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# Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India. www.vit.ac.

## in SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL & BUILDING SCIENCES

B.Tech
Engineering Graphics Engineering Graphics Laboratory Tutorial Book

## VIT A place to learn; A chance to grow

INDEX
S No. Date Name of the Tutorial
Manual Only 1 2 3

Marks
[Max 10]

## Signature of the Faculty

Lettering, Numbering and Type of Lines Geometrical Constructions Conics and Special Curves

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Dimension Projection of Points Projection of Lines Parallel to one of the Planes Projection of Lines Inclined to Both the Planes Projection of Lines Inclined to Both the Planes - Finding true length and angle Projection of Solids in Simple Position Projection of Solids with Axis Parallel to one of the Planes Projection of Solids of revolution Orthographic Projection machine components - I Orthographic Projection machine components - II of of simple simple

## Faculty In-Charge Signature

Engineering Graphics
Conic Sections
Ellipse, parabola and hyperbola are called conic sections because these curves appear on the surface of a cone when it is cut by some typical cutting planes.

Common definition of ellipse, parabola & hyperbola: These are the loci of points moving in a plane such that the ratio of its distances From a fixed point and a fixed line always remains constant. The Ratio is called ECCENTRICITY. (E) A) B) C) For Ellipse For Parabola For Hyperbola E<1 E=1 E>1

Second Definition of an Ellipse: It is a locus of a point moving in a plane such that the SUM of its distances from TWO fixed points always remains constant. {And this sum equals to the length of major axis.} These TWO fixed points are FOCUS 1 & FOCUS 2

## Tutorial Geometrical constructions:

1. Draw the different types of lines and name them. 2. Draw a line segment of length 100mm and divide it into 7 equal parts using compass. 3. Draw an arc of a circle of radius 30mm and bisect it. 4. Draw an arc of radius 25mm to touch two given straight lines at 90 degrees to each other. 5. Construct regular polygons with side of 40mm. a) Pentagon b) Hexagon c) Octagon

## Conics and special curves:

1. Construct an ellipse when major axis is equal to 90mm and minor axis 50mm. 2. A boy throws a cricket ball from the top of a building 4m high crosses the top of a palm tree 9m high and falls on the ground. The distance between the building and the tree is 3m. plot the path of the projectile. 3. Construct a rectangular hyperbola when a point P on it is at a distance of 25mm and 30mm respectively from the two asymptotes. 4. A coin of 40mm diameter rolls over a horizontal table without slipping. A point on the circumference of the coin is in contact with the table surface in the beginning and after one complete revolution. Draw the path of the point on the coin. Also draw a tangent and normal at any point of the curve. 5. Draw one turn of the involute of a circle 50mm in diameter. Draw a tangent and normal to the curve at a point 80mm from the centre of the circle.

## Note: Solve Tutorials I to X by free Hand sketching and using Solidworks.

Tutorial I
Redraw the following figures with suitable scale and dimension it as per BIS. 1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Projections of Points
To Draw Projections of any Object, One Must Have Following Information A) OBJECT {With its Description, Well Defined} B) OBSERVER {Always observing perpendicular to resp. Ref. plane} C) LOCATION OF OBJECT {Means its position with reference to H.P. & V.P.}

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Tutorial II
Projection of Points 1. Draw the four quadrants or dihedral angles showing the reference line, quadrants, V.P, H.P, and the angles. 2. Draw the projections of the following points on the same ground line, keeping the projectors 25mm apart. A. In the H.P and 20mm behind the V.P. B. 40mm above the H.P and 25mm in front of the V.P. C. In the V.P and 40mm above the H.P. D. 25mm below the H.P and 25mm behind the V.P. E. 15mm above the H.P and 50mm behind the V.P. F. 40mm below the H.P and 25mm in front of the V.P. G. In both the H.P and the V.P. 3. A point P is 50mm from both the reference planes. Draw its projections from all possible positions. 4. State the quadrants in which the following points are situated: a) A point P; its top view is 40mm above XY; the front view is 20mm below the top view b) A point Q; its projections coincide with each other 40mm below XY. 5. A point P is 15 mm above H.P and 20 mm in front of V.P. Another point Q is 25mm behind V.P and 40mm below the H.P. Draw the projections of P and Q keeping the distance between their projectors equal to 90mm. Draw straight lines joining a) their top views b) their front views. 6. Two points A and B are in the H.P. The point A is 30mm in front of the V.P and the point B is behind V.P. The distance between their projectors is 75mm and the line joining their top views make an angle of 45 with XY. Find the distance of the point B from the V.P.

## Projections of Straight Lines Simple Cases of the Line

1. A vertical line (line perpendicular to HP & // to VP) 2. Line parallel to both hp & VP. 3. Line inclined to hp & parallel to VP. 4. Line inclined to VP & parallel to HP. 5. Line inclined to both HP & VP.

## Terms above & below with respective to H.P.

And Terms Infront & Behind With Respective To V.P. Form 4 Quadrants. Objects can be placed in any one of these 4 Quadrants. It is interesting to learn the effect on the positions of views (FV, TV) of the object with resp. To x-y line, when placed in different quadrants. NOTATIONS Following notations should be followed while naming Different views in projections of points. OBJECT Its Top View Its Front View Its Side View POINT A a a a

Same system of notations should be followed incase numbers, like 1, 2, 3 are used.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Tutorial III
Projection of Lines Parallel to one of the Planes 1. Draw the projections of a line PQ, 50mm long parallel to both H.P. & V.P., 15mm above the H.P. and 20mm in front of V.P. 2. A line PQ 80mm long is parallel to the V.P. and inclined at 45 to the H.P. The end P is 20mm above the H.P. and 15mm in front of VP. Draw the projections of the line PQ. 3. The end P of a line 60mm long is 15mm above the H.P. and 15mm in front of the V.P. The line is parallel to the H.P. and inclined to V.P. The length of the elevation is 40mm. Draw the projections of the line. 4. A line PQ 70mm long lies in the H.P. and has its ends P in both the H.P. and the V.P. It is inclined at 40 to the V.P. Draw the projections of the line. 5. Draw the projections of a straight line CD of 50mm long parallel to V.P. and inclined to V.P. The end C is 10mm in front of the V.P. and D is 30mm in front of the V.P. The line is 15mm above the H.P. 6. A line AB of 70mm long is parallel to and 25mm infront of V.P. Its one end is on H.P while other is 40mm above H.P. Draw the projections of the line and determine its true inclination with H.P. 7. A line AB is on H.P and its one end A is 20mm infront of V.P. The line makes an angle of 45 with V.P and its front view is 60mm long. Draw the projections of the lines and find its true length. 8. An electric switch (A) and bulb (B) fixed on a wall are 5m apart. The distance between them, measured parallel to the floor is 4 meters. If the switch is 1.5 meters above the floor, find the height of the bulb and the inclination of the line joining the switch and the bulb with the floor. 9. A line AB, which is perpendicular to H.P and 80mm long, has its end B 20mm below the H.P and 30mm infront of V.P. Another line AC which is 60mm long is parallel to both H.P and V.P. The midpoint D of the line AC is joined to B. Draw the projections and determine the inclination of the line BD with H.P. 10. A straight line PQ 65mm long is parallel to the H.P and inclined at 48 degree to the V.P. The end P is situated 30mm above the H.P and 30mm infront of V.P. Draw the plan and the elevation of the line PQ and measure the distance between the projectors of the line.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Tutorial IV
Projection of Lines Inclined to Both the Planes 1. A line PQ 75mm long is inclined at an angle of 45 to the HP and 30 to the V.P. The point P is 15mm above the H.P. & 20mm in front of V.P. Draw the projections of the line. 2. A line measuring 75mm long has one of its ends 50mm in front of V.P. and 15mm above the H.P. The top view of the line is 50mm long. Draw and measure the front view. The other end is 15mm in front of the V.P. and is above H.P. 3. A line measuring 80mm long has one of its ends 60mm above of H.P. and 20mm in front of V.P. The other end is 15mm above the H.P. and in front of the V.P. The front view of the line is 60mm long. Draw the top view. 4. The mid-point of a straight line AB is 60mm above H.P. and 50mm in front of the V.P. The line measures 80mm long and inclined at 30 to the H.P. and 45to the V.P. Draw the projections. 5. A line LM 70mm long has its end L 10mm above H.P. and 15mm in front of the V.P. Its top view and front view measures 60mm and 40mm respectively. Draw the projections of the line and determine its inclinations with respect to H.P. & V.P.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Tutorial V
Projection of Lines Inclined to Both the Planes - Finding true length and angle

1. A line GH is 45mm long is in H.P. and inclined to V.P. The end G is in front of the V.P. The length of the front view is 35mm. Draw the projections of the line. And find its true inclination with respect to V.P. 2. The distance between the projectors of the two points A & B is 70mm. Point A is 10mm above H.P. and 15mm in front of the V.P. Point B is 50mm above the H.P. and 40mm in front of the V.P. Find the shortest distance between A & B measure the true length and true inclinations of the line. 3. The distance between the projectors of the two ends of a straight line is 60mm. One end is 15mm above H.P. and 50mm in front of the V.P. The other end is 60mm above the H.P. and 10mm in front of the V.P. Draw the projections and find the true length and true inclinations of the line. 4. A room is 6m x 5m x 3.5m high. An electric bulb is above the centre of the longer wall and 1m below the ceiling and 0.35m away from the wall. The switch for the light is 1.25m above the floor on the centre if an adjacent wall. Determine graphically the shortest distance between the bulb & switch Hint: The longer wall may be taken as V.P., the floor as H.P. and side wall as P.P. 5. The mid-point of a straight line AB is 60mm above H.P. and 50mm in front of the V.P. The line measures 80mm long and inclined at 30 to H.P. and 45 to the V.P. Draw the projections.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Solids
To understand and remember various solids in this subject properly, those are classified & arranged in to two major groups. Group A Cylinder Group B Cone

Prisms

Pyramids

Triangular

Square

Pentagonal

Hexagonal

Triangular

Square

Pentagonal

Hexagonal

Cube
( A solid having six square faces)

Tetrahedron
( A solid having Four triangular faces)

## Dimensional parameters of different solids.

Top Apex Slant Edge Longer Edge Base Base Apex

Base

Edge of Base

Edge of Base

Corner of base

## Sections of solids( top & base not parallel)

Frustum of cone & pyramids. ( top & base parallel to each other)

## LYING ON H.P On one generator. (Axis inclined to Hp

F.V

F.V

F.V

X
While observing Fv, x-y line represents Horizontal Plane. (Hp)

## While observing Tv, x-y line represents Vertical Plane. (Vp)

T.V

T.V
Axis inclined to Vp And // to Hp RESTING ON V.P On one point of base

T.V
LYING ON V.P On one generator. Axis inclined to Vp

## Steps To Solve Problems in Solids

Problem is solved in three steps: STEP 1: Assume Solid Standing on The Plane With Which It Is Making Inclination. If it is inclined to HP, Assume it standing on HP) If it is inclined to VP, Assume it standing on VP) STEP 2: Considering Solids Inclination (Axis Position) Draw its FV & TV. STEP 3: In Last Step, Considering Remaining Inclination, Draw Its Final FV & TV.
GENERAL PATTERN (THREE STEPS) OF SOLUTION: GROUP B SOLID. CONE
AXIS AXIS VERTICAL INCLINED HP

## GROUP A SOLID. CYLINDER

AXIS AXIS VERTICAL INCLINED HP

AXIS INCLINED HP

AXIS INCLINED HP

AXIS INCLINED VP

AXIS INCLINED VP

AXIS

er

TO VP

AXIS INCLINED VP

AXIS

er

TO VP

AXIS INCLINED VP

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Tutorial VI
Projection of Solids in Simple Position 1. Draw the top and front views of a cube of 40mm side resting with one of its square faces on the H.P such that one of the vertical faces is parallel to and 10mm in front of the V.P 2. Draw the projections of a square prism of side of base 30mm and height 50mm resting with its base on H.P such that one of its rectangular faces is perpendicular to V.P. The nearest edge parallel to V.P is 10mm in front of it. 3. A triangular prism side of base 35mm and axis 50mm long rests with its base on H.P such that one of its rectangular faces nearer to the V.P is parallel to and 8mm in front of it. Draw its projections. 4. A rectangular prism, side of base 40mm x 25mm and height 60mm rests with its base on the H.P such that one of its larger rectangular faces is parallel to V.P Draw its projections. 5. Draw the projections of a hexagonal prism, side of base 25mm and height 60mm resting with its base on H.P, such that one of its rectangular faces is parallel to the V.P 6. Draw the projections of a regular pentagonal prism of base 25mm and axis 65mm resting with its base on the H.P such that one of its rectangular faces is parallel to and further away from the V.P 7. A hexagonal pyramid, side of base 25mm and height 50mm rests with its base on the H.P such that one of the edges of the base is inclined at 20 to the V.P. Draw the top and front views of the pyramid. 8. Draw the projections of a cone base diameter 50mm and height 70mm resting with its base on H.P and the axis is 50mm from the V.P. 9. Draw the projections of a cylinder of base of 30mm diameter and axis 50mm long resting with its base on the H.P and axis 25mm in front of the V.P 10. Draw the projections of a right circular cone of base 40mm diameter and height 60mm when resting with its base on the H.P.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Tutorial VII
Projection of Solids with Axis Parallel to one of the Planes 1. A pentagonal prism of base side 40mm and axis length 60mm lies on the H.P on one of its longer edges with its axis parallel to both the H.P and the V.P. One of the rectangular faces containing the resting edge is inclined at 30 to the H.P. Draw the plan and the elevation. 2. Draw the projections of a hexagonal prism of base side 20mm and axis length 50mm when it is lying on the ground on one of its rectangular faces and the axis is inclined at 35 to the V.P. A hexagonal prism side of base 25mm and axis length 60mm long, lies with one of its rectangular faces on the H.P, such that the axis is inclined at 45 to the V.P. Draw its projections. 3. A square pyramid of base side 30mm and axis length 50mm has one of its triangular faces in the V.P and the axis parallel to and 25mm above the H.P. Draw its projections. 4. A pentagonal prism , side of base 25mm and axis 50mm long, rests with one of its shorter edges on the H.P such that the base containing that edge makes angle of 30 to the H.P and its axis is parallel to the V.P. Draw its projections. 5. A hexagonal pyramid, side of base 25mm and axis 50mm long, rests with one of the edges of its base on H.P and its axis is inclined at 30 to H.P and parallel to the V.P. Draw its projections. 6. A hexagonal prism side of base 25mm and axis 50mm long rests with one of its base corners on H.P such that its base makes an angle of 60 to H.P and its axis is parallel to the V.P. Draw its projections. 7. A square pyramid of base side 60mm and altitude 100mm lies on the H.P on one of its triangular faces with its axis parallel to the V.P. Draw its projections.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

. Tutorial VIII Projection of Solids of revolution. 1. Draw the projections of a cylinder of diameter 50mm and axis length 80mm when it is lying on the ground with its axis inclined at 45 degrees to the V.P and parallel to the ground. 2. A cone of base diameter 60mm and altitude 80mm rests on the H.P with its axis inclined at 30 degrees to the H.P and parallel to the V.P. Draw its front and top views. 3. A cone of base diameter 40mm and axis 65mm long is freely suspended from one of the corners of the base with its axis parallel to VP. Draw its projection. 4. Draw the projections of a cone of base diameter 50mm and axis length 70mm when it lies on the ground on one of its generators with its axis parallel to the V.P 5. Draw the projections of a cone base 30mm diameter and axis 50mm long resting on the H.P on a point of its base circle with the axis making an angle of 45 degrees with the H.P and parallel to the V.P.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
It Is A Technical Drawing In Which Different Views Of An Object Are Projected On Different Reference Planes Observing Perpendicular To Respective Reference Plane Different Reference planes are Horizontal Plane (HP) Vertical Frontal Plane (VP) Side or Profile Plane (PP) and Different Views are Front View (FV), Top View (TV) and Side View (SV) FV is a view projected on VP. TV is a view projected on HP. SV is a view projected on PP.

## Engineering Graphics Laboratory, SMBS, VIT University

Tutorial IX
Orthographic Projection of simple machine components.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Tutorial X
Orthographic Projection of simple machine components.

1.

2.