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NETWORKS 3 B1481 4 60

Q. 1 A multiplexer takes several data communication lines or signals and converts them into one data communication line or signal at the sending location. Explain the basic methods of multiplexing. Ans : Multiplexing is the name given to techniques, which allow more than one message to be transferred via the same communication channel. The basic methods are: 1. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) 2. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) 3. Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) 1. Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM: This is a frequency based multiplexing, where many signals are combined for transmission on single communication channel. Within the channel, each signal is assigned a different frequency, which has series of sub channels that enable the transmission as well as allow them to have a parallel flow. The FDM process uses a circuit known as multiplexer that takes input from different users and produces signals of different frequency for each of the input received. This process generates high-bandwidth signals that comprise data of each individual user. At the receiving end a circuit called demultiplexer separates the signals. FDM is widely used in communication network, where input signals are sent and received at high-bandwidth through the long-distance channel. 2. Time Division Multiplexing TDM: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is the process of transmitting the digital data over a single communication channel in the series of alternating time slots. Here each end user is allotted unique time slot. The digital transmission line such as cables and wires enables transmission between the multiplexers. Here, multiplexer goes from one user to the next at specific time interval. For example, the first user place the signal on the transmission line, which passes onto the next user and to another user and so on and then finally back to the first user. The demultiplexer at the receiving end inverts the process and sorts the signal according to the time interval. 3. Space Division Multiplexing SDM: In Space Division Multiplexing (SDM), each signal flows in separate path. This process reduces the concept of cable system. It basically means physically separate cables. It supports many communication channels on one medium. Here, many separate transmission path are grouped into a common cable. An

example can be pair of wires used to communicate in telephone network. A telephone cable consists of hundreds and thousands of twisted pair wires and many conversations can be carried on by this single cable. If there is a great distance from the transmitter, then the radio signal becomes weaker. The space division multiplexing method then makes use of transmission attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Here, demultiplexing concept is not necessary each signal has the independent links or transmitter equipment. Q.2 Write short notes on a. Network quality of service b. Gateways c. Mobile Telephone system d. Geostationary satellites e. Ethernet Ans : a. Network quality of service : Quality of service (QoS) is the overall performance of a of telephony or computer network, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network. To quantitatively measure quality of service several related aspects of the network service are often considered, such as error rates, bandwidth, throughput, transmission delay, availability, jitter, etc. In particular, much technology has been developed to allow computer networks to become as useful as telephone networks for audio conversations, as well as supporting new applications with even stricter service demands. b. Gateway : In simple words, we can describe a gateway as an internetworking system, which is capable of combining two networks that use different base protocols. It is a combination of hardware and software that translates between two different protocols. It also operates as the connection point to the Internet. A gateway is usually associated with both a router and a switch. A gateway operates at the Transport and Network layer of the OSI model. c. Mobile telephone system : Mobile telephone system include a base transmission station with 2 antennas one at mobile and other at base station. With the help of mobile uplink and down link we can make a communication. It is a 5 stage network in which base transmission station work as a server to mobile as a source of electromagnetic radiation. The ten digit no. defines the hand set and by the help of network we can find out mobile location as it is a cell phone. Since the area is divided into geographical area known as cell which provide radiation to the handset. d. Geostationary Satellite : A satellite that orbits the earth is called a geostationary satellite. It is also known as Geo-synchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. It is located at an altitude of approximately 35,838 kilometers directly over the equator. It revolves in the same direction as the earth, that is, from west to east. At this altitude, one orbit takes 24 hours to complete one rotation on its axis just like the earth.

We can access a geostationary satellite using a directional antenna, which is usually a small antenna dish and is directed towards the spot in the sky where the satellite appears to linger. The main advantage of having this type of satellite is that, an earthbound directional antenna can once be directed towards the satellite and then left in the same position without further adjustment. As highly directional antennas are used in this type of satellite, intervention from other surface-based sources or from other satellites are reduced. e. Ethernet : It is Local-area network (LAN) architecture and developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology. It supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps. The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer, by means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC)

Q.3 Describe the architectural framework of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Ans : Integrated architecture framework : The Integrated Architecture Framework (IAF) is an enterprise architecture framework that covers business, information, and information system and technology infrastructure. The Integrated Architecture Framework is: A comprehensive framework to deliver market-leading solutions Adaptable to the specific needs of an organization Scalable from individual projects to enterprise-wide transformation A recognized architecture method in The Open Groups IT Architecture Certification program (ITAC). Integrated and segregated networks : The ISDN network architecture is achieved in a progressive path or gradually. There exists a wide range of telecommunication equipments and networks. We cannot replace them suddenly by ISDN. Firstly, we have to convert the existing analog telephone networks to digital networks. Then, we have to allow the converted networks to operate along with the existing data and signaling networks. This type of networks is referred as Integrated Digital Networks. Thus, we will obtain ISDN architecture initially by providing combined access for a few segregated networks.

Segregated Network Architecture

Integrated Network Architecture

Queuing configurations : The data is fragmented into small packets and numbered sequentially before transmitting it from the source to the destination. These data packets take different paths to reach their destination. At the destination these received data packets are rearranged sequentially before presenting it to the end user. The packets may reach the destination at different intervals due to network problems like congestion, traffic and so on. Queue is used to stack these data sent from the sender to the receiver, when problems like congestion, traffic and so on occur in a network. So, after the link between the sender and receiver is enabled, you have to create a queue. The queue entry must have enough space, which is larger in size, which allows the user defined communications support to make entries. We have to use the following command to create data queues. CRTDTAQ Create Data Queue. We have to use the following commands to create or delete user queues. QUSCRTUQ Create User Queue. QUSDLTUQ Delete User Queue. General format The length of each queue entry must be at least 80 bytes. If you are using a keyed queue, the length of queue entry can be around 336 bytes. It depends on the size of the key Entry ID Definition of entry value supplied to the user-defined communications support.
Command format Bytes Entry type 1-10 Entry ID 11-12 Entry data 13-80 Key 81-336 00 01 02 03 04

Queue Entry General Format

Entry ID Definition

Enable-complete Disable-complete Permanent-link-failure Incoming-data Timer-expired

Enable-complete entry Once the enable link operation is complete, you have to send enable-complete entry to the queue. That entry will be sent only after your application program will receive a successful return and reason code with the help of the Enable Link (QOLELINK) API.
Command format Bytes *USRDFN 1 to10 00 11 to 12 Communications handle 13 to 22 Status 23 Reserved 24 to 80 Key 81 to 336

Enable-Complete Entry Format

Disable-complete entry After the link is successfully disabled, the Disable-Complete entry will be sent to the queue. The user defined communications support always sends this message, on the link, at the end. This entry allows your application program to remove any other entries previously sent to the queue before the link is disabled. You have to send timer-expired entry to the queue after the link is disabled because; your user defined communications support does not have timers with the links.
Format Command format Bytes Specifies *USRDFN 1 to 10 01 Communications handle Reserved Key

11 to 12 13 to 22 Name of the link that has been disabled Disable-Complete Entry

23 to 80 81 to 336 Depends on the Disable-Complete entry

Permanent-link failure entry We have to send this entry to the queue when error recovery is cancelled on the link.
Command format Bytes Specifies *USRDFN 1 to10 02 Communications handle Reserved Key

11to 12 13 to 22 Name of the link that has been failed during operation Permanent-Link Failure Entry Format

23 to80 81to 336 Depends on the Permanent-link failure entry

Incoming-data entry We have to send this entry to the queue when your application program has to receive data from the user defined communications support. When you receive this entry, your application program must call the Receive Data (QOLRECV) API to get the data. You cannot send another incoming-data entry to the queue until your program gets all the data sent from the user defined communications support.
Command format Bytes Specifies *USRDFN 1to10 03 Communications handle 11to12 13 to 22 Name of the link that has received data Incoming-Data Entry Format Reserved Key 23 to 80 81 to 336 Depends on the incoming-data entry

Timer-expired entry We have to send the Timer-Expired Entry to the queue when a timer ends, which is set by your application program previously.
Command format Bytes Specifies *USRDFN 1 to10 04 Timer handle User data Key 11 to12 13 to 20 21to 80 81 to 336 Name of the expired Depends on the expired Depends on the timer-expired timer timer entry Timer-Expired Entry Format

Timer handle

This shows the name of the expired timer. When the Set or Cancel Timer (QOLTIMER) API is called to set the timer, your application program returns this name. Multiple devices ISDN lines can support eight channels simultaneously. We can use this facility when you require multiple services. For example, you may require separate telephone lines for devices like fax, telephone, video conferencing and so on, where as a single line is enough for ISDN line to handle multiple services. We can also connect multiple ISDN devices to a single ISDN line. The devices may include network routers and bridges, ISDN telephones, and so on. For example, you need an ISDN adapter for your computer, which is used to connect ISDN telephone, and Group 4 ISDN fax machine to the same ISDN line. (ISDN telephone is used to make voice calls.) Computer receives incoming data calls, telephone receives voice calls, and fax machine receives fax calls. We can use two or more ISDN lines for greater bandwidth. D channels The two main basic components of ISDN network architecture are Bearer channels (B channels), and Data channels (D channels). B channels are used in applications like transmission of voice, customer video, and data. D channels are used in call-control signalling and in some cases it is used for data applications. Network architecture should meet a set of requirements. That is, a computer network must provide common, reasonable, cost-effective, and strong or healthy connectivity among large number of computers. Q.4 LAN is a privately owned network which spans over a size of up to a few kilometers in a building or a campus. Ans : a. How can LAN be differentiated from other Networks. A local-area network (LAN) is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings; however, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN). LANs have a number of characteristics on the basis of which it is differentiated from other networks: LAN consists of the following characteristics. It: Covers smaller area. Shares the transmission media to all the connected devices. Allows each device in the network to communicate with other device in the network. Transmits data at very high rates.

Provides transmission capacity of more than 1 Mbps. Contains limited number of workstations. Provides less errors and delays. Permits access to other LAN and WAN.

Wireless Network
Wireless network refers to computer network, whose nodes are interconnected without the use of wires. It is associated with telecommunication network. This wireless network is established with the use of radio signals that communicates with the devices or computers on a network. It helps to extend the applications by interacting with other applications present in different parts of a city or any part of the world. Installing wireless Internet in your personal computer enables you to make use of Internet sitting in front of television or in a quiet place away from any kind of noise. These days cell phones are also a good example for the wireless communication network. Wireless LANs As Local Area Network (LAN), the Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN) is a wireless network linking that covers short distances using radio signals. Here, each computer in a building or campus has radio modem and antenna, with which one computer communicates with other within the network. These antennas are often placed on the ceiling. However, if the two communicating computers are close to each other, then peer-to-peer 3network configuration is used, where there is no need for any servers or modems to transfer data. Just like the cordless telephones, wireless LANs allow people to use computer from anywhere within the network area that covers a building or a campus. Q.5 Read the following case study thoroughly and answer the following questions: India is the second most populous country in the world. Even with abundant natural resources, it is still considered a developing country. In India, it is necessary that research and development that has taken place in the field of communication should reach rural areas. This is because nearly 70% of the population lives in villages. In India, physical infrastructure such as roads and highways is still not fully developed. Wired communication requires digging of roads, laying of cables and erecting towers. It involves tremendous human effort and enormous capital outlay in the rural and hilly areas. Hence wireless communication implemented through satellites can play a vital role. Realising the importance of satellite communication, India implemented Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) in 1975-76. This made it possible to broadcast educational and other programs related to family planning, agriculture and health issues through television sets even in the remote areas. This initiative helps in creating awareness and also helps government in bringing developmental schemes to the door step of the masses. An advantage of satellite communication is that, satellites can amplify the signals and resend it to thousands of stations on the ground at the same time. Digital TV and radio programmes can directly reach the receivers found in the cars and homes through a satellite. For large organisations, it has become much cheaper to transmit commercial information to thousands of their dealers scattered across the globe by means of satellites. Wired communication can easily get disrupted when the cables are damaged intentionally or unintentionally. However, microwave satellite communication is not affected even in the adverse environmental conditions. Thus, during the times of natural disasters, the physical infrastructure of wired communication may be destroyed. But still contact can be maintained with the affected people through the satellites. In addition, remote sensing satellites can be used to keep an eye on the enemy movements, determine the locations of natural resources, warn about impeding cyclones and exactly pinpoint the presence of fishes or submerged objects in the oceans or seas. Another form of

wireless communication is the mobile communication. Mobile handsets have made it possible for the people not only to converse among themselves but also carry out banking and e-commerce transactions. Satellites have also made it possible the implementation of Global System for Mobile Communication(GSM) through which wireless Internet can be provided. a. Highlight the advantages of wireless communication over wired communication. b. In what ways, rural India has benefited through satellite communication. Ans : a. Advantages of wireless communication over wired communication Of the most important advantages of wireless networks that have made them spread significantly and replace wired networks: 1. Flexibility (wireless ness): The benefits of wireless networks over wired networks and one of the benefits of this flexibility, as radio waves go through walls and wireless computer you can be in any domain Mkanaly NickServ Point. 2. Ease of use: It is easy to use wireless communication device against wired as there are no such wires plugging here and there which provides a clean and customized environment. 3. Less Budget: The money employed in the wired system is much more than the wireless as there is requirement of extra hardware in comparision to the wireless. 4. Robustness: If wired system has any fault, it is very difficult to treat it, whereas wireless system can easily be treated and used again again which much flexibility. 5. Software Implemented: One of the technical points is that the wireless system is software implemented which means it can be used and customized according to our need. 6. Portable: A wireless system is a portable system means we can move from one place to another while doing our work on wireless system which facility is not provided in wired system. b. Benefits of Satellite Communication in rural India In todays world of wireless communications, high definition television and global access to the Internet, these are the fruit of satellite communication in rural areas. Cost Effectiveness: cost of a satellite capacity does not increase with the number of users/ receivers sites, or with the distance between communication points. Global Availability: Communications satellites cover all land masses and there is growing capacity to serve maritime and even aeronautical markets.

Superior Performance: Satellite is unmatched for broadcast applications like Television. For 2 way Ip networks, the speed, uniformity and end to end control of today advanced satellite solutions are resulting in greater use satellites.

Q. 6 Explain world wide web in detail. Ans : WWW : The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not the same. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the web is one of the services that runs on the Internet. Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser then initiates a series of communication messages, behind the scenes, in order to fetch and display it. In the 1990s, using a browser to view web pagesand to move from one web page to another through hyperlinkscame to be known as 'browsing,' 'web surfing,' or 'navigating the web'. Early studies of this new behavior investigated user patterns in using web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory surfing, window surfing, evolved surfing, bounded navigation and targeted navigation. HTML : Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>, although some tags represent empty elements and so are unpaired, for example <img>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, and the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, further tags, comments and other types of text-based content. The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page. HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts written in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML web pages. HTML markup consists of several key components, including elements (and their attributes), characterbased data types, character references and entity references. Another important component is the

document type declaration, which triggers standards mode rendering. HTML defines several data types for element content, such as script data and style sheet data, and a plethora of types for attribute values, including IDs, names, URIs, numbers, units of length, languages, media descriptors, colors, character encodings, dates and times, and so on. All of these data types are specializations of character data. HTTP : The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a web site may be the server. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content or performs other functions on behalf of the client or returns a response message to the client. The response contains completion status information about the request and may also contain requested content in its message body. A web browser is an example of a user agent (UA). Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers (web crawlers), voice browsers, mobile apps and other software that accesses, consumes or displays web content.