans died on the Lusitania, and this brought the U.S. into WWI.
NOTICE! Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters next to the British Isles; that, in accordance with this notice by the Imperial German government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. Imperial German Embassy Washington, D.C., April 22, 1915.

World War I: Battles


A weary, exhausted, nerve-racked group of men in Sommerance, France, began to dig in for the night. The artillery was firing furiously, but the enemys firing stopped suddenly and now only occasional shells would explode. The weather was gloomy and the air chilled one to the bones. Yet, it was with great care that we prepared our foxholes, carrying boards and iron sheets from abandoned machinegunners dugouts to make our houses as comfortable as possible, even if only for one night. -William L. Langer, Gas and Flame in World War I

A new aspect of combat that was introduced during World War I and that is described in this passage is trench warfare. The two enemy sides dug deep trenches about mile away from each other. In between the trenches was called no mans land and it was filled with mines, barbed wires and muddy terrain.

15

12/10/2013

World War I: Battles


The major World War I-related events in the correct chronological (time) order: 1. Archduke of Austria-Hungary assassinated 2. World War I begins 3. Lusitania sunk 4. United States declares war on Germany

World War I: President Wilson


Woodrow Wilson was the President of the US during World War I. In 1918, President Wilson gave a speech to Congress called the Fourteen Points. The major purpose of President Wilsons Fourteen Points (1918) was to set goals for achieving peace after World War I.

16

12/10/2013

World War I: President Wilson


10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, Whose placement among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to self-determination -Woodrow Wilson, The Fourteen Points, 1918

This was point 10 in President Wilsons Fourteen Points. The impact this demand in Wilsons Fourteen Points had on the peace treaties that were concluded (signed) at the end of World War I was that several new national states (countries) were created.

World War I: Ending


World War I ended in 1918. Germany and Austria-Hungary LOST and the U.S., England and France WON. The Treaty of Versailles was the agreement countries signed to end World War I. The chart below includes the punishments that were written into the Treaty of Versailles. The U.S. never signed the Treaty of Versailles.

Germany had to accept blame for causing the war in Europe.

Germany was required Germany had to to pay war reparations disarm and reduce its to European nations. military forces and give up its colonies.

17

12/10/2013

World War I: Ending


Data from this graph supports the conclusion that World War I was a significant benefit to the American economy.

World War I: Ending


Warren Harding was the President after Woodrow Wilson left office. He took over the Presidency after World War I. President Harding mean introduced the phrase "return to normalcy" after World War I. This meant that he wanted the U.S. to go back to a peacetime economy.

18

12/10/2013

1920s: Post-WWI
I will build a motor car for the great multitude. It will be large enough for the family, but small enough for the individual to run and care for. It will be made of the best materials, and by the best men. It will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one to enjoy with his family in pleasure in Gods open spaces. - Henry Ford, 1909

Henry Ford used assembly-line production methods to help him achieve the vision he quoted above. Ford used the assembly line to make affordable cars for all Americans. His Model-T car created a large positive impact on the American economy.

1920s: Post-WWI
Based on the timeline, it can be concluded that the influence of the automobile was that Henry Ford produced automobiles at a price many Americans could afford.

19

12/10/2013

1920s: Post-WWI
The Harlem Renaissance occurred during the 1920s. The Harlem Renaissance was a celebration of African-American culture through art, music and writing. It was mainly focused in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. Langston Hughes was an American author whose works are closely associated with the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance was inconsistent with much of the racial and ethnic intolerance of the decade.

1920s: Post-WWI
Prohibition occurred during the 1920s. Prohibition was established by the 18th Amendment and stated that the manufacture and sale of U.S. alcoholic beverages was banned (illegal).

20

12/10/2013

1920s: Post-WWI
There were strong feelings of nativism during the 1920s. Nativism: favoring native-born citizens over immigrants or foreigners In the 1920s, the U.S. adopted a quota system to limit immigration. This mean that only a very small amount of immigrants were allowed to enter the U.S. each year. The quota system represented an expression of nativism.

1920s: Post-WWI

Based in this chart, the effect did the passage of immigration laws have on immigration to the United States?
The number of immigrants from Southern & Eastern Europe and Asia declined dramatically

21

12/10/2013

1920s: Post-WWI
This cartoon is from the 1920s. It shows attempts of the United States government to deal with the issue of immigration. Congress passed a series of immigration laws during the 1920s because they wanted to limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe.

1920s: Post-WWI
We were tried during a time when there was resentment and hate against the foreigner. I am positive, that you have done all in your power in order to agitate [bother] the prejudice of the jurors against us. My conviction is that I have suffered not for things that I am guilty of. I am suffering because I am a radical and indeed I am a radical. I have suffered because I was an Italian and indeed I am Italian. I have suffered more for my family than for myself. - Bartolomeo Vanzetti, to the judge on being sentenced to death (Sacco-Vanzetti case, 1927)

Sacco and Vanzetti were two Italian immigrants who were convicted and executed for crimes they did not commit. Vanzetti thought he was convicted because he was an immigrant with radical views, not because he was actually guilty of the crime.

22

12/10/2013

Unit 4: Great Depression and New Deal


15 multiple choice questions on the final will be from Unit 4.

Teapot Dome Scandal


The Teapot Dome Scandal involved illegally transferring oil reserved from the Navy department and accepting bribes for leasing the land. This happened during Warren Hardings presidency. The effect of the Teapot Dome Scandal was that Americans began losing trust in the U.S. government.

23

12/10/2013

Great Depression
The major causes and economic factors that led to the Great Depression: 1. Prior overproduction of manufactured goods 2. Buying stocks on margin (paying 10% of the stock price and paying the other 90% back later, after you sold the stock) 3. Over-speculation in the stock market (buying LOTS of stocks on margin)

The Dust Bowl


Farmers actions led to the Dust Bowl because they dried up the topsoil and used too much ground water. The Dust Bowl occurred during the Great Depression (1930s) on the Great Plains (Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Colorado). Most farmers were forced to move to the far west because of the Dust Bowl.

24

12/10/2013

Great Depression
Dorothea Lange was a famous photographer during the Great Depression because her photos expressed the pain and suffering experienced by Americans during the Great Depression.

New Deal
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) created the New Deal to relieve the unemployed, recover the U.S. economy from the Great Depression and reform the U.S. system to prevent a future depression. The guiding principle of the New Deal economic policies was that the government must assume greater responsibility for helping the unfortunate. The New Deal changed American political thinking because the federal government was now expected to solve social and economic problems.

25

12/10/2013

New Deal
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): the government tried to help farmers by paying farmers for their surplus crops Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) & Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): supposed to restore the publics faith in financial institutions The New Deal continued the Progressive Era policy of the government regulating big business. President Hoover vs. President FDR
FDR was more willing to use government intervention to solve economic problems

Anti-FDR (FDR haters)


Conservatives thought FDR was giving the government too much power and too much control Conservatives thought FDR was endangering the free enterprise system
Free enterprise: the system of supply and demand in the U.S. EX: The government doesnt set the price of your iPhone. Apple sets the price based on how much it costs to produce the iPhone and how much they believe people will pay for the iPhone.

26

12/10/2013

FDRs Court-Packing Scheme


FDR had a plan to add new, younger Supreme Court justices with the goal of guaranteeing the Supreme Court would support his New Deal programs. This plan was in conflict with the principle of checks and balances because it would have given the President too much power. Most people were against FDRs proposal because his power would increase too much.

27