Section One Introducing Phrases 1.1 Definition A phrase is, as Crystal (1992) defines it, “an element of structure typically containing more than one word, but lacking the sub ect!predicate structure usually found in a clause"#$inch (1999), in his definition of %phrase&, states# a phrase is a syntactic unit which typically consists of more than one word and is intermediate between word and clause le'el in sentences"#(e adds that in a phrase words go together to form a %single syntactic entity& which can be mo'ed %around& and also substituted by another word"As an illustration he gi'es the following e)ample in which the words in bold are capable of both mo'ement (as in 1"b") and substitution as in (c)* (1"a)+he man went down the hill" (b) Down the hill went the man" (c) (e went there" ,uirl et"al"( 19-.*/2) place grammatical units in a hierarchy of potential si0e and e)tensibility 1at the top of that heirarchy is the sentence, %the highest unit %,and at the bottom, the morpheme&the lowest unit&, with the phrase being intermediate between the clause, %the second highest unit& and the word %the second lowest unit& "+his can be made clear below* (ighest unit* Sentences, which consist of one or more Clauses, consist of one or more Phrases, which consist of one or more Words, which consist of one or more 2owest unit* Morphemes 1.2 orm and unction %$orm& refers to the internal stuructre of the grammatical unit and in the case of phrases, the form of a phrase is determined by the word which has a primary and obligatory function within it"+hus we distinguish fi'e kinds of phrase which are as follows* 1" 3erb phrase consists of a main 'erb which either stands alone as the entire 'erb phrase, or is preceded by up to four 'erbs in an au)iliary function* (2"a)+he ship san! b" +he ship ma" ha#e $een $eing sun!" 2" 4oun phrase consists of a head, which is typically anoun (eg" %trip& in (5) below) , and of elements which (either obligatory or optionally) determine

* 89) illustrates the way these phrase types function in the clause as the upward!pointing arrows show* Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial (Subject) Verb Phrase Noun Phrase Adjective Phrase Adverb Phrase Prepositional Phrase F ig . and Semantic roles of 'oun Phrase . e)cept that it has an ad'erb. on the other hand.2 the head and (optionally ) modify the head. instead of an ad ecti'e.uirk et"al ( 19-. as we note from figure 1"1. refers to the syntactic beha'iour of a unit in the unit of which it is a constituent (in the case of %phrase&.or complement another elemnet in the phrase* (5) 6 remember a good trip that 6 once had 5" Ad ecti'e phrase consists of an ad ecti'e as head.and ad'erbial %"+he diagram below. 1 . complement . which is normally a noun phrase* (8) 6 met her at the corner of the street" %$unction&.) 6 spoke to him as clearl" as I could" ." 7repositional phrase consists of a preposition followed by a prepositional complement. %the clause&)" +he fi'e kinds of phrases mentioned abo'e can function as four clause elements %sub ect. besides the different semantic roles associated with these clause elements and the different forms 47 may take. unctions. adapted from . the 47 syntactially (form and function) and semantically (semantic roles)" Section &wo orms. Ad'erb phrase is similar to ad ecti'e phrase in its structure. as its head* (. can function as any of the clause elements e)cept %'erb& and it is this. in some detail. what makes the discussion of the 4p interesting"+he following section will discuss. /. ob ect . optionally preceded or followed by modifying elements* (/)+he weather was incredi$l" pleasant enough to $e en%o"a$le.1 P h r a s e s a s c la u s e e le m e n t s +he broken arrows on the right indicate that ad'erb phrases and prepositional phrases can e)ceptionally function as sub ects and that prepositional phrases can e)ceptionally function as complements (6bid)" +he noun phrase.

Aeuchar and (oogernraad(19-2* 81) mention an %enumerator& and a %geniti'e phrase& as other possible 47 heads which can be shown in these e)amples. but it may be an “indeterminately long and comple) structure# ha'ing a noun as head preceded by other words such as an article. *82) gi'es an illustration of the possible 47 forms* determinati'e premodification head him peter weddding girl postmodification complementation Alice>s that with her red hair in the country last year than that that 6 e'er had that 6 once had I remember all those a the a fine warm better best good days story trip trip As for the 47 head.uirk and =reenbaum. apart from a noun. “consists of a noun and all the words and word groups that belong with the noun and cluster around it"# An 47 may be 'ery simple consisting of one word only * a proper noun %<ohn& or a pronoun %they&.)"+he following table adapted from . and singular non!personal abstract . as :tagaberg (19.) I hurt m"self ?r an ad ecti'e (plural personal e"g" the $rench@ the $rench nation.uirk and =reenbaum. or another noun . (-) +he greedy will take all three" (9) Be stayed at (ohn)s for the night" 2.5*1. (.2 unctions and Semantic *oles of 'P .uirk et"al (19-.e"g" the e'il @that which is e'il)(.19. then of its functions and their related semantic roles" 2.3 +his section gi'es an acount of noun phrase (47) forms first. it can be. a pronoun as in.) says.1 'P orms 4p. an ad ecti'e .5*89)"6n addition 2eech.9*1-. and followed by a prepositional phrase or by a relati'e clause (.19.

(12) &he a#alanche destroyed se'eral houses" +. -ffected* “with intransiti'e 'erb. as the following e)ample shows. 1999* 211) 3erbs such as %see. know. associated with each function is a semantic role which describes the status of an 47 in relation to the action or state denoted by the 'erb" 2.5* 1. own. 19-.) &he pencil was on the table" (6bid) +.) I saw the accident" (1-) She en oyed the concert" . (1. (18) Dr" :mith has gi'en his son a radio"E so now his son hasF ownsF possess the radio" (=reenbaum and .. benefit (from). (19) (ohn came early" +he semantic roles of the clause element “sub ect# are as follows* 1! Agenti'e* “the typical semantic role of a sub ect that has a direct ob ect* it indicates the animate participent that instigates or causes happening denoted by the 'erb “(=reenbaum and . as in.* 11. the sub ect freCuently has an instrumental role1 that is “it e)presses the unwetting (generally inanimate) material cause of an e'ent# (.1 Su$%ect An 47 functions as the sub ect of the 'erb when it precedes it in the clause. or en oy& which do not denote any action reCuire an e)periencer sub ect (Gule.uirk.2. &he recipient su$%ect* the sub ect may ha'e a recipient role with 'erbs such as %ha'e. temporal and e#enti#e0 . (11) Mar" is mowing the grass" 2! 6nstrumental* a part from its agenti'e function. 1999* 299)" +he following e)ample illustrates this. the sub ect also freCuently has the affected role that is elsewhere typical of the sub ect# (6bid)" +his can be illustrated below.2) as shown below. as e)amplified below.4 47 may ha'e different functions in the clause.uirk and =reenbaum. (15) (ac! fell down" (1/) &he pencil was lying on the table" +his semantic role can also be applied to the sub ect of the intensi'e 'erbs.uirk.) as seen in the following e)amples. /ocati#e. 19. (1. possess.

eg" (21) &he concert is on +hursday" 2. gi'e. 3erbs reCuiring two ob ects are called ditransiti'e 'erbs" +he typical semantic role of the direct ob ect is that of affected participant* “a participant (animate or inanimate) which does not cause the happeninig denoted by the 'erb. take& "+hey comment that this role is semantically an e)tension of the 'erb and bears the ma or part of the meaning" Compare (2-"a) +hey are arguing" .uirk and =reenbaum. 1999* 299) Apart from the affected ob ect.uirk and =reenbaum. 19. (25) +he headmaster ga'e 4eorge a new $oo!.uirk.2* 1. but it is directly in'ol'ed in some other way. 1999* 212) H'enti'e sub ects (with abstract noun heads designating rangements and acti'ities) differ from others in permitting intensi'e complementaion with a time ad'erbial (.uirk (1999* 215) add another semantic role to the direct ob ect that is %e'enti'e& which takes the form of a de'erbal noun preceded by a common 'erb of general meaning.5).2.) 6 am writing a letter.5 +he sub ect may ha'e the function of designating the place (locati'e sub ect) or time (temporal) of the state or action" Consider these two e)amples.# as in* (2/) <ames sold his digital watch yesterday" (=reenbaum and . the first is called indirect ob ect and the second the direct ob ect"+his e)ample shows this.) +he hourse umped the fence" (%"" umped o'er the fence&) (.5* 1. (28) Iaird in'ented tele#ision" (2. =reenbaum and . (19) &his %ar contains coffee" (locati'e sub ect) (29) 1esterda" was a holiday" (temporal sub ect) (=reenbaum and .uirk./) An effected ob ect is one that “refers to something which e)ists by 'irtue of the acti'ity inidated by the 'erb.2 O$%ect 2direct and indirect3 An 47 which follows a transiti'e 'erb is the ob ect of that 'erb* (22) +he teacher greeted his students.# (6bid)" +he two e)amples below illustrate this. make. A 'erb like %greeted& which reCuires one ob ect is called a monotransiti'e 'erb" Bhen two 47: come after a 'erb. ha'e. such as %do. other semantic types of direct ob ects are the %locati'e& ob ect and the %effected ob ect"& An e)ample of the %locati'e& ob ect is* (2. 19.

(29) 6&'e found "ou a place" As an e)ception to the rule that the indirect bo ect has the role of “recipient# .2.reCuire in addition to the ob ect an ob ect complement which can be an 4p as in * (5/) 6 thought him the captain" (5.they say.*21)"+his function is shown in the following e)amples* (52) +om was m" $est friend. %elect& .uirk remark may be “current# normally with 'erbs used stati'ely or resulting attribute (ie from the e'ent described by the 'erb) with 'erbs used dynamically"Consider theese e)amples* (/9) (e seems an old man" (/1) +hey consider the operation a success" (/2) (e became our neigh$our.1)"+his e)ample shows this.19. +he complement.# (. (55) <ohn became a doctor" Certain 'erbs such as %name& ..)+hey named their daughter 5nda" (5-) (e is a good student" (59) 6 consider him a friend “Attributes# as =reenbaum and .) +hey name their daughter 5nda. has the semantic role of the attribute for which.uirk (1999*299!219) distinuish two subtypes* “identification# and “characteri0ation# as the e)amples below show* (58) Je'in is m" $rother" (5. i"e" “an animate participant being passi'ely implicated by the happening or state. %consider& . %seem& which are called copula 'erbs since they oin the sub ect and the complement together( Close .6 (b) +hey are ha'ing an argument" As for the indirect ob ect. 19. happens when %gi'e&(or sometimes related 'erbs like %pay& or %owe&)has “effected# ob ect as direct ob ect “affected# ob ect as indirect ob ect"+his can be illustrated by these e)amples* (59) 6 paid her a 'isit" (51) 6 ga'e the door a couple of kicks" 2.uirk and =reenbaum mention the “affected “role which . =reenbaum and .+ Complement 2Su$%ect Complement and O$%ect Complement3 6n addition to being the sub ect an 47 can also be the complement of the sub ect when it occurs after certain 'erbs such as %be& .&become&. whether sub ect or ob ect. its most typical function is that of recipient. (/5)+hey elected him the president.5* 1. .uirk and =reenbaum.

different functions and semantic roles it has in the clause" As for 4p form.7 2. -d#er$ial.)6 go to the cinema two times a month. (/8) 6 was sitting on a wooden chair" (/. $inally..uirk et"al".) 6t started to rain early in the morning" :uch noun phrases will ha'e the semantic roles of the ad'erbial they function within that is of spacial and temporal respecti'ely" Conclusion +he noun phrase is one of the most important phrasal categories because of the different forms it takes. an 47 can function as a complement to the preposition in a prepositional phrase as these e)amples show. (//)(e was there last wee!" (/. An ad'erbial which is normally reali0ed by an ad'erb or a peposional phrase can also be reali0ed by a noun phrase e)pressing time as in.2.19-. +he 47 ad'erbials %last week % and %two times& ha'e the semantic roles of fi)ed position on atemporal scale and duration respecti'ely(.6 Prepositional O$%ect.*/-1!/-2)" 2.2. it may be as simple as a single word or as comple) as the clause"+he central part of the 47 is the head which is normally a noun but it can be a pronoun or an ad ecti'e" .

K" A" (19. Ad'erbial) e)cept the 'erb" Kelated to each of these clause elements which are reali0ed by 47 are a number of semantic roles describing the way this element is in'ol'ed in the action or state denoted by the 'erb" 7I7/IO4*-P81 Close.. 47 can function as any of the clause elements (:ub ect. Complement. ?b ect.) A Keference =rammar for :tudents of Hnglish" 2ondon* 2ongman" .8 Bith regard to function.

) A Comprehensi'e aaaaa=rammar of the Hnglish 2anguage" 2ondon* 2ongman" :tagberg. :" and .) the :tudy of 2anguage" 1st ed" Cambridge* Cambridge Lni'ersity 7ress" .uirk. and K" (oogenraad (19-2) Hnglish =rammar for +oday* A 4ew 6ntroduction" 2ondon* Dacmillan"" .uirk. =" 2eech and <" :'art'ik (19-. A" (1992) An Hncyclopedic Aictionary of 2anguage and 2anguages" 2ondon* 7enguin" $inch.9 Crystal. =" (1999) 2inguistic +erms and Concepts" (oundmills* 7algra'e" =reenbaum.uirk. Kinehart and Binston" Gule. 4"C" (199.5) A Lni'ersity =rammar of Hnglish 2ondon* 2ongman" . =" (19-. K" (1999) A :tudent&s =rammar of Hnglish 2anguage" 2ongman" 2eech. K". :" =reenbaum. :" (19. =" and D" Aeuchar.) An 6ntroductory Hnglish =rammar" 5rd ed"" 4ew Gork* (olt. K" and =reenbaum.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful