1

Technical analysis for
food products
Philippe Mongondry
p.mongondry@groupe-esa.com
29 June 2011, Maribor
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Many analytical chemical and physical techniques:

Electro-analysis Q
ty
of ions Gravimetry Fat or water content
Electrophoresis separation Atomic spectrometry trace element
Molecular spectrometry emission (Fluo); diffusion (Raman) absorption (UV, IR RMN)
Mass Spectrometry Radiometry (
14
C) origin & date
X ray diffusion structural ID Rheometry Flow & structure
Sensory analysis Chromatography


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Techniques for food products: what for?

Quality control

Quantification of nutriments, vitamins
of compounds
Identification of contamination
Determination of ingredients

Authentication of origin of the product


4


Physical and chemical analysis
• Spectroscopy (UV – visible – IR)
• Chromatography
• SNIF NMR and Mass spectrometry


• Concepts and Basis
Sensory analysis
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Matter
Spectroscopy
and interactions
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From atom to complex molecules
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Biological Molecules
• Thousands of different molecules per cell, fast Renew
•Complex system
Biological specificity with 'allowed' movement and
conformation
• E(link etc...)reactions, biological and thermodynamic
parameters
• Particularity :
transformation of light energy (chlorophyll)
Lipids
Glucide
Proteins
Nucleic acid
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electromagnetic radiance
domain
Phenomena Frequency (Hz) Wave length
Radiofrequency
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance
10
6
to 10
8
300 to 3 m
Micro-ondes
Electronic paramagnetic Resonance
molecular rotations spectrum
10
10
to 10
12
300 to 0.3 mm
Infrared molecular vibrations 10
12
to 3×10
14
300 to 0,8 µm
Visible and ultraviolet Electronic Transitions (external e-) 3×10
14
to 10
16
800 to 10 nm
X Rays Electronic Transitions (core e-) 3×10
16
to 10
19
10 to 0.03 nm
γ Rays nuclear Transitions 10
19
to 10
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0.03 to 0.003
nm
Spectroscopic principles
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Powerful photons No! but right ones Yes!
Transmission and reflection = nothing
Spectroscopic principles
Absorption of energy
UV absorption spectrum
Emission of large spectrum of photons (energy)
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I
ν
I
ν
Large spectre of the
source
Spectrale composition
of transmise light
Polychromatic radiation
Abs
Construction of absorption spectrum
Spectroscopic principles
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Spectroscopy UV-visible
Quantitative method,
Kinetic of reaction…
Absorption of UV by unsaturated bonds
O
O H
NH
2
O
O
NO
YES
YES
YES
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Principe:
Molecule under infrared radiation: vibration and rotation
Symmetrical
stretching
Antisymmetrical
stretching
Scissoring
Rocking Wagging
Twisting
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectroscopie_infrarouge
Infrared Spectroscopy
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Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy
Fingerprint of molecule
spectrometer FTIR
Used for samples :
Gaz, liquid or solid in powder
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Separation & Identification
Chromatography or HPLC
Extraction and preparation
in liquid media
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Chromatography or HPLC
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Different Types
• Partition chromatography
• Normal-phase chromatography
• Reversed-phase chromatography (RPC)
• Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)
• Ion-exchange chromatography
• Bio-affinity chromatography
SEC
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Chromatogram of
pesticide in cow milk
Identification of
polyphenols in wine
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SNIF NMR Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Based on the absorption of deuterium in plants (Glucose or ethanol)
Irregular distribution of De on the Earth due to rotation

Addition of different type of sugar in Tequilas
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Mass Spectrometry
Main steps of the measurement
Unknown sample
Determination of the molecular
weight of big molecules (proteins)

Quick Identification based on
databases
Aims
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Identification
Reconstruction by affinity of pieces
Depend on position of the picks and ratio m/Z
Mass Spectrometry
Coupling HPLC-MS
Coupling techniques is powerful !!
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Sensory analysis
What consumer understand from different information we give him ?
What consumer looks for ?
How improve his loyalty ?
How his sensory experiments is influenced by the information he has ?
What is important in his purchase behavior ?
What does he discern in products ?
How to measure the sensory performance of products ?
What is the impact of a new process or technology on his fondness ?
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Sensory analysis
How objectively measure the tasting and the
sensorial characteristics of food products?

Habits
Culture
Personality
Current mood
Physiology (allergy)
Time of the day
place
With who
how
Why what
Sensorial characteristics
Nutriments
Packaging
Factors which influence the choice of a food product ( Gains, 1994)
Consumer Context product
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Definition:

Evaluation of organoleptic properties of a food product by human senses
based on experimental design and statistical analysis (combination of
inferences or deductive reasoning and insight or specific cause and effect)
Sensory analysis of Food products
ICS 67.240 Sensory analysis
(ISO standard)
Glossary
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Sensory analysis
How objectively measure the tasting and the sensorial characteristics of food products?

differences preferences Evocations Motivations
3 categories: Effective, affective and perception analysis
Descriptive
Test
Hedonic
Test
Qualitative
Test
Trained panel
Naive consumers
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Study consumer behavior and motivation
to get a better understanding of his reactions
Sensory analysis
Aims: Identify all reactions, all opinions that consumer have
Example : Reaction in front of the product
• Label, design
• Information
• Price
• Association of these different attributes
Which cap do you prefer ??
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Thank you for your attention
It is time for sensory
analysis


p.mongondry@groupe-esa.com

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