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# Proceedings of PVP2007 2007 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference July 22-26, 2007, San Antonio,

Texas

PVP2007-26456

COMPARISON OF FLANGE STRESS CALCULATED BY ASME DESIGN CODE AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
Satoshi NAGATA Applied Technology Department Technology Business Division Toyo Engineering Corporation Narashino, Chiba JAPAN Toshiyuki Sawa Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Hiroshima University Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima JAPAN

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## 0 0 .08 .16 .24 .32 .4 .48 .56 .64 .72 .8

Fig.2 Gasket Loading-Unloading Curve the contact pair of TARGE169 and CONTA172 elements with the bonded contact option. Lift-off of nut may be omitted due to the results of preliminary analysis. FORMULAS FOR FLANGE STRESS The method to calculate flange stress adopted by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII is based on the research by Waters at el.[3] as it is well known. The followings are the formulas to calculate flange stresses. Longitudinal hub stress

SH =

fM o Lg12 B

(1)

SR =

(1.33te + 1) M o
Lt 2 B
YM o ZS R t2B

(2)

ST =

(3)

## Fig.1 Finite Element Model

Here, the definitions of the symbols used in the above equations are referred to those explained in the Code. These formulas calculate flange stresses where a moment is applied to the flange ring and the other loads are not considered, though the formulas are used for both bolt-up and operating conditions. Figure 3 shows the analytical model for the calculation. The model consists of three parts pipe, tapered hub and flange ring. Since stress on the flange subjected to a moment is solved based on the theory of shell and plate, the calculated stress is essentially classified in bending stress. Thus, SH is considered as the bending stress in the axial direction at the point A of the hub shown in Fig.3. SR and ST are the bending stress in the radial and tangential directions at the point B of the flange ring shown in Fig.3.

## Copyright 2007 by ASME

NPS 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Seating Operating Bolt Load Bolt Load Bolt Load Increment kN kN kN 88.8 88.1 -0.7 99.6 99.4 -0.2 196.1 194.5 -1.6 312.1 306.9 -5.2 307.4 296.1 -11.2 602.3 585.8 -16.6 663.3 637.2 -26.1 809.7 782.1 -27.7 1055.9 1013.4 -42.5 1385.7 1322.7 -63.0 1658.3 1576.0 -82.3 2102.7 1970.7 -132.0 Pressure End Thrust kN 85.9 94.7 186.3 288.3 263.9 534.9 565.0 694.8 899.4 1178.4 1396.7 1711.3 Load Factor -0.187 -0.019 -0.126 -0.198 -0.243 -0.255 -0.288 -0.255 -0.303 -0.356 -0.379 -0.425

Fig.3 Analytical Model for ASME Flange Calculation FLANGES STUDIED Standard flanges, Class 150 WN RF from NPS 2 through NPS 24, standardized in ASME B16.5[4] are studied. Table 1 shows major dimensions for the studied flanges. Schedule 40 piping is assumed to be welded to the flanges. ANALYSIS CONDITIONS Flange stresses are calculated for the gasketed flange joints listed in Table 1 by finite element analysis as well as the formulas according to the Code. Stress is evaluated under the bolt-up condition and the pressurized condition, respectively. The bolt preloads are determined by the flange design bolt load for gasket seating defined in the Code. The operating condition is taken as 1MPa internal pressure for Class 150 flanges at room temperature. Table 1 Dimension of Studied Flanges
NPS 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Flange Flange Hub OD Thk Length mm 152 191 229 279 343 406 483 535 595 635 700 815 mm 19.5 24.0 24.0 25.5 29.0 30.5 32.0 35.0 37.0 40.0 43.0 48.0 mm 35.1 35.4 41.4 51.7 60.5 57.9 68.3 77.1 74.3 82.8 83.7 84.9 g1 mm 12.6 15.0 16.3 19.0 21.7 25.2 31.0 33.3 38.1 38.1 40.5 44.5 g0 mm 3.9 5.5 6.0 7.1 8.2 9.3 10.3 11.1 12.7 14.3 15.1 17.5 Bore mm 52.5 77.9 102.3 154.1 202.7 254.5 303.2 333.4 381.0 428.7 477.8 574.7

Stress Distribution Figure 4(a), 5(a), 6(a) and 7(a) show stress distributions of stress intensity, longitudinal stress, radial stress and tangential stress in NPS24 flange, respectively, obtained by finite element analysis under the bolt-up condition. Figure 4(b) through 7(b) show those under the pressurized condition. Each stress distribution for stress intensity and stress components does not change very much after internal pressure applied from that under the bolt-up condition. The maximum stress intensity appears at the point the hub and the flange ring connected on the back side of hub. Stress evaluation section for the hub stress is taken along the thickness of the larger hub end and the evaluation is done according to Division 2 of ASME B&PV Code Section VIII. Stress evaluation section for the flange ring is also taken along the flange thickness at about the center of the ring.

## Copyright 2007 by ASME

ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:38:09 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=3 SINT (AVG) PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.575213 SMN =.498435 SMX =131.17 .498435 15.017 29.537 44.056 58.575 73.094 87.613 102.132 116.651 131.17

ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:39:45 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=4 SINT (AVG) PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.578247 SMN =1.187 SMX =123.581 1.187 14.786 28.385 41.985 55.584 69.183 82.783 96.382 109.981 123.581

MX MN

MX

MN

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## Fig.4(a) Stress Intensity in Bolt-up Condition

1 ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:38:53 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=3 SY (AVG) RSYS=0 PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.575213 SMN =-88.979 SMX =90.359 -88.979 -69.053 -49.126 -29.2 -9.273 10.653 30.58 50.506 70.433 90.359 1

## Fig.4(b) Stress Intensity in Pressurized Condition

ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:40:06 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=4 SY (AVG) RSYS=0 PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.578247 SMN =-86.701 SMX =89.536 -86.701 -67.119 -47.537 -27.955 -8.373 11.209 30.79 50.372 69.954 89.536

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## Copyright 2007 by ASME

ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:39:05 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=3 SX (AVG) RSYS=0 PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.575213 SMN =-61.662 SMX =108.194 -61.662 -42.789 -23.916 -5.043 13.83 32.702 51.575 70.448 89.321 108.194

ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:40:14 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=4 SX (AVG) RSYS=0 PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.578247 SMN =-49.625 SMX =95.235 -49.625 -33.529 -17.434 -1.338 14.757 30.853 46.949 63.044 79.14 95.235

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## Fig.6(a) Radial Stress in Bolt-up Condition

1 ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:39:28 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=3 SZ (AVG) RSYS=0 PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.575213 SMN =-85.1 SMX =57.094 -85.1 -69.301 -53.502 -37.702 -21.903 -6.104 9.696 25.495 41.294 57.094 1

## Fig.6(b) Radial Stress in Pressurized Condition

ANSYS 10.0A1 FEB 19 2007 17:40:24 PLOT NO. 1 NODAL SOLUTION TIME=4 SZ (AVG) RSYS=0 PowerGraphics EFACET=1 AVRES=Mat DMX =.578247 SMN =-78.887 SMX =76.327 -78.887 -61.641 -44.395 -27.149 -9.903 7.343 24.589 41.835 59.081 76.327

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Fig.7(a) Tangential Stress in Bolt-up Condition Comparison of Flange Stress by ASME and FEA Table 3 shows stress obtained by ASME formulas and finite element analysis. Membrane plus bending stress is evaluated in finite element analysis. Membrane plus bending stress in the longitudinal direction at the section in the larger hub end is taken to compare with the hub stress SH calculated by the equation (1). Membrane plus bending stress in the radial direction and the tangential stress at the section in the flange ring is taken to compare with the radial flange stress SR and the tangential flange ST calculated by equations (2) and (3), in the same manner.

Fig.7(b) Tangential Stress in Pressurized Condition Figure 8 indicates the ratio of the SH calculated by ASME formula to that by finite element analysis. Figures 9 and 10 plot the ratio of the SR and ST to the results by finite element analysis, respectively. Regarding SH shown in Fig.8, the ratio becomes saturated to about 1.5 for larger size flange, though the ratio is over two for NPS10 and smaller. This tendency seems to come from the deviation in the assumptions of the theory adopted in the ASME calculation. For SR plotted in Fig.9, the ratio scatters around 5 and does not show a specific tendency. The discrepancy between the Code formula and finite element analysis is very large. The formula does not seem to

## Table 3(a) Calculated Stress in Bolt-up Condition

NPS 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 SH MPa 129.7 68.6 138.7 122.4 75.7 121.6 96.7 107.7 105.7 95.3 98.5 95.8 ASME SR MPa 126.9 58.6 129.3 124.0 76.7 142.6 149.7 157.2 181.7 138.5 137.3 128.2 ST MPa 75.3 39.2 70.8 53.2 30.7 50.7 43.2 47.0 50.1 37.5 38.8 36.2 SH MPa 41.0 28.2 62.5 59.7 39.8 67.2 60.6 65.0 69.7 60.7 65.8 62.9 FEA SR MPa 16.8 12.9 27.1 21.1 17.4 26.6 39.6 41.9 54.6 34.1 38.7 27.3 ST MPa 36.8 22.8 53.7 46.2 33.0 60.4 59.8 63.6 74.6 57.1 64.3 58.1

represent the actual stress distribution. About ST indicated in Fig.10, the ratio is somewhat small and less than 1.0 for larger size flanges. The tendency that saturation is observed with the size increasing is as same as the ratio of SH. Table 4 shows membrane plus bending stress intensity through the larger hub end and the flange ring obtained by FEA. Stress levels for both sections are almost same. No significant change in the stress level from bolt-up condition to pressurized condition. Table 4 Membrane plus Bending Stress Intensity at Larger Hub End and Flange Ring obtained by FEA
NPS 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Bolt-up Condition Larger Hub End Flange Ring MPa MPa 49.2 64.0 31.0 44.1 65.6 50.5 59.0 98.8 39.5 59.3 66.5 70.0 60.4 57.7 64.6 57.2 69.3 66.3 60.5 87.0 65.8 81.1 63.1 86.3 Pressurized Condition Larger Hub End Flange Ring MPa MPa 50.4 63.3 33.1 43.1 67.3 49.5 58.0 96.5 38.5 56.5 62.9 67.2 56.8 54.0 60.0 55.5 66.4 65.0 57.9 82.5 60.9 76.2 58.5 79.8

## Table 3(b) Calculated Stress in Pressurized Condition

NPS 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 SH MPa 127.5 72.3 141.9 125.7 79.9 123.8 97.3 108.1 105.0 97.8 101.0 96.7 ASME SR MPa 121.6 61.4 131.6 128.0 78.9 143.4 148.4 158.3 177.5 139.4 146.6 128.8 ST MPa 74.9 41.5 72.7 54.9 32.6 51.8 43.6 47.6 49.7 38.6 40.4 37.1 SH MPa 39.6 27.1 60.7 57.2 39.1 63.4 57.0 60.9 65.4 59.4 62.6 60.3 FEA SR MPa 16.0 12.0 25.6 18.6 14.1 22.9 34.0 37.4 48.3 27.0 31.7 20.3 ST MPa 36.1 22.5 53.2 45.2 32.1 58.6 57.9 61.4 72.1 55.2 62.0 55.5

3.5 3.0 Ratio of SH by ASME/FEA 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 NPS
Fig.8 Ratio of Longitudinal Hub Stress SH Calculated by ASME Formula to FEA

## Bolt-up Condition Pressurized Condition

Section Evaluated

## Copyright 2007 by ASME

8.0 7.0 Ratio of SR by ASME/FEA 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 Section Evaluated 2.0 1.0 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 NPS
Fig.9 Ratio of Radial Flange Stress SR Calculated by ASME Formula to FEA

1.5

## 1.0 Section Evaluated 0.5

0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 NPS
Fig.10 Ratio of Tangential Flange Stress ST Calculated by ASME Formula to FEA