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PREPARED NOTES FOR THE 6th GRADE PRESENTATION: NOTE: In order to enter slideshow mode with PowerPoint, press

the F ! "e# on #o$r "e#%o&rd' To e(it slideshow mode, press the Es)! "e# in the $pper le*t )orner o* the "e#%o&rd' +ideos )&nnot %e w&t)hed dire)tl# in PowerPoint, hen)e #o$ m$st le&,e slideshow mode to stre&m them online &t: E&rth-$&"es &nd the H&#w&rd F&$lt 1. Photo courtesy of USGS? 2. ma!e sho"s a destroyed #lour $ill% a result of the 1&'& $(.) earth*uake alo+! the ,ay"ard #ault. -. Prese+tatio+ "ill e.plore the +ature of earth*uakes% "hy a+d "here they occur% a+d "hat the ,ay"ard #ault is. .: /h&t is &n E&rth-$&"e0 1. /arth*uakes be!i+ at a focus% "hich is !e+erally located u+der!rou+d "here t"o blocks of rock meet. 2. 0he epice+ter of the earth*uake is the poi+t o+ the surface of the /arth directly above the focus. -. 0he blocks of rock are attempti+! to move past each other% a+d stress builds up bet"ee+ the t"o. 1. 2he+ e+ou!h stress has built up% a+ earth*uake occurs. a. 3ocks break% a+d seismic "aves spread out i+to the /arth like ripples o+ a po+d. A: 1ASSI+E Ener2# is Rele&sed3 1. ma!es sho" destructio+ after 14&4 5oma Prieta /arth*uake. 6 ma!e at left is i+ Sa+ta 7ru8 $ou+tai+s9. 2. :+ earth*uake correspo+ds to a massive release of e+er!y% "hich "as i+itially the built;up stress bet"ee+ t"o blocks of rock attempti+! to move past each other. -. #rom collapsi+! road"ays to i+duci+! la+dslides that destroy homes% earth*uakes ca+ cause a lot of dama!e. /h&t is Pl&te Te)toni)s0 1. Plate tecto+ics has to do "ith /arth<s crustal i+teractio+s "ith the ma+tle a+d core. 2. :s see+ i+ the photo% heat !e+erated by radioactive decay i+ the /arth<s core is attempti+! to escape to space. -. 5ike boili+! "ater% hot material from the ce+ter of the /arth pushes its "ay throu!h colder material above it% u+til it reaches mid;ocea+ rid!es. 1. :t these rid!es% basaltic% dark lava is erupted% formi+! +e" ocea+ floor. =. :t the co+ti+e+tal;ocea+ic borders% bi! >plates? collide% a+d the de+ser ocea+ic plate si+ks% or subducts% be+eath the less;de+se co+ti+e+tal plate. '. 0he subductio+ of this plate literally dra!s the rest of the plate at the mid;ocea+ rid!e "ith it% allo"i+! +e"% molte+ rock to take its place. (. @ue to this >recycli+!? of the crust% ocea+ic crust is !e+erally $U7, you+!er tha+ co+ti+e+tal crust.

Pl&net E&rth4s Pl&tes 1. Pla+et /arth<s surface is broke+ up i+to about & maAor a+d ma+y more mi+or plates. 2. Plates are made of ri!id% hard material a+d literally >float? atop the less;ri!id asthe+osphere% "ith ma+tle co+vectio+<s heat release pushes them about. -. Plates ca+ meet at - differe+t types of bou+daries: 7o+ver!e+t 6"here t"o plates collide% head;o+9% @iver!e+t 6"here t"o plates are movi+! a"ay from each other% as see+ at mid;ocea+ rid!es% a+d 0ra+sform 6"here t"o plates are movi+! past each other% side by side as see+ "ith the ,ay"ard #ault9. /here do we Find E&rth-$&"es0 1. 0he above ima!e sho"s a map of the "orld a+d recorded epice+ters of earth*uakes from 14'-;144&. a. Botice the patter+s of "here earth*uakes occur. b. ,ave stude+ts look at the clusters of black dots% a+d the+ try to ratio+ali8e the black dots "ith the plate bou+daries i+ the previous slide. 2. C+e "ill +ote that earth*uakes !e+erally occur alo+! maAor plate bou+daries. 0his is due to the stress that accumulates at plate bou+daries. -. /very si+!le black dot is a recorded earth*uakeD he+ce it<s obvious that earth*uakes occur fre*ue+tly. a. + fact% ma+y earth*uakes occur every day% but most are so small that they are +ot felt by huma+s. The In*&mo$s Rin2 o* Fire!3 1. 0he 3i+! of #ire comprises several plate bou+daries alo+! "hich a lar!e +umber of earth*uakes occur. 2. #or i+sta+ce% the "ester+ coast of Borth :merica is tecto+ically active% he+ce earth*uakes occur more fre*ue+tly there tha+ alo+! the less active easter+ coast of Borth :merica. -. $a+y volca+oes are co+ve+ie+tly fou+d alo+! this >ri+!?% as "ell% a+d are very co++ected to the tecto+ic activity belo". 1. t !ets its +ame from the associatio+ of tecto+ic activity "ith earth*uakes a+d volca+ism. 2here earth*uakes occur% volca+oes are also !e+erally prese+t% he+ce the >3i+! of #ire?. =. Eolca+oes typically result from a subducti+! slab 6o+e slab divi+! be+eath a less; de+se slab9 partially melti+! as it e+ters the hotter% deeper /arth<s ma+tle. '. $aterial from the melti+! plate "ill mi!rate up throu!h the rock above it% formi+! volca+oes. F&$lts o* the 5&# Are& 1. 0his satellite ima!e of the Sa+ #ra+cisco Fay :rea sho"s the maAor faults fou+d there. 2. 0he maAor faults i+clude the ,ay"ard #ault% Sa+ :+dreas #ault% 7alaveras #ault% Sa+ Gre!orio #ault% 3od!ers 7reek #ault% 7o+cord;Gree+ Ealley #ault% Gree+ville #ault% a+d the $t. @iablo 0hrust #ault. -. 0he hi!h +umber of active faults i+ the Fay :rea mea+s "e live i+ a tecto+ically active areaG 2e live i+ earth*uake cou+tryG 1. 2e +eed to be prepared for earth*uakes% so that "e ca+ co+ti+ue to live here. /h&t is the H&#w&rd F&$lt0

1. 0he ,ay"ard #ault is a ri!ht;lateral strike slip fault% mea+i+! the t"o pieces of rock are movi+! laterally past each other. 2. f you "ere to sta+d o+ o+e side of the ,ay"ard #ault "hile faci+! the opposite side% you "ould +otice the other side movi+! to the ri!ht 6relative to you9. -. 0he blocks move at H 1 ce+timeter per year past each other% i+ "hat seismolo!ists call fault >creep?. 6,ay"ard #ault creep rate9 1. + the ima!e at left% fi+d the 7laremo+t ,otel% the bi! "hite buildi+! i+ the lo"er ri!ht part of the picture a+d Ferkeley football stadium +ear the middle. a. 0hese are la+dmarks for locati+! the ,ay"ard fault. Foth have bee+ outli+ed i+ yello". b. 0he t"o obAects help to defi+e a rou!h trace for the ,ay"ard #ault% ri!ht alo+! the /ast Fay hills. /here is the H&#w&rd F&$lt *o$nd0 1. 0he ,ay"ard #ault bou+ds the /ast Fay ,ills. 2. 0he recurre+ce i+terval is determi+ed from paleoseismolo!y% i+ "hich !eolo!ists di! tre+ches +ear faults to determi+e "he+ faults ruptured 6had a+ earth*uake9 i+ the past. -. 7urre+tly% the ,ay"ard #ault<s recurre+ce i+terval is thou!ht to be rou!hly I1() years. 1. Si+ce the last earth*uake occurred i+ 1&'&% "e are !etti+! close to bei+! due for the +e.t >Fi! C+e?. =. Cf course% o+e ca++ot predict exactly "he+ a+ earth*uake "ill occur. '. 3ather% o+e ca+ simply be prepared a+d have a dece+t idea as to "hat relative time the *uake may occur. (. # @/S 3/@% "atch Pe!!y ,ell"e! of the U7 Ferkeley FS5 !ive a brief descriptio+ of the ,ay"ard #ault here: H Histori)&l 5&# Are& E&rth-$&"es 1. ,istorical earth*uakes: a. 1&'1% $. =.&% i+ the South ,ay"ard :rea. b. 1&'&% $. '.&.% i+ ,ay"ard. 0his earth*uake "as k+o"+ as the >Great Sa+ #ra+cisco /arth*uake?% u+til its successor occurred i+ 14)' alo+! the Sa+ :+dreas #ault. c. 1&()% $. =.&% i+ Ferkeley. d. 1&&4% $. =.'% i+ east Cakla+d. 2. /arth*uakes have occurred i+ our very rece+t history% a+d they "ill occur a!ai+. -. 0he 1&'& ,ay"ard #ault earth*uake occurred "he+ the Fay :rea<s populatio+ "as much lo"er. 1. 2ith rapidly i+creasi+! populatio+ de+sity% it<s i+creasi+!ly importa+t that "e are prepared for earth*uakes. How do we 1e&s$re E&rth-$&"es0 1. 0he t"o mai+ types of seismic "aves are >P;"aves? a+d >S;"aves?. a. >P;"aves? are compressio+al "aves% mea+i+! the !rou+d is compressed a+d the+ decompressed repeatedly% like a sli+ky movi+! back a+d forth. 6i.e. the !rou+d "ill move up a+d do"+9

b. >S;"aves? are shear "aves% mea+i+! they displace the !rou+d they pass throu!h i+ a directio+ perpe+dicular to their directio+ of motio+. 6i.e. the !rou+d "ill move side to side9 2. 2aves move out throu!h the earth like ripples o+ a po+d% a+d are recorded at seismic statio+s all over the "orld. Seismometers, P&st &nd Present 1. Seismometer at left: Kha+! ,e+! of the 7hi+ese ,a+ @y+asty i+ve+ted this seismometer i+ 1-) 7./. @iffere+t stre+!ths of !rou+d shaki+! caused differe+t si8ed balls to fall from the dra!o+<s mouth i+to the fro!<s. 2. Seismometer at ri!ht: Seismometers today utili8e computers% but they still follo" the same idea that ,a+!<s did over 2))) years a!o. 0he o+e at ri!ht records !rou+d shaki+!% se+di+! it back to a computer for scie+tists to a+aly8e a+d lear+ from. $easures !rou+d shaki+! i+ L% M% a+d K. -. Bote: 7./. I :.@. 1. 5/:E/ PC2/3 PC B0 a+d vie" Pe!!y ,ell"e! of the U7 Ferkeley Seismolo!ical 5aboratory e.plai+i+! several seismometers a+d earth*uake demo+stratio+s here: H 6i*e ne&r the H&#w&rd F&$lt 1. 0he motio+ of the ,ay"ard #ault causes structures such as curbs a+d eve+ the U.7. Ferkeley football stadium to literally be pulled apart% like t"o blocks of "ood slidi+! past each other. 2. 0he U.7. Ferkeley $emorial Stadium lies directly over the ,ay"ard #aultG 0his causes the stadium to literally be pulled apart i+ t"o pieces. -. @ama!e from the ,ay"ard #ault re*uires co+sta+t mai+te+a+ce a+d repair "ork: Streets must be patched% a+d buildi+!s must co+ti+ually be mai+tai+ed 6re; pai+ted% rei+forced% etc.9. 1. /ve+ i+ the abse+ce of earth*uakes% active faults are alive. #ault creep co+tributes a !reat deal to ma+datory repairs i+ buildi+!s% roads% pipes% a+d side"alks. =. 2atch @r. @ou! @re!er of the U.7. Ferkeley Seismo 5ab discuss a possible rupture sce+ario alo+! the ,ay"ard #ault: H How 7&n /e Prep&re *or &n E&rth-$&"e0 1. :+ earth*uake prepared+ess kit ca+ be as e.te+sive as you decide% but there are several vital i+!redie+ts: a. #ood% "ater% flashli!ht "ith batteries% ca+;ope+er 6for food9% bla+ket6s9% small amou+t of cash% basic medicatio+s 6:spiri+% etc.9% a+d other ame+ities ca+ all be +ecessary immediately follo"i+! a+ earth*uake. 2. + the eve+t of a+ earth*uake% po"er a+d commu+icatio+s li+es "ill likely be do"+ for several days. -. t is importa+t that you are able to survive o+ your o"+ 6"ith your family9 immediately follo"i+! a+ earth*uake. /h&t Sho$ld we do D$rin2 &n E&rth-$&"e0 1. 2he+ a+ earth*uake be!i+s% !et u+der a sturdy piece of fur+iture. 2. t is possible that duri+! a+ earth*uake% you "ill +ot be able to move. ,e+ce% taki+! cover is the best optio+.

-. :fter shaki+! has subsided% move outside. $ake sure to move a"ay from structures% trees% po"er li+es% a+d other thi+!s that ca+ pote+tially collapse or i+Aure you. 1. @o +ot re;e+ter a buildi+! u+til it has bee+ deemed structurally sou+d. =. 0C 7CB75U@/ P3/S/B0:0 CB% vie" >Seismo Su8ie? video located at H Should your stude+ts ask% +o. 0heir pets 6do!s% etc.9 ca++ot predict earth*uakes.