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Critical point

5.1953 K, 0.22746 MPa 0.0138 kJmol1 0.0829 kJmol1 5R/2 = 20.786 Jmol1K1

Helium, 2He Helium in the periodic table Appearance colorless gas, exhibiting a red-orange glow when placed in a high-voltage electric field

Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Molar heat capacity

Vapor pressure (defined by ITS-90) P (Pa) at T (K)

Oxidation states Electronegativity Ionization energies


100 1 k 10 k 1.23 1.67 2.48

100 k 4.21

Atomic properties 0 no data (Pauling scale) 1st: 2372.3 kJmol1 2nd: 5250.5 kJmol1 Spectral lines of helium General properties
Name, symbol,number Pronunciation Element category Group, period,block Standard atomic weight Electron configuration Covalent radius Van der Waals radius

28 pm 140 pm hexagonal closepacked

helium, He, 2
/hilim/ HEE-lee-m

Miscellanea Crystal structure

noble gases 18 (noble gases), 1, s 4.002602(2) 1s


Magnetic ordering Thermal conductivity Speed of sound CAS registry number

diamagnetic[1] 0.1513 Wm1K1 972 ms1 7440-59-7

History Naming Discovery First isolation

after Helios, Greek god of the Sun

Pierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer(1868) William Ramsay, Per Teodor eve, Abraham Langlet (1895)

Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of helium iso

3 4


half- DM DE (MeV) life

3 4


Physical properties Phase Density Liquid density atm.p . Liquid density atb.p.

He 0.000137%* He 99.999863%*

He is stable with 1 neutron

gas (0 C, 101.325 kPa) 0.1786 g/L 0.145 gcm3 0.125 gcm3 (at 2.5 MPa) 0.95 K457.96 F 272.20 C, , 452.070 F 268.928 C, 4.222 K, 2.177 K, 5.043 kPa

He is stable with 2 neutrons

*Atmospheric value, abundance may differ elsewhere.

Melting point

Boiling point
Triple point

SUPPLY MODE Cylinders, Liquefied gas tank,

Main applications

Industries Applications Laboratories & analysis Helium is the most commonly gas used as carrier in gas chromatography. Under liquid state, at -269 C, helium is the cooling fluid for the MRI, NMR or EPR magnets. Space and Aeronautics The oxygen tank of new-generation Ariane 5 launch vehicle is pressurized by a liquid helium subsystem. Other industries - Balloon inflation - leak detection - because the boiling point of helium is close (-269 C or -452 F) to the absolute zero (-273 C) He is used for cooling of superconducting magnets - used in helium neon lasers, helium is a component of the special mixtures used in CO2 lasers ( LASAL). - blanket gas to exclude air from certain fabrication processes. - helium is used as a heat transfer material.

Odour : None UN Number : UN1046 (gas); UN1963 (liquid refrigerated) EINECS Number : 231-168-5 DOT Label (USA) : NFG DOT Hazard class (USA) : Non flammable Gas

Material compatibility
Air Liquide has assembled data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which products to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1: ISO 11114-1 (Jul 1998), Part 2: ISO 11114-2 (Mar 2001)), it must be used with extreme caution. No raw data such as this can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is used to choose possible materials and then more extensive investigation and testing is carried out under the specific conditions of use. The collected data mainly concern high pressure applications at ambiant temperature and the safety aspect of material compatibity rather than the quality aspect. Material Compatibility

Gas Properties
Molecular Weight


Aluminium Satisfactory Brass Satisfactory Copper Satisfactory Ferritic Steels (e.g. Carbon steels) Satisfactory Stainless Steel Satisfactory Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Acceptable but strong rate of permeation. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) Satisfactory Vinylidene polyfluoride (PVDF) (KYNAR) Satisfactory Polyamide (PA) (NYLON) Satisfactory Polypropylene (PP) Acceptable but strong rate of permeation. Buthyl (isobutene - isoprene) rubber (IIR) Satisfactory Nitrile rubber (NBR) Satisfactory Chloroprene (CR) Satisfactory Chlorofluorocarbons (FKM) (VITON) Satisfactory Silicon (Q) Acceptable but strong rate of permeation. Ethylene - Propylene (EPDM) Satisfactory Hydrocarbon based lubricant Satisfactory Fluorocarbon based lubricant Satisfactory

Molecular weight : 4.0026 g/mol Solid phase Melting point (under 26 atm) : -271.38 C Latent heat of fusion (1,013 bar, at melting point) : 12.492 kJ/kg Liquid phase Liquid density (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 124.74 kg/m3 Liquid/gas equivalent (1.013 bar and 15 C (59 F)) : 737.4 vol/vol Boiling point (1.013 bar) : -268.93 C Latent heat of vaporization (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 20.754 kJ/kg Critical point Critical temperature : -267.95 C Critical pressure : 2.275 bar Critical density : 69.641 kg/m Triple point


Triple point temperature : -270.97 C Triple point pressure : 0.05042 bar Gaseous phase Gas density (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 16.752 kg/m 3 Gas density (1.013 bar and 15 C (59 F)) : 0.1692 kg/m3 Compressibility Factor (Z) (1.013 bar and 15 C (59 F)) : 1.0005 Specific gravity : 0.138 Specific volume (1.013 bar and 25 C (77 F)) : 6.1166 m3/kg Heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp) (1.013 bar and 25 C (77 F)) : 0.0208 kJ/(mol.K) Heat capacity at constant volume (Cv) (1.013 bar and 25 C (77 F)) : 0.0125 kJ/(mol.K) Ratio of specific heats (Gamma:Cp/Cv) (1.013 bar and 25 C (77 F)) : 1.6665 Viscosity (1.013 bar and 0 C (32 F)) : 1.8695E-04 Poise Thermal conductivity (1.013 bar and 0 C (32 F)) : 146.2 mW/(m.K) Miscellaneous Solubility in water (20 C and 1 bar) : 0.009 vol/vol


Vapor Pressure Graph

The vapor pressure curve may be obtained by clicking on the image. On the graph, pressure is in bar or 0.1 MPa, temperature in K or C. The critical point is indicated by a black spot on the liquid-vapor equilibrium curve.

Safety Data Sheets

Safety Data Sheets (SDS) include information on product ingredients, physical and chemical properties, potential effects on toxicology and ecology, identification of hazards, handling and storage instructions, as well as personnel protection recommendations and information related to transportation requirements, first-aid and emergency processes.

Major Hazards

Major hazard : High Pressure and Suffocation Toxicity (Am. Conf. Of Gov. Ind. Hygienists ACGIH 2000 Edition) : Simple Asphyxiant Flammability limits in air (STP conditions) : Non-flammable