# Code No: R050210104

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the phenomenon of Capillarity. Obtain an expression for capillary rise of a liquid. (b) A pressure gauge is ﬁtted at the bottom of a closed vessel to which a simple manometer is also ﬁtted as shown in ﬁgure Determine the reading indicated by the pressurge gauge if manometric liquid is mercury. (ﬁgure1) [8+8]

Figure 1: 2. (a) What do you mean by Hydrostatic pressure. (b) Deﬁne Total pressure and centre of pressure (c) A circular plate 2.5m in diameter is submerged in water as shown in ﬁgure 2. Its greatest and least depths below free surface of water are 3m and 2m respectively. Find i. Total pressure on front face of the plate and ii. the position of centre of pressure 3. (a) Describe brieﬂy diﬀerent methods of drawing ﬂow nets. (b) The velocity vector in an incompressible ﬂow is given by V = (6xt + yz 2 )i + (3t + xy 2 )j + (xy − 2xyz − 6tz)K i. Verify whether the continuity equation is satisﬁed 1 of 3 [3+4+9]

Code No: R050210104

Set No. 1

Figure 2: ii. Determine the acceleration vector at point A (1,1,1) at t = 1.0 4. (a) Deﬁne potential head, velocity head and datum head. (b) List out the assumptions and limitations of Bernoullis equation. (c) 360 liters per second of water is ﬂowing in a pipe. The pipe is bent by 1200 The diameters at the inlet and outlet of the bend being 360 mm 240 mm respectively and volume of the bend is 0.14m3 . The pressure at the entrance is 72KN/m2 and the exit is 2.4m above the entrance section. [3+3+10] 5. (a) What are the boundary conditions that must be satisﬁed by a given velocity proﬁle in laminar boundary layer ﬂows. (b) Describe von-karman momentum integral equation. (c) A smooth ﬂat plate of length 5m and width 2m is moving with a velocity of 4m/sec in stationary air of density as 1.25KG/m3 and kinematic viscosity 1.5 × 10−5 m2 / sec Determine thickness of the boundary layer at the trailing edge of the smooth plate. Find the total drag on one side of the plate assuming that the boundary layer is turbulent from the very beginning. [8+8] 6. (a) Derive the expressions for discharge per unit width and shear stress for ﬂow of viscous ﬂuid between two parallel plates when one plate is moving and other at rest. (b) Two parallel plates kept 75 mm apart have laminar ﬂow of glycerin between them with a maximum velocity of 1 m/sec. Calculate the diﬀerence in pressure between two points 25 m apart and the velocity gradients at the plates and velocity at 15 mm from the plate. Take viscosity of glycerine as 8.35 poise. [8+8] 7. (a) Derive the Darcy - Weisbach equation for friction head loss in a pipe . (b) Water is ﬂowing through a horizantal pipe line 1500m long and 200 mm in diameter. Pressures at the two ends of the pipe line are respectively 12 kpa and 2 kpa. If f = 0.015, determine the discharge through the pipe in litres per minute. Consider only frictional loss. [8+8] [8+8]

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Code No: R050210104

Set No. 1

8. (a) Deﬁne coeﬃcient of discharge, coeﬃcient of contraction and coeﬃcient of velocity. What is the relation among them. (b) Derive the formula for velocity of ﬂow through an oriﬁce. (c) A 4cm diameter oriﬁce in the vertical side of a tank discharges water. The water surface in the tank is at a constant level of 2m above the center of the oriﬁce. If the head loss in the oriﬁce is 0.2 m and the coeﬃcient of contraction can be assumed to be 0.63 estimate i. the values of the coeﬃcient of velocity and coeﬃcient of discharge ii. the discharge through oriﬁce and iii. location of point of impact of the jet on a horizontal plane located 0.5 m below the center of oriﬁce. [6+4+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050210104

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between i. ii. iii. iv. Speciﬁc weight and speciﬁc volume Density and Relative Density Adhesion and cohesion Dynamic and Kinematic viscosities

(b) An object having an area of 1.2m2 is sliding down an inclined plane at 400 to the horizontal with a velocity of 0.42m/sec. There is a thin ﬁlm of ﬂuid 2.2 mm thick between the sliding object and the plane. If the weight of the object is given by 320 N, ﬁnd the viscosity of the ﬂuid. [8+8] 2. (a) Explain how you would ﬁnd the resultant pressure on a curved surface immersed in a liquid. (b) A plane area in the form of a right angle triangle of height ‘h’ is immersed vertically in water with its vertex at the water surface. Calculate the total force on one side of the triangular plane and the location of centre of pressure. [8+8] 3. (a) Describe brieﬂy diﬀerent methods of drawing ﬂow nets. (b) The velocity vector in an incompressible ﬂow is given by V = (6xt + yz 2 )i + (3t + xy 2 )j + (xy − 2xyz − 6tz)K i. Verify whether the continuity equation is satisﬁed ii. Determine the acceleration vector at point A (1,1,1) at t = 1.0 [8+8]

4. (a) Starting with Eulers equation of motion along stream line, obtain Bernoullis equation by its integration. List all the assumptions made. (b) A pipe line carrying oil ( speciﬁc gravity 0.8) changes in diameter from 300 mm at section 1 to 600 mm diameter at section 2 which is 5 m at higher level. If the pressures at section 1 and 2 are 100kN/m2 and 60KN/m2 respectively and the discharge is 300 lit/sec, determine i. loss of head and ii. Direction of ﬂow. [7+9]

5. (a) Explain why the boundary shear stress in a turbulent boundary layer is more than in a laminar boundary layer for the same Reynolds number. (b) Explain clearly the concepts of displacement and momentum thickness of a boundary layer. 1 of 2

Code No: R050210104

Set No. 2

(c) A thin plate is moving in still atmospheric air at a velocity of 4 m/ sec. The length of plate is 0.5 m and width 0.4m calculate i. thickness of boundary layer at the end of the plate and ii. drag force on one side of the plate. Take density of air as 12.5kg/m3 and kinematics viscosity as 0.15 stokes. [4+3+9] 6. (a) Derive Hagen poiseuille equation and state the assumptions made. (b) A ﬂuid of viscosity 0.5 poise and speciﬁc gravity 1.2 is ﬂowing through a circular pipe of diameter 10 cm. The maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is given as 147.15 N/m2 Find pressure gradient, average velocity and Reynolds number of the ﬂow. [8+8] 7. (a) Drive an expression for head loss due to sudden enlargement of a pipe. (b) An oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.85 and viscosity 5CP ﬂows through a pipe of diameter 400 mm at the rate of 50 lit/sec. Find the head lost in friction in this pipe of length 1000 km. Assume that f = 0.079/RN where RN is Reynolds Number. [8+8] 8. (a) What is meant by an oriﬁce. Give the complete classiﬁcation of oriﬁces. (b) What is vena contract. Explain. (c) Water issues from an oriﬁce 80 mm diameter under a head of 10m. Determine the velocity of the jet of water and discharge through the oriﬁce. Also calculate coeﬃcient of contraction. Take Cd = 0.6 and CV = 0.9. [6+2+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050210104

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the phenomena surface Tension and capillarity. [4+4]

(b) Two coaxial cylinders 12cm and 11.80cm in diameter and 3.5cm high have both their ends open and have a viscous liquid ﬁlled in between. A torque of 1.3N.m is produced on the inner cylinder when the outer one rotates at 80RPM. Determine the coeﬃcient of viscosity of the liquid. [8] 2. (a) Prove that the total pressure exerted by a static liquid on an inclined plane submerged surface is same as the force exerted on a vertical plane surface as long as the depth of centre of gravity of the surface is unaltered. (b) Determine the horizontal and vertical components of total pressure due to water on a tainter gate shown in ﬁgure 1. Width of gate is 4m. [8+8]

Figure 1: 3. (a) Explain one, two and three dimensional ﬂows. (b) What is a stream tube, what are its characteristics? (c) Given the following two dimensional velocity ﬁeld U = 3 by + 4 ax and V = 3bx 4ay Evaluate the stream and velocity potential functions. [3+4+9] 4. (a) What is a ﬂow net. Draw a typical ﬂow net and explain its applications. What are the limitations of ﬂow nets.

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Code No: R050210104

Set No. 3

(b) A pipe 50 cm in diameter branches into two pipes of diameters 25 cm and 20 cm respectively as shown in ﬁgure 2. It the average velocity in 50 cm diameter pipe is 4m/sec ﬁnd i. Discharge through 50 cm diameter pipe and ii. velocity in 20 cm diameter pipe if the average velocity in 25 cm pipe is 3 m/sec [8+8]

Figure 2: 5. (a) Explain how laminar and turbulent boundary layers are formed and distinguish between their characteristics. (b) A thin ﬂat plate measuring 75 cm × 25 cm is exposed parallel to a stream of water of uniform velocity 1.2 m/sec. The ﬂow takes place parallel to 25 cm side of the plate. If the kinematic viscosity of water is 1.1 centistokes, determine the maximum boundary layer thickness, shearing stress at the trailing edge and the drag an both sides of the plate. [8+8] 6. (a) Draw a neat sketch of Reynolds apparatus and explain how the laminar ﬂow can be demonstrated with the help of the apparatus. (b) Two parallel plates kept 100 mm apart have laminar ﬂow of oil between them with a maximum velocity of 1.5 m/sec. Calculate discharge per metre width, shear stress at the plates and the diﬀerence in pressure between two points 20m apart. Assume viscosity of oil to be 24.5 poise. [8+8] 7. (a) Deﬁne major energy loss and minor energy loss. (b) Brieﬂy explain Hydraulic Gradient Line and total energy Line. (c) The rate of ﬂow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.3 m3 /sec. The diameter of the pipe is suddenly enlarged from 25 cm to 50 cm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is 1.4 kgf/cm2 . Determine loss of head due to sudden enlargement, pressure intensity in the large pipe and power lost due to enlargement. [4+4+8]

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Code No: R050210104

Set No. 3

8. (a) Describe the principle and working of oriﬁce meter with the help of a neat sketch. (b) In a calibration test of an oriﬁce meter of with oriﬁce diameter 4 cm is inserted in a pipe of 10 cm diameter. The mercury diﬀerential U-gauge connected to the meter gives a reading of 38 cm when 7.5 lit/sec of water ﬂows through the meter. Compute the coeﬃcient of discharge. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050210104

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the phenomena surface Tension and capillarity. [4+4]

(b) Two coaxial cylinders 12cm and 11.80cm in diameter and 3.5cm high have both their ends open and have a viscous liquid ﬁlled in between. A torque of 1.3N.m is produced on the inner cylinder when the outer one rotates at 80RPM. Determine the coeﬃcient of viscosity of the liquid. [8] 2. (a) What do you mean by Hydrostatic pressure. (b) Deﬁne Total pressure and centre of pressure (c) A circular plate 2.5m in diameter is submerged in water as shown in ﬁgure 1. Its greatest and least depths below free surface of water are 3m and 2m respectively. Find i. Total pressure on front face of the plate and ii. the position of centre of pressure [3+4+9]

Figure 1: 3. (a) Explain one, two and three dimensional ﬂows. (b) What is a stream tube, what are its characteristics? (c) Given the following two dimensional velocity ﬁeld U = 3 by + 4 ax and V = 3bx 4ay Evaluate the stream and velocity potential functions. [3+4+9] 4. (a) State and derive Bernoullis theorem, mentioning clearly the assumptions underlying it. (b) A 450 reducing bend is connected in a pipe line, the diameters at the inlet and outlet of the bend being 40 cm and 20 cm respectively. Find the force exerted by water on the bend if the intensity of pressure at inlet of bend is 21.58N/cm2 . The rate of ﬂow of water is 500 lit/ sec. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: R050210104 5. (a) Distinguish between i. ii. iii. iv. Bluﬀ bodies and stream lined bodies Skin friction Drag and form Drag Proﬁle Drag and deformation Drag Circulation and lift.

Set No. 4

(b) Calculate Reynolds number and the over turning moment ( assuming the drag to be acting at mid height) at the base of a smoke chimney of height 25m and diameter 1.5m in a gale of speed of 200 kmph. CD = 0.34 speciﬁc weight of air =11.8N/m3 and viscosity of air is 0.00018 poise. [8+8] 6. (a) What are the diﬀerences between laminar and turbulent ﬂows (b) What factors account for the loss of energy in laminar ﬂow. How does the energy loss vary with velocity of ﬂow. (c) Oil of relative density 0.92 and dynamic viscosity 1.05 poise ﬂows between two ﬁxed parallel plates kept 1.2 cm apart. If the mean velocity is 1.4 m/sec, calculate the maximum velocity, boundary shear stress and head loss in a distance of 25m. [4+4+8] 7. (a) Drive an expression for head loss due to sudden enlargement of a pipe. (b) An oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.85 and viscosity 5CP ﬂows through a pipe of diameter 400 mm at the rate of 50 lit/sec. Find the head lost in friction in this pipe of length 1000 km. Assume that f = 0.079/RN where RN is Reynolds Number. [8+8] 8. (a) Describe the principle and working of oriﬁce meter with the help of a neat sketch. (b) In a calibration test of an oriﬁce meter of with oriﬁce diameter 4 cm is inserted in a pipe of 10 cm diameter. The mercury diﬀerential U-gauge connected to the meter gives a reading of 38 cm when 7.5 lit/sec of water ﬂows through the meter. Compute the coeﬃcient of discharge. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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