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Chapter 4 Biomechanics of rezistance training Musculoskeletal system Skeleton the human muscles cannot exert force directly on the

e ground (pushing force), they pull on bones which move through a joint and exert both pulling and pushing actions. The skeleton is made up of 206 bones (aprox.) and is deviden in 2 groups Axial skeleton - bones of the cranium. Vertebral column, ribs and sternum

The vertebral column is made of distinct vertebra region 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 3-5 coccygeal. Appendicular skeleton bones of the shoulder (clavicle, and scapula), bones of the arms (humerus, radius, ulna) bones of the wrist and hand (carplas, metacarpals, phalanges), bones of the pelvic gridle (coxal bone), of the legs (femur, fibula, tibia, patella,) bones of the ankle and feet (tarsal, metatarsal and phalangs).

Links between bones are called joint (ligaments) and are devide into 3 groups Fibrous joint (dosent allow movement, bones of the craium) Cartilaginous joint (allow little movement, v.c. joint) Synovial joint (allow movement)

They are also classified by their direction of movement Uniaxial joint (allows movement in one direction ex. Elbow,knee) Biaxial joint (move in 2 directions, wrist, ankle) Multiaxial joints (mov in 3 directions, shoulder, hip )

Skeleton musculature Origin (proximal) of a muscle : its place of attachment toward the center of the body Insertion (distal) of a muscle : its the place of attachment toward the center of the body Muscles attach to bones in 2 ways : Tendons Fleshy attachments

A person that has muscle insertion farther from the joint center should be able to lift heavier weight, because muscle can act through a longer moment arm and can produce more torque around a joint. A person that has muscle insertion closer to the joint can perform the movement more quickly, but produce less max. strength.

The muscle involved in performing a movement, is called the prime mover or agonist, the muscles that help stop and stabilize the movement are called antagonist. Synergist is a muscle that acts as a prime mover over 2 joint. Levers of the musculoskeletal system check the book Anatomical planes Sagittal slices the body in left-right Frontal slices the body in front and back Transverse slices the body in up and down Strength and Power Force Mass x Acceleration (force is mesurate in newtons) Power WORK/TIME OR FORCE x VELOCITY (mesurate in wats or jouls/sec) Work Froce/Distance (actual distance)(mesurate in jouls or newton x meters) Torque Force/Distance (movement arm distance) (newton x meters) Rotational work Torque x Angular displacement (angle of rotation measured in rads 1 rad = 57.3 degrees) Angular velocity rotational speed (mesurate in rad/sec.) Factors that influence human strength Neural control the central nervous system determines how many muscle fibers are involved in an muscle action and the rate of fire of the muscle. Force is greater when : more motor units are involved in the action, motor units are greter in size, the rate of firing is faster. Musch of the force gains made in the first few weeks is attributed to neural adaptations. Muscle cross section area the force that can be produced by a muscle is related to its cross section area. Arrangement of muscle fibers pennate muscle has fibers arranged oblique with the tendon. A high pennated muscle is able to exert more force at high speed, and is somewhat disadvantageous for slow speed concentric, isometric and eccentric strength. Muscle length when the muscle is at rest the actin and myosin fibers lie next to each other so the max number of potential cross bridges are available. When the muscle si stretched beyond its resting limit a smaller proportion of actin and myosin fibers lie next to each other so fewer cross bridge site are available so the muscle cannot generate as musch force as at its resting length. When the muscle

contracts bellow its resting length the myosin and actin filaments overlap so the number of cross bridges is also reduced. Joint angle the amount of force that a muscle can generate to rotate a joint is expressed in torque. Torque is depend upon the distance of the moment arm and as the joint rotates it affects its moment arm length and thus torque is increased or decreased. Muscle contraction speed the max. force that a muscle can generate is dependent upon its speed of contraction. Slow speed contraction means greater force whereas high speed contraction means lower force and higher power. Joint angular velocity as with force, torque is influenced by the speed of contraction (speed of movement about a joint) As the rotation increases the torque decreases. Strength-to-mass Ratio if all competitors have the same mass the stronger athlete will have a clear advantage. If after a training program an athlete increases its body mass by 15% and its strength 10%, his strength is compromised. Larger athlets have lower strength-mass ratio and smaller athlets. Body size smaller athletes are stronger pound/pound the larger athlets. Joint biomechanics concerns in training. Back when we stand upright al the force we produce with the upper body is transmitted through the back and legs on to the ground. Back muscles act at an extremely low mechanical advantage an must exert great amount of force makes them prone to injury. When a heavy WEIGHT os lifted low back muscles because of their low mechanicl advantage have been found to exert forces that exeed 10 times the weight of the athlete. This high forces act to squeeze the intervertebral disk and can lead to herniated disks. Between 85-90% of all herniated disk appear at L4-L5-S1. The flat back position has been found to be better overall to avoid herniated disk the the arched and round back position. Intra abdominal pressure and lifting belts an increase in tension in the abdomen (fluid ball) has been found to aid in supporting the vertebral column. This method has been found to limit the compressive force on the intervertebral disk. The Valsalva maneuver air in inhaled and kept from exiting the lungs, intrabdomial pressure is created the chest is inflated and the result is a strong support for the vertebral column. But with the valsava maneuver the is an increase in blood pressure, which can lead to blackout.The abdominal fluid ball can be created without pressurizing the chest and avoid serious injury that can accour from blackouts, and avoid an increase in blood pressure. Lifting belts have been found to create a a greater support and reducing the force on the vertebral column. The lifting belts has also negative consequences because its stop stimulating the abdomen to grow. Lifting belts should the used only in some particular conditions : 1. Only for exercises that directly stress the low back 2. Only for max. and near max. low back exercises

Shoulders Its prone to injury because of its structure and the high forces that is subjected during training. Its the body most mobile joint, and its high mobility increases its high injury rate. Its extreme crowded structure means that a small inflammation leads to friction with adjacent structures resulting in inflammation, tendinitis and degeneration of tissue. To avoid shoulder problems is particularly important to warm-up the joint with light loads and fallow a balanced training program. Its best to execute an exercise in a controlled manner and decelerate the bar slowly during the eccentric phase rather the decelerate it sharply which can lead to shoulder injury. Knee is prone to injury because of its location in between to long levers. Movement at the knee occurs only in sagittal plane. In dosent take much torque in transvers and frontal plane to cause serious injury to the knee. The patella is the tendon that is prone to injury during resistance training. The high forces encountered during R.T. can lead to tendinitis (swelling and tenderness)