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PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE

1. Thin-wall Pressure Vessel Thin-wall pressure vessel is one whose plate thickness is small compared to the diameter of the vessel. The ratio t/Di is equal to or less than 0.1. 1.1 Circumferential tensile stress The fluid force acting on a longitudinal section of unit length is equal to pd, and for equilibrium of forces may be equated to the resisting force equal to 2tt, where t represents the circumferential, hoop, or tangential stress.

t =

pDi 2t

1.2

Longitudinal tensile stress The fluid force acting on a ring section is equal to 1/4Di2p and for equilibrium of forces may be equated to the resisting force dtl, where sl represents the longitudinal stress.

l =

pDi 4t

Where t = circumferential stress, psi l = longitudinal stress, psi p = internal pressure, psi Di = internal diameter, in. t = wall thickness, in

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE


The formula above is also applicable to thin-wall sphere. 1.3 Joint efficiency or relative strength Joint strength is the ration of minimum strength of joint to the strength of solid plate. Minimum strength of jo int = Strength of solid plate Then considering joint efficiency, Circumferential tensile stress pD t = i 2t Longitudinal tensile stress pD l = i 4t pD l = i 4t 1.4 Factor of safety Factor of safety on specified material strengths is taken as 5.

2. Thick-Wall Cylinder Thick-wall cylinder is one whose plate thickness is large compared to the diameter of the vessel. The ratio t/Di is greater than 0.1. 2.1 Lames formula Tangential stress, t.

t =

pi ri2 po ro2 + ri 2ro2 (pi po ) r 2 ro2 ri2 pi ri 2 po ro2 ri2 ro2 (pi po ) r 2 ro2 ri2

Radial stress, r,

r =

Where: ro = outer radius of cylinder, in. ri = inner radius of cylinder, in. pi, po = internal and external pressure, respectively, psi t = wall thickness, ro ri t = tangential stress, psi r = radial stress, psi Maximum tangential stress at the inside.

t =

pi ro2 + ri 2 2po ro2 ro2 ri2


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A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE


Maximum tangential stress at the outside.

t =

2pi ri2 po ro2 + ri 2 ro2 ri2

Maximum shear stress at the inside surface.

ro2 (pi po ) ro2 ri2


pi ri 2 ro2 1 + 2 ro2 ri 2 r pi ri2 ro2 1 2 ro2 ri 2 r

Tangential and radial stress with zero value for the external pressure.

t = r =

Maximum tangential and radial stress with zero value for the external pressure.

t (max ) =

pi ro2 ri2 ro2 ri2

r (max ) = p i

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE


2.2 Maximum-normal-stress theory
t + pi t = ri 1 p t i Maximum-shear theory s t = ri 1 p s i

2.3

Usually, s = 2.4

2 Maximum-strain theory Birnies equation for open-end cylinders

t + (1 )pi t = ri 1 (1 + )p t i Clavarinos equation for closed-end cylinders t + (1 2 )pi 1 t = ri (1 + )p t i

Where = poissons ratio 2.5 Maximum energy of distortion theory (Octahedral shear stress theory)

t t = ri 1 3p i t
2.6 Longitudinal stress

l =

pi ri2 po ro2 ro2 ri2 pi ri 2 ro2 ri2


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For zero value of external pressure

l =