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MATH

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Preface

Here are my online notes for my Calculus III course that I teach here at Lamar University. Despite the fact that these are my class notes, they should be accessible to anyone wanting to learn Calculus III or needing a refresher in some of the topics from the class. These notes do assume that the reader has a good working knowledge of Calculus I topics including limits, derivatives and integration. It also assumes that the reader has a good knowledge of several Calculus II topics including some integration techniques, parametric equations, vectors, and knowledge of three dimensional space. Here are a couple of warnings to my students who may be here to get a copy of what happened on a day that you missed. 1. Because I wanted to make this a fairly complete set of notes for anyone wanting to learn calculus I have included some material that I do not usually have time to cover in class and because this changes from semester to semester it is not noted here. You will need to find one of your fellow class mates to see if there is something in these notes that wasnt covered in class. 2. In general I try to work problems in class that are different from my notes. However, with Calculus III many of the problems are difficult to make up on the spur of the moment and so in this class my class work will follow these notes fairly close as far as worked problems go. With that being said I will, on occasion, work problems off the top of my head when I can to provide more examples than just those in my notes. Also, I often dont have time in class to work all of the problems in the notes and so you will find that some sections contain problems that werent worked in class due to time restrictions. 3. Sometimes questions in class will lead down paths that are not covered here. I try to anticipate as many of the questions as possible in writing these up, but the reality is that I cant anticipate all the questions. Sometimes a very good question gets asked in class that leads to insights that Ive not included here. You should always talk to someone who was in class on the day you missed and compare these notes to their notes and see what the differences are. 4. This is somewhat related to the previous three items, but is important enough to merit its own item. THESE NOTES ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR ATTENDING CLASS!! Using these notes as a substitute for class is liable to get you in trouble. As already noted not everything in these notes is covered in class and often material or insights not in these notes is covered in class.

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

Surface Integrals

It is now time to think about integrating functions over some surface, S, in three-dimensional space. Lets start off with a sketch of the surface S since the notation can get a little confusing once we get into it. Here is a sketch of some surface S.

The region S will lie above (in this case) some region D that lies in the xy-plane. We used a rectangle here, but it doesnt have to be of course. Also note that we could just as easily looked at a surface S that was in front of some region D in the yz-plane or the xz-plane. Do not get so locked into the xy-plane that you cant do problems that have regions in the other two planes. Now, how we evaluate the surface integral will depend upon how the surface is given to us. There are essentially two separate methods here, although as we will see they are really the same. First, lets look at the surface integral in which the surface S is given by z = g ( x, y ) . In this case the surface integral is,

2 2 g g f ( x, y, z ) dS = f ( x, y, g ( x, y ) ) + + 1 dA x y D

Now, we need to be careful here as both of these look like standard double integrals. In fact the integral on the right is a standard double integral. The integral on the left however is a surface integral. The way to tell them apart is by looking at the differentials. The surface integral will have a dS while the standard double integral will have a dA. In order to evaluate a surface integral we will substitute the equation of the surface in for z in the integrand and then add on the often messy square root. After that the integral is a standard double integral and by this point we should be able to deal with that.

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

Note as well that there are similar formulas for surfaces given by y = g ( x, z ) (with D in the xzplane) and x = g ( y, z ) (with D in the yz-plane). We will see one of these formulas in the examples and well leave the other to you to write down. The second method for evaluating a surface integral is for those surfaces that are given by the parameterization,

r r r r r ( u, v ) = x ( u, v ) i + y ( u, v ) j + z ( u, v ) k r r r

f ( x, y, z ) dS = f ( r ( u, v ) ) r r

u S D

dA

where D is the range of the parameters that trace out the surface S. Before we work some examples lets notice that since we can parameterize a surface given by z = g ( x, y ) as,

r r r r r ( x, y ) = xi + yj + g ( x, y ) k

2 2

we can always use this form for these kinds of surfaces as well. In fact it can be shown that,

r r g g rx ry = + + 1 x y

for these kinds of surfaces. You might want to verify this for the practice of computing these cross products. Lets work some examples.

Example 1 Evaluate

front of the yz-plane.

6 xy dS

S

Solution Okay, since we are looking for the portion of the plane that lies in front of the yz-plane we are going to need to write the equation of the surface in the form x = g ( y, z ) . This is easy enough to do.

x = 1- y - z

Next we need to determine just what D is. Here is a sketch of the surface S.

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

Notice that the axes are labeled differently than we are used to seeing in the sketch of D. This was to keep the sketch consistent with the sketch of the surface. We arrived at the equation of the hypotenuse by setting x equal to zero in the equation of the plane and solving for z. Here are the ranges for y and z.

0 y 1

0 z 1- y

Now, because the surface is not in the form z = g ( x, y ) we cant use the formula above. However, as noted above we can modify this formula to get one that will work for us. Here it is,

2 2 g g f ( x, y, z ) dS = f ( g ( y, z ) , y, z ) 1 + + dA y z D

The changes made to the formula should be the somewhat obvious changes. So, lets do the integral.

6 xy dS = 6 (1 - y - z ) y

S D

1 + ( -1) + ( -1) dA

2 2

Notice that we plugged in the equation of the plane for the x in the integrand. At this point weve got a fairly simple double integral to do. Here is that work.

2007 Paul Dawkins 5 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

6 xy dS = 3 6 ( y - y

S D 1 1- y 1

- zy ) dA

= 6 3 y - y 2 - zy dz dy 0 0 1 = 6 3 yz - zy 2 - z 2 y dy 2 0 0

1 1 1 3 2 = 6 3 y - y + y dy 0 2 2 1- y

1 1 3 1 = 6 3 y 2 - y3 + y 4 = 3 8 0 4 4 Example 2 Evaluate

z dS

S

Solution We gave the parameterization of a sphere in the previous section. Here is the parameterization for this sphere.

Since we are working on the upper half of the sphere here are the limits on the parameters.

p 2

r r j k 2sin j cos q 0 2 cos j sin q -2sin j r r r r = -4sin 2 j cos q i - 4sin j cos j sin 2 q k - 4sin 2 j sin q j - 4sin j cos j cos 2 q k r r r = -4sin 2 j cos q i - 4sin 2 j sin q j - 4sin j cos j ( sin 2 q + cos 2 q ) k r r r = -4sin 2 j cos q i - 4sin 2 j sin q j - 4sin j cos j k

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

r r rq rj = 16sin 4 j cos 2 q + 16sin 4 j sin 2 q + 16sin 2 j cos 2 j = 16sin 4 j ( cos 2 q + sin 2 q ) + 16sin 2 j cos 2 j = 16sin 2 j ( sin 2 j + cos 2 j ) = 4 sin 2 j = 4 sin j = 4sin j

We can drop the absolute value bars in the sine because sine is positive in the range of j that we are working with. The surface integral is then,

z dS = 2 cos j ( 4sin j ) dA

S D

Dont forget that we need to plug in for x, y and/or z in these as well, although in this case we just needed to plug in z. Here is the evaluation for the double integral.

z dS =

S 0

2p

p 2 0

4sin ( 2j ) dj dq

p 2 0

= =

2p 0 2p 0

( -2 cos ( 2j ) )

4 dq

dq

= 8p Example 3 Evaluate

y dS

S

between z = 0 and z = 6 . Solution We parameterized up a cylinder in the previous section. Here is the parameterization of this cylinder.

r r r r r ( z ,q ) = 3 cos q i + 3 sin q j + z k

0 z6 0 q 2p

r r rz ( z , q ) = k r r r rq ( z ,q ) = - 3 sin q i + 3 cos q j

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

r r rz rq =

r i 0 - 3 sin q

r j 0

r k 1

The magnitude of this vector is,

r r rz rq = 3cos 2 q + 3sin 2 q = 3

y dS =

S D

3 sin q

2p 0 2p 0

( 3 ) dA

= 3 = 3 =0 Example 4 Evaluate

6 0

sin q dz dq

6sin q dq

2p

= ( -18cos q ) 0

y + z dS

S

whose bottom is the disk x 2 + y 2 3 in the xy-plane and whose top is the plane z = 4 - y . Solution There is a lot of information that we need to keep track of here. First, we are using pretty much the same surface (the integrand is different however) as the previous example. However, unlike the previous example we are putting a top and bottom on the surface this time. Lets first start out with a sketch of the surface.

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

Actually we need to be careful here. There is more to this sketch than the actual surface itself. Were going to let S1 be the portion of the cylinder that goes from the xy-plane to the plane. In other words, the top of the cylinder will be at an angle. Well call the portion of the plane that lies inside (i.e. the cap on the cylinder) S2 . Finally, the bottom of the cylinder (not shown here) is the disk of radius

In order to do this integral well need to note that just like the standard double integral, if the surface is split up into pieces we can also split up the surface integral. So, for our example we will have,

y + z dS = y + z dS + y + z dS + y + z dS

S S1 S2 S3

Were going to need to do three integrals here. However, weve done most of the work for the first one in the previous example so lets start with that.

S1 : The Cylinder

The parameterization of the cylinder and rz rq is,

r r r r r ( z ,q ) = 3 cos q i + 3 sin q j + z k

r r rz rq = 3

The difference between this problem and the previous one is the limits on the parameters. Here they are.

0 q 2p

0 z 4 - y = 4 - 3 sin q

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

The upper limit for the zs is the plane so we can just plug that in. However, since we are on the cylinder we know what y is from the parameterization so we will also need to plug that in. Here is the integral for the cylinder.

y + z dS = (

S1 D

3 sin q + z

2p 0 2p 0

)( 3 ) dA

3 sin q + z dz dq

= 3 = 3

4 - 3 sin q 0

3 sin q 4 - 3 sin q +

) 1 (4 2

3 sin q

dq

2p 3 = 3 8 - sin 2 q dq 0 2 2p 3 = 3 8 - (1 - cos ( 2q ) ) dq 0 4

3 29 = 3 q + sin ( 2q ) 4 8 0 = 29 3 p 2

2p

In this case we dont need to do any parameterization since it is set up to use the formula that we gave at the start of this section. Remember that the plane is given by z = 4 - y . Also note that, for this surface, D is the disk of radius Here is the integral for the plane.

y + z dS = ( y + 4 - y ) ( 0 ) + ( -1)

2 S2 D

+ 1 dA

= 2 4 dA

D

Dont forget that we need to plug in for z! Now at this point we can proceed in one of two ways. Either we can proceed with the integral or we can recall that of D and we know that D is the disk of radius

D

10

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Calculus III

y + z dS = 4 2 dA

S2

( 3) )

2

Again, this is set up to use the initial formula we gave in this section once we realize that the equation for the bottom is given by g ( x, y ) = 0 and D is the disk of radius origin. Also, dont forget to plug in for z. Here is the work for this integral.

3 centered at the

y + z dS = ( y + 0 ) ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) + (1)

2 2 S3 D

dA

= y dA

D

= 0

2p

r 2 sin q dr dq

3 1 3 = r sin q dq 0 0 3

2p

2p

3 sin q dq

2p 0

= - 3 cos q =0

We can now get the value of the integral that we are after.

y + z dS = y + z dS + y + z dS + y + z dS

S S1 S2 S3

29 3 p + 12 2 p + 0 2 p = 29 3 + 24 2 2 =

11

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

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