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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A bathroom is a room for bathing in containing a bathtub and/or a shower and optionally a toilet, a sink/hand basin/wash basin and possibly also a bidet. In North American English a "bathroom" is commonly used as a euphemism for a room containing a toilet or possibly a public toilet (which, in the USA, is more commonly called a "restroom").
■ 1 History ■ 2 Variations ■ 2.1 Shower room ■ 2.2 Ensuite ■ 2.3 Family bathroom ■ 2.4 Jack and Jill bathroom ■ 3 Regional differences ■ 3.1 Australia and New Zealand ■ 3.2 Terminology in the United States ■ 4 Design considerations ■ 5 See also ■ 6 References
A smaller U.S. residential bathroom
Although it was not with hygiene in mind, the first records for the use of baths date back as far as 3000 B.C. At this time water had a strong religious value, being seen as a purifying element for both body and soul, and so it was not uncommon for people to be required to cleanse themselves before entering a sacred area. Baths are recorded as part of a village or town life throughout this period, with a split between steam baths in Europe and America and cold baths in Asia. Communal baths were erected in a distinctly separate area to the living quarters of the village, with a view to preventing evil spirits from entering the domestic quarters of a commune. According to Teresi et al. (2002):
The Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro
United Kingdom of relaxation and rejuvenation. loúein. on the Aegean island of Thera. Not all ancient baths were in the style of the large pools that often come to mind when one imagines the Roman baths. "baths". During this period there was a distinction between private and public baths. Public baths are mentioned by the comedian Aristophanes as βαλανεία.wikipedia.C. loutrá. loetrá.org/wiki/Bathroom 24/02/2012 . in the name of the River Lousios ("bathing" [river]). with lavatories built into the outer walls of houses. These were "Western-style" toilets made from bricks with wooden seats on top. Virtual Historical Reconstruction of the Roman Baths in Weißenburg. wrote. Palaces have been uncovered throughout Greece with areas that are dedicated to bathing. Sir Mortimer Wheeler. There. the director general of archaeology in India from 1944 to 1948.: βαλανείον. The water drained away through a hole in the floor. to bathe. The same root finds an even earlier attestation on Linear B tablets. but also providing a public source near Durham. with many wealthy families having their own thermal baths in their houses. This was probably because of easy access to geothermic hot springs on this volcanic island. "The high quality of the sanitary arrangements could well be envied in many parts of the world today. they built large purpose-built thermal baths. a "balneary"). balaneíon. Here was a place where people could meet to discuss the matters of the day and enjoy entertainment. the bath was made of brick. through which waste fell into street drains or cesspits. down chutes or pottery pipes in the walls." Toilets and sewers were invented in several parts of the world. as well as sophisticated drainage systems.Bathroom . Latinized as balneum. Generally located on the ground floor. Even the fastidious Egyptians rarely had special bathrooms." Nearly all of the hundreds of houses excavated had their own bathing rooms. Germany. but also the way in which the plumbing works surrounding it differ so little from modern models. Homer uses the word λοετρά. A more advanced prehistoric (15th century BC and before) system of baths and plumbing is to be found in the excavated town of Akrotiri. later λουτρά. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 5 The third millennium B. spaces with ceramic bathtubs.C. into the municipal drainage system.Wikipedia. marking not only an A bathroom in the Beamish Museum important social development. and hails from the Palace of Knossos in Crete. sometimes with a surrounding curb to sit on. using data from laser scan technology The Roman attitudes towards bathing are well documented. What is remarkable about this tub is not only the similarity with the baths of today. Despite this they still made use of the http://en. had some of the most advanced. Writers such as Homer had their heroes bathe in warm water so as to regain their strength. and Mohenjo-Daro circa 2800 B.C. from the verb λούειν. balaneía (Sing. it is perhaps notable that the mother of Achilles bathed him in order to gain his invincibility. in Arcadia. was the "Age of Cleanliness. alabaster tubs and other bath fittings were found. Both the Greeks and the Romans recognised the value of bathing as an important part of their lifestyles. along with a sophisticated twin plumbing system to transport hot and cold water separately. the earliest surviving bathtub dates back to 1700 B. They had vertical chutes.
thus laying the foundations for the bathroom.Wikipedia. ensuite and other variations) is a bathroom or shower room attached to and only accessible from a bedroom. in the 20th century. accessible from two bedrooms. Jack and Jill bathroom Main article: Jack and Jill bathroom A Jack and Jill bathroom is a bathroom with two doors.org/wiki/Bathroom 24/02/2012 . water was feared as a carrier of disease. Variations Shower room A shower room or shower-room is a room that contains a shower cubicle (or shower stall). and private spaces were favoured. the use of public baths declined gradually in the west. but no bathtub. combs. 17th. proof that bathing was definitely not uncommon. in British estate agent terminology. and 18th centuries. this would be called a 3/4 bathroom. The strength of the Roman Empire was telling in this respect. showing the value that they had as a public institution.wikipedia. and mirrors. this is not completely accurate. Although some sources suggest that bathing declined following the collapse of the Roman Empire. A Hong Kong bathroom saves space by combining the shower and rest of the bathroom Regional differences Australia and New Zealand http://en. imports from throughout the world allowed the Roman citizens to enjoy ointments. is a full bathroom in a house where one or more bedrooms have ensuites. It was only after the Renaissance that bathing declined. and thus sweat baths and heavy perfumes were preferred. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 5 public baths. It was actually the Middle Ages that saw the beginning of soap production. as it was to become. However in Japan shared bathing in sento and onsen (spas) still exists. the latter being very popular. In fact throughout the 16th. incense. In the United States. Family bathroom A family bathroom. Ensuite An ensuite bathroom or ensuite shower room (also en suite.Bathroom .
This minimizes the risk of electric shock. for cleaning the human body. For all the activities like shaving. Electrical appliances. as well as smooth plastic materials.e. and shower are considered a "full bath". sink. "3.Bathroom . such as the United Kingdom. in significant quantities.wikipedia. bathrooms are generally categorized as master bathroom. generally need to be installed as fixtures. one must ensure equitable lighting across the entire bathroom space. a toilet. showering.. although the terms vary from market to market. a "full bathroom" (or "full bath"). Terminology in the United States In the United States. An additional complication is that there are currently two ways of notating the number of bathrooms in a dwelling. and so water-resistant bath mats or even bathroom carpets may be used on the floor to make the room more comfortable. containing four plumbing fixtures: bathtub. and are required for bathroom socket installation by electrical and building codes in the United States and Canada.1" would mean 2 full baths and 1 half bath. Design considerations The design of a bathroom must account for the use of both hot and cold water. possibly by strategically placing heater conduits close to the surface. and hot humid air may cause condensation on cold surfaces. how water-/splash-proof) may be installed in the areas (zones) around and above baths. and "3/4 bath" containing toilet. and heated towel rails. New Zealand and other British Commonwealth countries it is common for a bathroom to not contain a lavatory. with permanent connections rather than plugs and sockets. The other. sinks and showers. bright and must minimize glare. the floor may be heated. shower. "half (1/2) bath" (or "powder room") containing just a toilet and sink. only special sockets suitable for electric shavers are permitted in bathrooms. however.5" baths would mean 2 full baths and 1 half bath). "2. "2. The use of ceramic or glass. and are labelled as such. Water may be splashed on the walls and floor. such as lights. Alternatively. The water is also used for moving solid and liquid human waste to a sewer or septic tank.Wikipedia. wall and floor materials and coverings should be impervious to water and readily and easily cleaned.. Ground-fault circuit interruptor electrical sockets can reduce the risk of electric shock. heaters. sink. In some U. and sink.org/wiki/Bathroom 24/02/2012 . but with a separate 'toilet' next door (a very small room with only a toilet and perhaps a tiny hand washbasin). toilet. In some countries.g.5" and then add this to the number of full bathrooms (e. Bathroom lighting should be uniform. containing a shower and a tub that is adjoining to a master bedroom. grooming etc.g. The mirror area should definitely have at least two sources of light at least 1 feet apart to eliminate any shadows on the face. Ceiling. UK Building Regulations also define what type of electrical light fittings (i. Skin tones and hair color are highlighted with a tinge of yellow light. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 5 In Australia. is common in bathrooms for their ease of cleaning. This lack of a single. markets. From a decorating point of view the bathroom presents a challenge. universal definition commonly results in discrepancies between advertised and actual number of baths in real estate listings. Such surfaces are often cold to the touch. See also ■ Bathroom cabinet http://en. newer method is to put the number of full bathrooms to the left side of the decimal point and to put the number of half bathrooms to the right of the decimal point (e. One method is to count a half bathroom as ". and shower.S.2" would mean 3 full baths and 2 half baths).
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