# Code No: NR210106

NR

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Viscosity of liquids decreases with increase in temperature, while that of gases increases with increase in temperature. Why? (b) Deﬁne Viscosity, Kinematic viscosity and Newtonian ﬂuid. Give two examples of Non- Newtonian ﬂuids. (c) The shear stress and velocity gradient at a certain point in the ﬂow of a liquid are 0.5 N/m2 and 0.44 per sec. What is the kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid if its relative density is 0.96. [4+6+6] 2. (a) Distinguish between i. standard and local atmospheric pressures, ii. barometric pressure and absolute pressure and iii. absolute pressure and gauge pressure. (b) A diver is working at a depth of 20 m below the surface of sea water (speciﬁc weight = 10 KN/m3 ). Calculate the pressure intensity at this depth. What would be the absolute pressure if barometer reads 760 mm of mercury column at the sea level? [9+7] 3. (a) Deﬁne stream line, path line and streak line. (b) A 20 cm diameter pipe divides into a 15 cm branch and a 10 cm branch. If the total ﬂow is 0.5 m3 /s and if the same average velocity occurs in each branch, what is the discharge in each branch? [8+8] 4. (a) A 15 cm pipe is reduced to 7.5 cm diameter through a gradual contraction. At this contraction the diﬀerence between the piezometric heeds at the main and the contracted section is 4 cm of mercury. By neglecting losses, calculate the discharge of water. (b) Explain what do you understand by HGL and TEL. 5. (a) Diﬀerentiate between i. Stream line body and bluﬀ body ii. Friction drag and pressure drag. (b) A kite 60cm x 60cm weighing 2.943 N assumes an angle of 10o to the horizontal. If the pull on the string is 29.43N when the wind is ﬂowing at a speed of 40 km/hr. Find the corresponding coeﬃcient of drag and lift. Density of air is given as 1.25 kg/m3 . [8+8] [8+8]

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Code No: NR210106

NR

6. (a) Describe Reynold’s experiment with a neat sketch. What are the outcomes of Reynolds experiment. (b) A crude oil of viscosity 0.97 poise and relative density 0.9 is ﬂowing through a horizontal circular pipe of diameter 10cm and of length 10m. Calculate the diﬀerence of pressure at the two ends of the pipe, if 100 kg of the oil is collected in a tank in 30 seconds. [8+8] 7. The population of a city is 8X105 and it is to be supplied with water from a reservoir 6.4 km away. Water is to be supplied at the rate of 0.14m3 per head per day and half the supply is to be delivered in 8 hours. The full supply level of the reservoir is R.L 180.00. and its lowest water level is R.L.105.00. The delivery end of the main is at R.L 22.50 and the head required there is 12m. Find the diameter of the pipe. Take f= 0.04. [16] 8. The discharge in a channel varies from 0.16 m3 /s to 0.74m3 /s. A Contracted rectangular weir is to be constructed across the channel to measure the discharge. Find the length of the weir such that the measured head will never be less than 0.16 m or greater than one third of the length of the weir. [16]

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