# Code No: NR310202

NR

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Discuss why indicating instruments with gravity control have a non-uniform scale and with spring control have a uniform scale? Explain. (b) Compare air-friction damping, ﬂuid friction damping, eddy-current damping which have been used for producing damping torque in an indicating instrument. [8+8] 2. (a) Explain the eﬀect of secondary burden on the ratio and phase errors of a current transformer. (b) A power primary CT has 300 secondary turns. The total resistance and reactance for the secondary circuit are 1.5Ω and 1.0Ω respectively. When 5Amp ﬂows through the secondary winding, the magnetizing MMF is 100 AT and the iron loss component is 40Amps. Determine the ratio and phase angle errors of the CT at this load. [8+8] 3. (a) How torque is produced in an electrostatic instrument. Derive an expression for the torque in terms of relevant quantities. (b) What are the diﬀerent types of electrostatic instruments? Discuss the working of attracted disc type of e.s.voltmeter. [8+8] 4. (a) What is creep? How is it prevented in an energy meter? (b) The constant for a 3φ, 3 element integrating wattmeter is 0.12 revolution of disc kwh. If the meter is normally used with a potential transformer of ratio 22000/110v and a current transformer of ratio 500/5A, ﬁnd the error expressed as a percentage of the correct reading, from the following test ﬁgures for the instrument only line Voltage = 100V, current = 5.25 A, PF =1 ,Time to complete 40 revolutions = 61s. [8+8] 5. (a) Describe the construction of d’Arsonval Galvanometer and derive its torque equation. (b) Derive the equation of Motion of a d’Arsonval Galvanometer. Explain the type of behaviour from the three possible forms of the roots of the auxiliary equation. [8+8] 6. (a) What are the methods to focus an electron beam? What is a electron gun. (b) How is electrostatic focusing done? Prove that the deﬂection is proportional to the deﬂecting voltage. [8+8]

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Code No: NR310202

NR

7. The a.c. bridge shown in (ﬁgure1) is used to measure an unknown inductance Lx , that has inherent resistance Rx . The bridge parameters are R1 = 20,000 Ω, R2 = 50,000 Ω, C2 = 0.003 µF, ω = 106 rad/s. C1 is adjustable from 10pF to 150pF, and R4 is adjustable from 0 to 10,000 Ω. (a) Show that the equations for resistive and reactive balance are independent of each other. Derive expressions for Rx and Lx in terms of ω, R1 , R2 , R4 , C1 and C2 (b) Determine the largest values of Rx and Lx that are measurable with the given parameters [10+6]

Figure 1: 8. Write short notes on the following: (a) Loss of energy due to hysteresis (b) Measurement of permeability. [8+8]

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