# Code No: R050210201

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between (i) standard and local atmospheric pressures, (ii) barometric pressure and absolute pressure and (iii)absolute pressure and gauge pressure. (b) A diver is working at a depth of 20 m below the surface of sea water (speciﬁc weight =10kN/m3 ). Calculate the pressure intensity at this depth. What would be the absolute pressure if barometer reads 760 mm of mercury column at the sea level? [8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne the equation of continuity. Obtain an expression for continuity equation for a one- dimensional ﬂow (b) A pipe of diameter 40 cm carries water at a velocity of 25 m/s. The pressures at the point A and B are given as 29.4 N/cm2 and 22.56N/cm2 respectively while the datum head at A and B are 28 m and 30 m. Find the loss of head between A and B. [8+8] 3. (a) Deﬁne Major Energy Loss and Minor Energy Loss. (b) Brieﬂy explain Hydraulic Gradiant Line and Total Energy Line. (c) The rate of ﬂow of water through a horizontal pope is 0.3m3 /sec. The diameter of the pipe is suddenly enlarged fron 25cm to 50cm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is 1.4Kgf /cm2. Determine loss of head due to sudden enlargement, pressure intensity in the large pipe and power lost due to enlargement. [4+4+8] 4. (a) Derive the expressions for force and work done per second by the jet when it strikes the inclined plate moving in the direction of the jet. (b) A jet of water of diameter 70mm moving with a velocity of 40m/sec strikes a curved ﬁxed plate tangentially at one end at an angle of 300 to the horizontal. The jet leaves the plate at an angle of 200 to the horizontal. Find the force exerted by the jet on the plate in the horizontal and vertical direction. [8+8] 5. (a) What are the elements of hydroelectric power stations ? Write elaborately about any two of them with neat sketches. (b) A turbine with an eﬃciency of 90% is to installed in a hydroelectric plant. The head and discharge available at the plant are 40m and 25m3 /sec respectively. The turbine has to run at 120rpm. What is the power developed and what is the type of turbine based on speciﬁc speed. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: R050210201

Set No. 1

6. (a) What is an axial ﬂow turbines ? What are its parts ? Explain with sketches. (b) Derive the equation for work done on the runner of an axial ﬂow turbine from fundamentals. [6+10] 7. (a) What are the constant eﬃciency curves of a hydraulic turbine ? Sketch them and explain their uses (b) A Francis turbine is working under varying conditions and the head drops down from 48m to 35 m. How will the speed , discharge and power change under constant eﬃciency and homologous conditions. [6+10] 8. (a) Derive the equation for work done by the impeller of a centrifugal pump on the ﬂuid handled. What are diﬀerent eﬃciencies of centrifugal pump ? (b) Explain the working of a reciprocation pump with a neat sketch showing all the components. [10+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R050210201

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) State Newtons equation of viscosity and give examples of its application. (b) An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve. The diameter of shaft is 0.5 m and it rotates at 200 rpm. Calculate the horse power lost in the oil for a sleeve length of 100 mm. The thickness of the oil ﬁlm is 1.0 mm. [8+8] 2. (a) Derive the equation of continuity for one dimensional ﬂow of an incompressible ﬂuid. (b) Explain the terms: i. Path line ii. Stream line iii. Streak line. 3. (a) Derive the Darcy-weisbach equation for friction head loss in a pipe. (b) Water is ﬂowing through a horizontal pipe line 1500m long and 200mm in diameter. Pressures at the two ends of the pope line are respectively 12Kpa and 2Kpa. If f = 0.015, determine the discharge through the pipe in litres per minute. Consider only frictional loss. [8+8] 4. (a) Derive an expression for force exerted by a jet on stationary inclined ﬂat plate. (b) A nozzle of 50mm diameter delivers a stream of water at 20m/sec perpendicular to a plate that moves away from the Jet at 5m/sec.ﬁnd i. the force on the plate ii. work done and iii. the eﬃciency of jet.

[8+8]

[7+9]

5. (a) What are the components of a mass curve ? What are its properties ? Explain how it is constructed from a hydrograph. (b) Draw a neat sketch of a hydro power plant and show clearly the various elements. Explain about the elements clearly and elaborately. [8+8] 6. (a) What is jet ratio and angle of deﬂection of jet in hydraulic design of a Pelton wheel ? What are the hydraulic functions of casing of a Pelton wheel ? (b) Why is the reaction turbine outlet placed above the tail water level. Of the cylindrical and conical draft tubes which one is preferable and why. Explain your answers with neat sketches. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: R050210201

Set No. 2

7. (a) Show the governing mechanism of a Pelton wheel turbine with a neat sketch and explain how it works. (b) A Francis turbine produces 6750 Kw at 300 rpm under a net head of 45m with an overall eﬃciency of 85%. What would be revolutions per minute, discharge and brake power of the turbine under a net head of 60m under homologous conditions. [8+8] 8. (a) What equation is employed to ﬁnd the work done by the impeller of a centrifugal pump. Derive the equation for work done. (b) What are the equations for work done and discharge of a reciprocating pump ? Deﬁne the slip and coeﬃcient of discharge of a reciprocating pump. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R050210201

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between (i) standard and local atmospheric pressures, (ii) barometric pressure and absolute pressure and (iii)absolute pressure and gauge pressure. (b) A diver is working at a depth of 20 m below the surface of sea water (speciﬁc weight =10kN/m3 ). Calculate the pressure intensity at this depth. What would be the absolute pressure if barometer reads 760 mm of mercury column at the sea level? [8+8] 2. (a) Under what conditions a stream line coincides with a streak line. (b) Flow of water in a river during ﬂoods varies with time. How is the ﬂow described? (c) Water ﬂows through a horizontal conical pipe, with diameter at the larger end as 1.3 m and that at the smaller end as 0.70 m. the pressure head at the smaller head is 5 m of water, and the discharge is 3.5 m3 /sec. Calculate the velocities at the two ends and the pressure head at the larger end. Neglect losses. [4+4+8] 3. (a) Derive an equation for discharge of a venturimeter. (b) Explain why Cd of a venturimeter is more than that of oriﬁce meter. (c) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet and throat diameters 300mm and mm respectively is used to measure the ﬂow of water. The pressure intensity at inlet is 130KN/m2 . While the vaccum pressure head at the throat is 350mm of mercury. Assuming that 3% of head is lost in between inlet and throat, ﬁnd Cd of venturimeter and rate of ﬂow. [6+2+8] 4. (a) Derive an expression for the force exerted by a jet striking the curved plate at one end tangentially when the plate is symetrical. (b) A jet of water 120 mm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 25m/sec strikes normally on a ﬂat plate. Determine the power developed and the eﬃciency of the system when i. the plate is stationary ii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec in the direction of the jet. And iii. the plate is moving with a velocity 8m/sec towards the jet. [7+9]

1 of 2

Code No: R050210201

Set No. 3

5. (a) What is the name of hydroelectric power station that uses the ﬂow of stream as it is available ? How do you compare this with reservoir or storage type of power station ? Explain with neat sketches if necessary. (b) The hydro power plant has a turbine with the following details. Find the power developed and what is the speciﬁc speed of the turbine. Hydraulic eﬃciency = 90%. Net head =65m1 discharge=15m3 /s, speed=100 rpm [8+8] 6. (a) What are the important parts of a reaction turbine ? Draw neat sketches and explain. (b) What is moment of momentum equation ? Using the equation derive the equation for work done on the runner of a reaction turbine. [6+10] 7. (a) What are the constant eﬃciency curves of a hydraulic turbine ? Sketch them and explain their uses (b) A Francis turbine is working under varying conditions and the head drops down from 48m to 35 m. How will the speed , discharge and power change under constant eﬃciency and homologous conditions. [6+10] 8. (a) Deﬁne i. ii. iii. iv. Theoretical discharge Actual discharge Slip and Coeﬃcient of discharge of reciprocating pump

(b) A single acting reciprocating pup has a 25 cm cylinder with a stroke of 40 cm. The diameters of suction and delivery pipes are 15 cm and 20 cm respectively. If the speed of the pump is 30 rpm, what is the maximum velocity and acceleration of water in delivery and suction pipes ? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R050210201

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Obtain an expression for capillary rise of a liquid. (b) The velocity distribution over a plate is given by V = 1/3 y -y 2 in which v is the velocity in m/sec at adistance y metres obve the plate. Determine the stress at y = 0 and y = 0.1 m. Take µ = 0.835N − s/m2 [8+8] 2. (a) Write three important basic equations of ﬂuid ﬂow. Explain them. (b) What are the diﬀerent types of ﬂuid ﬂow? Explain. 3. (a) Derive an equation for discharge of a venturimeter. (b) Explain why Cd of a venturimeter is more than that of oriﬁce meter. (c) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet and throat diameters 300mm and mm respectively is used to measure the ﬂow of water. The pressure intensity at inlet is 130KN/m2 . While the vaccum pressure head at the throat is 350mm of mercury. Assuming that 3% of head is lost in between inlet and throat, ﬁnd Cd of venturimeter and rate of ﬂow. [6+2+8] 4. (a) Derive the expressions for force and work done per second by the jet when it strikes a curved plate moving in the direction of the jet. (b) A jet of water 20cm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 20m/sec impinges normally on a series of ﬂat vanes mounted on the periphery of a wheel. If the velocity of the vanes is 8m/sec, determine i. the force exerted by the jet on the wheel ii. work done by the jet on the wheel per second and iii. hydraulic eﬃciency. [8+8]

[7+9]

5. (a) What are the elements of hydro electric power plants ? Describe about water ways and penstocks with neat sketches if necessary. (b) The catchment area at a proposed site for a hydropower plant is 200 Km2 and possible head of water is 140 m. The average annual rainfall is 145 cm and the losses are 16%. How much power can be developed ? [8+8] 6. (a) What is draft tube and what are its functions in a reaction turbine. (b) Derive the equation for work done in Pelton wheel turbine from fundamentals. [6+10] 7. (a) Why is governing of turbines required ? What are the main components of governing mechanism for a Pelton wheel turbine ? Draw a neat sketch and explain. 1 of 2

Code No: R050210201

Set No. 4

(b) A hydraulic turbine generates 7500 Kw under a net head of 150m at a speed of 300 rpm. Hydraulic eﬃciency and mechanical eﬃciency are 92 % and 85% . Determine the discharge, speciﬁc speed of the turbine and type of turbine. [8+8] 8. (a) Why does a centrifugal pump get its name ? Explain the working of a centrifugal pump with a neat diagram showing diﬀerent parts. (b) Explain clearly the eﬀect of acceleration of piston on velocity and pressure in suction pipe and delivery pipe. Deﬁne slip and coeﬃcient of discharge and write their equations. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2