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Session 3.

2: Cryogenic Storage
Systems

Dr. G. Bartlok
25th – 29th September 2006
Ingolstadt
Session 1.2: Introductory K. Hall
Lectures
3.1 Cryogenic Storage Systems

CV – Dr. G. Bartlok

Address:
MAGNA STEYR
Engineering
Liebenauer Hauptstraße 317
8041 Graz, Austria
Email: guido.bartlok@magnasteyr.com

Guido Bartlok, born 1970 in Frankfurt (Oder) in Germany, received his diploma
in mechanical engineering at the Technical University Dresden. The Ph.D. work
was done at the cryogenic institute of the TU Dresden. He joined the MAGNA
STEYR Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co KG in 2003. Mr. Bartlok is jointly responsibly
for development of automotive liquid hydrogen storage systems and research
activities (e.g. Project Management of the Subproject Cryogenic Storage within
the EU 6th Framework Program IP “StorHy”).
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3.1 Cryogenic Storage Systems

Table of Content

• Overview of SP Cryogenic Storage


• Concepts & Requirements
• Material & Technology Development
• Proof of Feasibility
• Outer Jacket, Inner Tank, Lightweight Free-form Tank

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3.1 Cryogenic Storage Systems

Lectures on Liquid H2 Storage


Technology
Dr. G. Bartlok, M. Bauer

Abstract:
The SP Cryogenic Storage develops free-form lightweight tanks manufactured
from composite materials as well as adequate production technologies. The
cryogenic system will mainly consist of an outer jacket and an inner tank.
A vacuum in between and applied multi layer insulation assures the
cryogenic temperature in the inner tank. This extended lecture presents a
selection of main topics and results reflecting the Subproject activities focused
on cryogenic storage.

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SP Cryogenic Storage – Objectives &
Partners

Advanced Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage System:

• Free-form geometry and automotive design


• Lightweight (e.g. composite) material properties
• Automotive production technologies
• Increased storage density
• Safety standards
• Reduced heat entry
• Recycling aspects

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SP Cryogenic Storage – Roadmap

2004 2005 2006 2007

Tests

Inner Tank

Outer Jacket
Outer
& Inner Tank
Jacket

Start of Design & Proof of Feasibility „Free-form“ Tank


Project Requirements 3 Cylindrical Tanks Virtual model
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Concept and Requirements

Accident Research & Power Train Concept


Package

L-H2 Tank System:


Definition & Requirements

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Material & Technology Development

Liquid Composite Moulding (LCM) Process (RTM, VARI)

P1 ≤ Pat < P
Dry reinforcement Finished
part

Resin injection
Preform Evt. Vacuum

Vacuum foil
Mold closure

Resin injection

Vacuum

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Material & Technology Development

Liner Concepts – Outer Jacket &


Inner Tank
Moisture, air, oil, etc
Liner
Outer Jacket Composite

-5 -6
Outgassing High Vacuum: 10 – 10 mBar
Aluminium Sheet

Inner Tank Composite

Hydrogen Outgassing Hydrogen

Metallic Coating
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Proof of Feasibility

Manufacturing of Cylindrical Outer Jacket

Manufacturing & pre-assembly

Flexible pipe

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Proof of Feasibility

Outer Jacket – Validation of Calculation

Critical Load Case: Buckling

Calculated Weight: Real Weight:

17,1 kg 17,6 kg (17,1kg + 0,5 kg Resin Finish)


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Proof of Feasibility

Test of Cylindrical Outer Jacket

Basic tests
• Excessive pressure tests
• Vacuum tests
• Temperature cycling tests
(- 196 °C up to + 85 °C)
• Imperfection tests

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Material & Technology Development

Metallic Coating for Inner


Tank
Tests
• Thermal shock
• Outgassing
• Permeation
• Pressure cycle tests

Evaluation
• Visual Inspection: Blisters, etc
• Cross-Cut (before and after thermal shocks)
• Flatwise Tensile Tests (Adhesion)

Evaluation
• Micrographs (before and after
• Permeation thermal shocks)
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Material & Technology Development

Metallic Coating for Inner Tank


• Metallic plating of large CFRP Structures Sample
• ensure Vacuum Stability

Coating
CFRP Vessel (200 dm³) Layers
CFRP 50 µm
with Galvanic Coating

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Material & Technology Development

Fibre Preform Technology for Inner Tank


• Design & Layout of Composite Substructures
• Load optimised Wall Thickness / Fibre Orientation
• No Fibre Cut / Waste
CAD Model Fibre Preform Impregnated Dome

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Material & Technology Development

Assembly Sequence of
Inner Tank

Assembly Jig

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Proof of Feasibility

Assembly of Inner Tank

Bolt Cone

Sensor calibration:
• Strain-gauges
• Temperature sensors

Dome
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Proof of Feasibility

Inner Tank – Validation of Calculation

Computed Weight: Real Weight:

10 kg CFRP + 3 kg Metal Parts 13,5 kg (with Sensors)


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Material & Technology Development

Free-form Outer Jacket


• Set of Material
Requirements

• Design Pre-Selection

Process: LCM
Fibres: T700 (M46 local reinforcement)
• Material & Process Pre-selection: Matrix: EP
Liner form: Sheet
Liner material: Aluminium

• Material Validation:
Coupon & Component Test Plan
- more than 20 plates
- 342 samples
Large test series at different temperatures: 25°C, 80°C and 120°C

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Concept and Requirements

Free-form Inner Tank


Free-Form
Cylindrical

Design Process of Cylindrical and Free-form Tank


appyling the same Design Elements
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Material & Technology Development

Free-form Inner Tank


• Set of Material Requirements
FE Calculation
• Design Pre-selection Weight (Inner Vessel):
approx. 19 kg
• Material & Process Pre-Selection
as a Result of:
• Literature research & material requirements Materials: FRP
• Analysis Results Process: LCM
• Recycling aspects & assembly Fibres: M46 / T700
• Pre-selected design option Matrix: Thermoset: EP
• Evaluation criteria & trade-offs Liner form: Galvanic coating
• Cryo-materials report Liner material: Aluminium, Gold,
Copper, ..

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Material & Technology Development

Free-form Inner Tank


• Material Validation
Coupon & Component Tests
A large test series has been carried out
- for different materials
- at different temperatures: -253°C, 25°C, 80°C, 120°C

# CFRP components Tests # of Tests


6 plates Ply- and Laminate Properties 408
(ILS, Tensile, Compression, etc)
3 plates Fibre Volume
Adhesive Tests 56
Coefficient of thermal expansion
8 plates Coating tests ~60
2 plates / 1 tube Tension Tube tests ~25
4 Tubes Insert tests 4

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Material & Technology Development

Free-form Inner Tank


• Material Validation (Cont.)

Compression Tests Adhesive Tests Tension Tube Tests

Insert Tests Filler 3D-Vacuum Bag

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“Free-form”Tank Virtual Model

Inner Tank
e.g. CFRP

Outer Jacket
e.g. GFRP, CFRP

Metallic
Liner
e.g. Aluminum,
Steel

Thermal
Insulation

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Session 3.2: Cryogenic Storage
Systems

Dr. G. Bartlok
25th – 29th September 2006
Ingolstadt
Session 1.2: Introductory K. Hall
Lectures