You are on page 1of 3

Ripe fruit contains high anti-oxidant

NUR HIDAYAH BINTI ZULKIFLI (D20111048636) INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT FRUIT RIPENING. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Ripening of fruit
Have you ever wondered what causes fruit to ripen? Why do we store some fruits in the refrigerator and some on the counter? Why do we have a special fruit crisper drawer in the fridge? The answer has to do with a plant growth hormone. One plant growth hormone is primarily responsible for the complex transition we call Fruit Ripening. So what would you guess that growth hormone looks like? Do you think it looks more like the protein-based human growth hormone (HGH) or bovine growth hormone (BGH)? Like the synthetic hormone zearalanol, or like other plant hormones like auxins? Or none of the above? In 1901, after studying the street light phenomenon, Dimitry Neljubow showed that the active component causing the plants malformation was a deceptively simple compound: ETHYLENE!

Put unripe apples


in a refrigerated warehouse where you scrub ethylene from the air, and the ripening process can be slowed.

Blueberries are a
wonder fruit. They contain more antioxidants than nearly any other fruit or vegetable, and theyre delicious! But did you know that once theyre picked,

Ripening chart of banana.


walls. In addition, starches are broken down into sugars, making the fruit sweeter and more attractive to animals. Once ethylene gas is produced during fruit ripening, it can initiate the ripening of surrounding fruits as well. This is why unripened fruit ripens faster if placed in a closed space with ripened fruit.

Structural formula of ethylene.


An increase in ethylene gas production usually accompanies fruit ripening. Increased ethylene leads to specific enzyme production, which soften the fruit by breaking down cell

INSIDE THIS ISSUE:


Ripening of fruit.

How does fruit 1 ripening works? Ripe fruit contain highly active antioxidant. What is antioxidant? Importance of anti-oxidant in

How does fruit ripening works?


Lets look at the physical changes that occur when a fruit ripens. Before the fruit is ripe enough to eat, the unripe fruit is green, immature, and not as tasty. It is hard, sour, not fragrant, and is tarchy. These unripe fruits are generally unappealing to humans and animals the latter being important evolutionarily because animals will eat the fruit and disperse the fruits seeds. At the right time , a series of related transformations occur, all caused by the phyll (fruit=green) is broken down by hydrolases revealing anthocyanins (fruit = colored). The fruit becomes less tart as the acids are converted to neutral molecules by kinases. The fruit becomes softer as the amount of pectin is lessened by pectinases. And the fruit becomes fragrant as the large organics are converted to volatile aromatic compounds by hydrolases.

3 3

growth hormone were discussing today. The fruit becomes sweeter as the starches are converted into simple sugars by amylases. The fruit changes from green to colourful as the chloro-

PAGE

6 best high antioxidant fruit 1. Blueberry 2. Strawberry 3. Grapes 4. Kiwi 5. Cranberries 6. Acai Berries

Ripe fruit contains highly active anti-oxidant.


A team led by Bernhard Krutler at the University of Innsbruck has now determined that the breakdown of chlorophyll in ripening apples and pears produces the same decomposition products as those in brightly colored leaves. As the researchers report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, these colorless decomposition products, called nonfluorescing chlorophyll catabolytes (NCC), are highly active antioxidants making them potentially very healthy. The beautifully colored leaves of fall are a sign of leaf senescence, the programmed cell death in plants. This process causes the disappearance of chlorophyll, which is what gives leaves their green color. For a long time, no one really knew just what happens to the chlorophyll in this process. In recent years, Krutler and his team, working with the Zurich botanists Philippe Matile and Stefan Hrtensteiner, have been able to identify the first decomposition products: colorless, polar NCCs that contain four pyrrole ringslike chlorophyll and heme. Now the Innsbruck researchers have examined the peels of apples and pears. Unripe fruits are green because of their chlorphyll. In ripe fruits, NCCs have replaced the chlorophyll, especially in the peel and the flesh immediately below it. These catabolytes are the same for apples and pears, and are also the same as those found in the leaves of the fruit trees. There is clearly one biochemical pathway for chlorophyll decomposition in leaf senescence and fruit ripening, concludes Krutler. When chlorophyll is released from its protein complexes in the decomposition process, it has a phototoxic effect: When irradiated with light, it absorbs energy and can transfer it to other substances. For example, it can transform oxygen into a highly reactive, destructive form. As the researchers were able to demonstrate, the NCCs have an opposite effect: They are powerful antioxidants and can thus play an important physiological role for the plant. It then became apparent that NCCs are components of the diets of humans and other higher animals, and that they could thus also play a role in their systems. Other previously identified important antioxidants in the peels of fruits include the flavonoids. Thus, the saying, an apple a day keeps the doctor away seems to be true, according to Krutler.

PAGE

What is anti-oxidant?
What exactly are antioxidants and why do we need them? Antioxidants are nature's way of fighting off potentially dangerous molecules in the body. Such molecules come in the form of synthetic chemicals such as pesticides, plastics, and chlorine byproducts and are called free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that essentially feed off of otherwise healthy molecules in order to survive. Every day tens of thousands of free radicals are generated within the body, causing cell damage that can lead to chronic and degenerative designed to create a certain amount of antioxidants on its own however, and as we are faced with an ever-growing number of environmental toxins, the body is less capable of fighting off the unwanted and very harmful invaders in daily life. Fruits and vegetables provide the body with an added source of antioxidants that is needed to properly wage war against free radicals. Without the necessary intake of healthy fruits and vegetables, free radicals can spread and eventually lead to stroke, heart attack, arthritis, vision problems, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and various types of cancer.

diseases if left unchecked . The body sometimes creates its own free radicals in order to destroy viruses or bacteria. To balance out these unruly molecules, the body also creates antioxidants, which have the sole purpose of neutralizing free radicals. The body is only

The importance of anti-oxidant in fruits .


The benefits of getting your daily dose of fruits and vegetables are numerous! The antioxidant, Vitamin E, is wonderful for your heart. Vitamin E has the ability to essentially "mop up" the LDL ("bad") cholesterol in your arteries, allowing for the necessary elasticity and blood pressure levels to keep your heart pumping safely. Eventually, plaque buildup can become so severe that it can create a blockage in the artery, leading to heart attack or stroke. By getting enough Vitamin E in your diet you can give your body the necessary antioxidants to prevent your LDL cholesterol levels from increase. Antioxidants can protect you against diabetes related damage. Free radicals thrive in the altered metabolic states of diabetics. But with the necessary antioxidants that fruits and vegetables can provide, free radicals can be neutralized, protecting your kidEating fruits and vegetables can slow down the loss of muscle elasticity that leads to wrinkles, boost your immunity making you less susceptible to illness, and put the breaks on memory failure, as free radicals injure the brain cells necessary for retaining information. Antioxidants are available in supplement form but are the most powerful when found in whole foods. The best practice is to combine a "greens" supplement (containing vitamins, minerals and antioxidants found in produce) with the recommended 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Leafy vegetables, like spinach and collard greens, and orange colored fruits and vegetables such as mangos, oranges, cantaloupe, sweet potatoes and carrots are all excellent sources of the antioxidant beta-carotene.

neys, blood vessels, eyes and heart from harmful damage. Free radicals cause cancer cells to grow. Many studies have linked cancer. Eating your fruits and vegetables may not prevent cancer altogether, but can give your body the fighting chance that it needs. Antioxidants can neutralize cancer cells before they develop into a mass.

Antioxidants slow the effects of aging! Free radicals damage the cells within our body that are vital to a youthful appearance and good health.