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Session 101 - Computational plasticity, Part VIa Room: 4-370, Chairpersons: F.J. Montans and J.C. Glvez

Amit Prashant: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, UP 208016, India Dayakar Penumadu: Department of Civil and Environ. Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Acknowledgements: Financial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) through grants CMS-9872618 and CMS-0296111 is gratefully acknowledged. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this presentation are those of authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF.

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The classical elastoplasticity theory defines the following tangential constitutive relationships. Elasticity, Elastic stiffness, Elastoplasticity, Elastoplastic stiffness,

= E: Eijkl = ij kl + ( ik jl + il jk ) = D:

D = E

where, Q =

and

P=

Here, f is the yield function, g is the plastic potential, and is the Euclidian norm of the tensor.

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Loss of Ellipticity:

The theory of localization defines the condition of continuous bifurcation for elastoplastic deformations across the shear band based on the vanishing of the determinant of acoustic tensor, which is derived from the constitutive stiffness tensor. normal to the shear band, the elastic acoustic tensor B e , and For a unit vector n elastoplastic acoustic tensor B is defined using the equations below.

En Be = n

and

Dn B=n

) E1 ( n E : P) (Q : E : P ) H le = ( Q : E n

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Loss of Strong Ellipticity:

For a nonassociative elastoplastic model (f g), the stiffness tensor D and the acoustic tensors B are not symmetric, and the condition of bifurcation is defined by the vanishing of the symmetric part of the acoustic tensor (loss of strong ellipticity),

1 : n Q E E ( ) sym ( n E : P ) + 1 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 ( Q : E : P ) 1 1 2 {( P : E n ) E sym ( n E : P )} {( Q : E n ) E sym ( n E : Q )}

H lse

The occurrence of shear banding and its orientation is obtained by searching the largest . critical hardening modulus and the corresponding unit vector n

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The present model uses q-p-e space for defining the model surfaces and material hardening, and the material response is assumed to be a function of pre-consolidation stress. Therefore, as an obvious choice in this case, the elasticity model is defined based on the Cam clay elasticity (Schofield & Wroth, 1968)*. The elastic stress-strain compliance matrix:

= Elastic shear strain e p = slope of unload-reload curve in e-ln(p') space Specific volume, v = 1 + e = Poissons ratio

Many clays show a non-linear e-log p relationship during isotropic unloading and the value varies with the mean effective stress; however, the model assumes a constant average value of considering that a small variation of will have less significant influence on the overall stress-strain response during monotonic shear loading. *Schofield, A.N. & Wroth, C.P. (1968). Critical State Soil Mechanics. Maidenhead, McGraw-Hill.

8/24/2005 Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 5

q po 2 f = L ln p p

200 L=1 Dev iatoric Stress, q (kPa) 150

Dev iatoric Stress, q (kPa) 150

200 po' = 300 kPa L=1.2

po'=300 kPa

100

L=0.8

50

L=0.4

300

350

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

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0.6

o = 1.0

Failure Shear Stress, qf/po'

o = 0.9

0.4

o = 0.7

0.2

o = 0.5

M 1

p q f = C f p o p

Cf = 0.5

0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Mean Effective Stress, p'/po'

0 , Cf

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Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 8

250 po'=300 kPa L = 0.8 o = 0.7 Reference Surface: C = Cy = 0.8 Failure Surface: C = Cf = 0.75 Deviatoric Stress, q (kPa) 200

150

p q = C p o p

50

0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Mean Effective Stress, p' (kPa) 350

Cy = Reference surface parameter in proposed model Cf = Reference surface parameter in proposed model

8/24/2005 Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 9

and L define the shape and size of the yield surface Two hardening variables, po at current stress state

vpo po = p p ( ) po =0 p q L =0 p p L = nL (1 ) p q

Mapping Function:

q = qy

Deviatoric Stress, q

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10

p g = 2 1 p po

1 0.5 g/ p' = 0.8 0 -0.5 -1 0 0.5 p'/po' 1 = 1.2 more dilative

0.5 ng = 2 1 ng = 1

g = ng q 1

Asymptotic

0 0 5 10 g/ q 15 20

8/24/2005 Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 11

Proposed Model Parameters Elastic Behavior Cf o Cy nL ng Value 0.016 0.28 0.63 0.9 0.66 0.16 22 0.92 3.5

Plastic potential

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12

200 160 120 Measured 80 80

q (kPa)

Predicted

u (kPa)

Measured

Predicted

OCR = 1

40 0 0 0.06 0.12 Shear Strain, q 0.18 40 0 0

OCR = 1

0.18

q (kPa)

Measured

120

u (kPa)

Measured

80 Predicted Predicted 40

OCR = 1.5

OCR = 1.5

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13

200 160 120 80 40 0 0 0.06 0.12 0.18 Shear Strain, q 200 160 120 Predicted 80 40 0 0 0.06 0.12 Shear Strain, q 0 40 Measured Predicted 40

q (kPa)

Measured

120

u (kPa)

80

Predicted

OCR = 2

Measured 0 0

OCR = 2

0.18

q (kPa)

Measured

80

u (kPa) OCR = 5

OCR = 5

-40 0.18 0

Predicted

0.18

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14

160

q (kPa)

Measured

80

u (kPa)

OCR = 10

40

OCR = 10

0 Predicted

-40 0.18 0

0.18

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15

0 0 Normalized Hardeing Modulus -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5 -0.6 -0.7

8/24/2005 Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 16

10

15

OCR = 5

0.4 Normalized Hardeing Modulus 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8

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OCR = 1

H/G

5

= 35 = 40

= 42 = 42

Plane of possible shear banding

1' 3'

Hlse/G

H = Hardening modulus of the clay Hlse = Critical Hardening modulus

17

0.4 Normalized Hardeing Modulus 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8

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H/G

OCR = 1.5

5 Hlse/G

= 41 = 42

= 43

= 43

Plane of possible shear banding

1' 3'

18

0.4 Normalized Hardeing Modulus 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8

8/24/2005

H/G

OCR = 5

Plane of possible shear banding

1' 3'

= 46 = 46

= 46 = 47

Hlse/G

19

0.4 Normalized Hardeing Modulus H/G 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8

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OCR = 10 5 Hlse/G

= 48 = 49 = 47 = 47

Plane of possible shear banding

1' 3'

Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 20

According to the theory of the vanishing of the acoustic tensor, the onset of shear band type strain localization in a soil element occurs when H = Hlse. This condition was never achieved during hardening regime for the model to predict the onset of localization, which is consistent with the findings of Rudnicki and Rice [5] using a generalized and simple constitutive law for soils and rocks. The angle calculations may not match with the experimentally observed as the theory did not predict shear banding at all. In compression mode it was difficult to observe shear banding visually; however, indirect methods suggested some kind of strain localization at the peak shear stress location. It should also be noted that some other modes of instabilities might occur before shear banding, such as the growing nonuniformities due to undrained instability under globally undrained but locally drained conditions, Rice [4].

8/24/2005 Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 21

Conclusions

The concept of instability based on the vanishing of the acoustic tensor was evaluated using the experimental data obtained from a series of undrained triaxial compression test on normally to highly overconsolidated Kaolin clay. It was shown by a numerical evaluation that the loss of strong ellipticity would occur before the loss of ellipticity for non-associative materials. For all OCR cases, it was observed that a soil element subjected to undrained triaxial compression loading would not experience instability of the acoustic tensor before the experimentally observed failure location. The inclination of the possible weak planes was observed to be a function of the OCR value.

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22

References

Bardet, JP. A comprehensive review of strain localization in elastoplastic soils. Computers and Geotechniques 1990; 10:163-188. Neilsen, MK, Schreyer, HL. Bifurcations in elastic-plastic materials. Int. J. Solids Struct 1993; 30:521-544. Prashant, A, Penumadu, D. Modeling the effect of overconsolidation on shear behavior of cohesive soils. In: Proc. 9th Symp. Num. Models in Geomech., Ottawa, Canada, 2004; 131137. Rice, RJ. On the stability of dilatant hardening of structured rock masses. J. Geophys. Research 1975; 80(11):1531-1536. Rudnicki, JW, Rice, JR. Conditions for the localization of deformation in pressure-sensitive dilatant materials. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1975; 23:371-394. Szab, L. Comments on loss of strong ellipticity in elastoplasticity. Int. J. Solids and Structures 2000; 37:3775-3806

Prashant and Penumadu. Third MIT Conference-2005 23

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