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EIEN307 I

Electronic Circuits I

2007 Spring
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Chapter 5-1

Circuit Analysis and Design

Microelectronics

Chapter 5 The Bipolar Junction Transistor

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Chapter 5-2

In this chapter, we will: Discuss the physical structure and operation of the bipolar junction transistor. Understand the dc analysis and design techniques of bipolar transistor circuits. Examine three basic applications of bipolar transistor circuits. Investigate various dc biasing schemes of bipolar transistor circuits, including integrated circuit biasing. Consider the dc biasing of multistage or multitransistor circuits.
Chapter 5-3

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Cross Section of Integrated Circuit npn Transistor

The bipolar transistor is a three-terminal device. The voltage between two terminals controls the current through the third terminal. Current in the transistor is due to the flow of both electrons and holes.bipolar
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Chapter 5-4

Modes of Operation

Mode of operation Analog Digital Forward-Active Saturation Cut-off Inverse-Active


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B-E Junction Forward biased Forward biased Reverse biased Reverse biased

B-C Junction Reverse biased Forward biased Reverse biased Forward biased
Chapter 5-5

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npn BJT in Forward-Active VBE=VB - VE VCB=VC - VB

VE VCB

VC

VB F.B F.B
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R.B
Chapter 5-6

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Electrons and Holes in npn BJT

iE = I EO eVBE

VT

1 I EO eVBE
VT

VT

iC = I EO eVBE I S = I EO iC = iB iB = I BO e
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VBE VT

= I S eVBE

VT

iC

I S eVBE

VT

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Chapter 5-7

Electrons and Holes in pnp BJT

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Chapter 5-8

Circuit Symbols and Current Conventions

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Chapter 5-9

Current Relationships
iE = iC + iB iC = iB : common - emitter current gain 1 iE = (1 + )iB iB = iE 1+ iC = iB =

1+ iC = iE : common - base current gain

iE

= = 1+ 1
Chapter 5-10

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Common-Emitter Configurations

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Chapter 5-11

Common-Base Configuration

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Chapter 5-12

Current-Voltage Characteristics of a Common-Base Circuit

Ideal current source

C-B junction is forward biased. saturation mode


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Chapter 5-13

Current-Voltage Characteristics of a Common-Emitter Circuit

saturation mode

iC iB

iC=iB

Current controlled device

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Chapter 5-14

Early Voltage/Finite Output Resistance


Base-width modulation effect Early effect

VCE
iC = I S (e
v BE VT

vCE ) 1 + V A

iC 1 = ro vCE

v BE = const

VA ro IC

IC

Early voltage
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Chapter 5-15

Effects of Leakage Currents on I-V Characteristics


I CEO = I CEO + I CBO
Openemitter Open -base

I CEO

I CBO = I CBO 1

IC 2 dc = I B2

ac =

I C I B|VCE =const

Emitter open No leakage


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Base open Chapter 5-16

Effect of Collector-Base Breakdown on Common Base I-V Characteristics

Emitter open
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Chapter 5-17

Effect of Collector-Base Breakdown on Common Emitter I-V Characteristics

BVCEO =

BVCBO
n

where 3 < n < 6

B-E junction breakdown voltage is much smaller than that of B-C junction. 6 to 8V.
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Base open
Chapter 5-18

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DC Equivalent Circuit for npn Common-Emitter


Neglect leakage current Early effect

Forward-active mode

VBB VBE (on) IB = RB VBB > VBE (on) I B > 0 I C = I B VCC = I C RC + VCE VCE = VCC I C RC
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forward - active mode B C junction is reverse biased. VCE > VBE (on) and I C >> I B PT = I BVBE (on) + I CVCE PT I CVCE
Chapter 5-19

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DC Equivalent Circuit for pnp Common Emitter

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Chapter 5-20

Load Line
saturation mode : I C I B

dc Load Line VCC = I C RC + VCE

VCC VC E B C junctin is forward biased. IC = VCE (sat) 0.1 to 0.3V RC RC


Input Load Line VBB = I B RB + VBE IB = VBB VB E RB RB

ICQ

VCEQ
cutoff mode :
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B - E and B - C junctions are reverse biased. EIEN307 IIB = I C = 0 Chapter 5-21

Problem-Solving Technique: Bipolar DC Analysis


1. Assume that the transistor is biased in forward active mode a. VBE = VBE(on), IB > 0, & IC = IB 2. Analyze linear circuit. 3. Evaluate the resulting state of transistor. a. If VCE > VCE(sat), assumption is correct b. If IB < 0, transistor likely in cutoff c. If VCE < 0, transistor likely in saturation I C I B < 4. If initial assumption is incorrect, make new assumption and return to Step 2.
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Chapter 5-22

Example 5.6: Develop the voltage transfer curve for the circuits shown in Fig. 5.27(a).

Voltage Transfer Characteristic for npn Circuit

(120)(VI 0.7)(5) VO = 0.2 = 5 150 VI = 1.9V VI > 1.9V saturation


VBE(on)=0.7V, =120 VCE(sat)=0.2V, VA=

VI 0.7 V Qn cutoff I B = I C = 0 VO = V + = 5V VI > 0.7V Qn turn on forward active IB =

(VI 0.7) VI 0.7 I C = I B = RB RB (VI 0.7) RC


RB 0.2V VO 5V
Chapter 5-23

VO = 5 I C RC = 5
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Study yourself 5.2.4 Commonly Used Bipolar Circuits :dc Analysis. Especially, Example 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.11

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Chapter 5-24

Voltage Transfer Characteristic for pnp Circuit

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Chapter 5-25

Basic Transistor Applications


switch circuit, digital circuit, amplifier circuit
If vI < VBE (on) iB = iC = 0 cutoff

Switch

vO = VCC iC RC = VCC

If vI = VCC
RC

RB < RB < RC and if RC

vI VBE (on) VCC VBE (on) iB RB RB VCC VCE (sat) iC = I C (sat) = RC iC RB = < saturation iB RC

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Chapter 5-26

Digital Logic

Low VCE(sat) High VCC

High Low

VCE(sat)

Low0 High VCC Inverter Low High

Low High NOR gate


V1 V2 VO

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Chapter 5-27

Bipolar Inverter as Amplifier

|Slope| >1amplifier

180 Out of phase

Negative sign of slope


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Chapter 5-28

Effect of Improper Biasing on Amplified Signal Waveform

From Fig.5.28 VI=1.9V

vI=VI+vI
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Chapter 5-29

Single Base Resistor Biasing Base Bias

Bipolar Transistor Biasing

The coupling capacitor CC acts as an open circuit to dc. If f is large enough and CC is large enough, the signal can be coupled through CC to the base with little attenuation. CC1 to 10F Design Example VCC=12V, ICQ=1mA, VCEQ=6V =100, VBE(on)=0.7V
RC = VCC VCEQ I CQ

12 6 = = 6k 1 I CQ I BQ =

1mA = 10A 100 V VBE (on) RB = CC I BQ 12 0.7 = 1.13M 10 A


Chapter 5-30

dc equivalent circuit
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Voltage Divider Biasing

Thevenin equivalent circuit


RTH = R1 || R2
I BQ = VTH VBE (on) RTH + (1 + ) RE

I CQ = I BQ = VTH VBE (on) RTH + (1 + ) RE

VTH = VCC

R2 R1 + R2

I EQ = (1 + ) I BQ

VTH = I BQ RTH + VBE (on) + I EQ RE


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Chapter 5-31

Bias Stability
I CQ = I BQ VTH VBE (on) = RTH + (1 + ) RE

T2 T1

RTH << (1 + ) RE I CQ VTH VBE (on) (1 + ) RE

Normally, >> 1 I CQ VTH VBE (on) RE

1+

IC
Q-point is stabilized against variations.

The general rule for bias stability : RTH 0.1(1 + ) RE


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IC, T
Chapter 5-32

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Positive and Negative Voltage Biasing


Biasing with dual supplies allows to eliminates the coupling capacitor and allows dc input voltages as input signals .

Example 5.18 : Analyze the circuit in Fig.5 .61.


VBE(on)=0.7V =100

C E loop : V + = I CQ RC + VCEQ + I EQ RE + V VCEQ = (V + V ) I CQ RC I EQ RE

For dc analysis vs = 0 B - E loop : 0 = VBE (on) + I EQ RE + V I EQ = (V + VBE (on)) = RE

= (5 + 5) (2.13)(1.5) (2.15)(2) = 2.51V


I CQ = 1+ I EQ 100 = (2.15) = 2.13mA 101
EIEN307 I Chapter 5-33

(5 + 0.7) = 2.15mA 2
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Integrated Circuit Biasing


For integrated circuit, to eliminate as many resistors as possible since they require a larger surface area than transistors.

diode-connected transistor

IQ is independent of and RB.

forward - active mode VCE VBE (on)


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Chapter 5-34

R1 Q1 loop :
reference current
+ ( on ) V V 0 = I1 R1 + VBE (on ) + V I1 = BE R1 mirror I C1 = I C 2 = I Q Since VBE1 = VBE 2 current

at Q1 collector
1 and Q2 are identical. I B1 = I B 2 I1 = I C1 + I B1 + I B 2 Q

I C1 = I C 2 I1 = I C 1 + 2 I B 2
Current mirror Try Example 5.20!
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2 = IC 2 + = IC 2 1+ 2IC 2 2
>>1 I C 2 = I1

IC 2 = IQ =

I1 1+

Chapter 5-35

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Multistage Cascade Transistor Circuit


Calculate the dc voltage at each node and dc current the elements in multistage circuit.

Example 5.21:

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Chapter 5-36

Multistage Cascode Transistor Circuit


Example 5.22:
Design the circuit shown in Fig.5.69.

C-B

C-E

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Chapter 5-37

Homework #3

Chapter 5 5, 15, 21, 25, 33, 37, 43, 57, 61, 71

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Chapter 5-38

Base Bias (Fixed Bias)


Consists of a single base resistor between the base terminal and VCC and no emitter resistor.

Base resistor

V IB = RB R B

VRB = IBRB=VCC -VBE


IB = VCC VBE RB

IC = IB (Q hFE = dc ) IC = hFE IB VCE= VCC - ICRC

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Chapter 5-39

Q-Point Shift
A condition where a change in operating temperature results in a change in the Q-point values of IC and VCE.

IC = hFE IB as T VCE = VCC - ICRC = VCC - hFE IB RC


Temperature-dependent parameter

Beta-dependent circuit

Switching application
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Base-bias circuits are rarely used for mid-point biased amplifiers.


EIEN307 I Chapter 5-40

Emitter-Bias Circuits
A bias circuit that consists of a dual-polarity power Emitter-Bias Circuits supply and a grounded base resistor.
VB = I B RB = (100)(100 A) = 10mV 0
Dual-polarity power supply

100

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Chapter 5-41

Circuit Analysis
VE = 0V VBE = VBE VRE = VE (VEE ) VRE = VBE + VEE VRE VEE VBE = IE = RE RE I CQ VEE 0.7 V IE = RE
VBE VRE VE -0.7V

Beta-independent

VCC = I CQ RC + VCEQ 0.7V VCEQ = VCC I CQ RC + 0.7V VCEQ VCC I CQ RC


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If ICQRC >> 0.7 V , then VE can be neglected.


Chapter 5-42

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Example 7.10
Determine the values of ICQ and VCEQ for the circuit shown in Figure 7.27.

I CQ =

VEE VBE RE

12V 0.7V 11.3V = 1.5k 1.5k = 7.53mA VCEQ = VCC I CQ RC + 0.7 = 12V (7.53mA)(750) + 0.7 = 7.05V
-VEE = -12V
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Chapter 5-43

Saturation and Cutoff


When the two supply voltages are equal in magnitude:

I C ( sat )

2VCC = RC + RE

VCE ( off ) = 2VCC

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Chapter 5-44

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Chapter 5-45

Feedback-Bias Circuits

A term Feedback-Bias used to describe a Circuits circuit that feeds a portion of the output voltage or current back to the input to control the circuit operation.

Collector-feedback bias Emitter-feedback bias


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Chapter 5-46

Collector-Feedback Bias
A bias circuit constructed so that VC will directly affect VB. VCC = VRC+VRB+VBE = ICRC+IBRB+VBE Since IC= hFEIB = hFEIBRC+IBRB+VBE = IB(hFERC+RB)+VBE

IC+IBIC

VCC VBE IB = RB + hFE RC I CQ = hFE I B VCEQ = VCC I CQ RC


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Stable against change in beta No saturation in normal condition

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Chapter 5-47

Example 7.14
Determine the values of ICQ and VCEQ for the amplifier shown in Figure 7.30.

VCC VBE 10V 0.7V IB = = RB + hFE RC 180k + (100)(1.5k) = 9.3V = 28.2A 330k I CQ = hFE I B = (100)(28.2A) = 2.82mA

VCEQ = VCC -I CQ RC = 10V - (2.82mA)1.5k = 5.77 V

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Chapter 5-48

Emitter-Feedback Bias
A bias circuit constructed so that VE will directly affect VB. VCC = IBRB+VBE +IERE Since IE=IB(hFE+1) VCC = IBRB+VBE + IB(hFE+1)RE VCC - VBE =IB(RB+ (hFE+1)RE)

VCC VBE IB = RB + (hFE + 1) RE I CQ = hFE I B VCEQ = VCC I CQ ( RC + RE )


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Stable against change in beta No saturation in normal condition


Chapter 5-49

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Example 7.15
Determine the values of ICQ and VCEQ for the amplifier shown in Figure 7.32.

IB =

VCC VBE 16V 0.7V = RB + (hFE + 1) RE 680k + (51)(1.6k)

= 20.1A I CQ = hFE I B = (50)(20.1A) = 1.01mA VCEQ = VCC -I CQ(RC + RE ) = 16V - (1.01mA)7.8k = 8.12V

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Chapter 5-50

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Chapter 5-51