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l,NlVtiltSllY I'l(tisS Al\,1 Illlll)(ill i;rrrrlrrirlgc, Nt:w York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Sirrgirporc, S:io l'ztulo, Delhi, Mexico City


);rrnlrlitlgc tlrtivcrsity Press

'l lrt, litlirrburgh t3trilding, Cambridge CBz 8RU, UK www ('itIllhridgc.ol'g


li r r rr r al i o r r o

n tlri s title: wwwcambridge.ory I 97 80521692465

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\r,, llrcre any special times I should use the?

,",Jirrllrt' or


ttrlrir lr rrouns don't have a plural




)iur)l)ri(lgc [Iniversity Press 2007

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l'lris ;rrrhlir:ation is ir-r copyright. Subject to statutory exception rrrrr l to llrc provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, I ro r t'; rr orl r rcl io n oI any part may take place without the written ;rl r rrr issio rr ol'Oarnbridge University Press.


st prrlrlislrcrl 2007

'l r) lt

\\tlrtn (lo I

use the present simple



l,ur tlo I w,rite large


I lt,'t r' is




prirrlirrg20 lll
is auailable

irrtttl irr I )rrbai by Oriental

the British


il rtrtrtlttl4rrc retrtrd Jbr this publication

lSltN 1l7ll-() 521 69246-5 Paperback l'rorlrrt r:tl by Kirnrzte Design


I il 'l

tt l,r, lr rclative pronoun should I




l,,ru rlrr I choose between and, but and or?





i:rrrrlrlirlgt: tlnivelsltyPress has no responsibilityforthe persistence or ur:rcy ol tl llt,s lbr external or third-party internet websites referred to in ll ris ;rr r lrlir:lrt irrl, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will rcrnairr, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel ( ir r rlllrlrlr:s lrrrcl oltrer factual information given in this work is correct at llr(, liilrr, ol' Iirst printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee tlrt' rrccrrrlr:y ol srrch information thereafter.
( ;r( (



t0 II If

l'w tlo t use modal verbs? trt,tiol Lo + infinitive? 2l


Vlrlrs irlicr adjectives and





I l4 lh

lrr' liclrrrrd or inflnitive aftet allow, aduise, make, suggesfl

tt'y, 27

forgetandretnember 26 l'rr'lrrrsilionsafteradjectivesandnouns


5 ;t

lS It ti



l'rr'p,:;ilions of time and



lrr' lrrr'position




3s gs

19 20 2l

passive? \^/hen do I use the passive? 36 \Ahat is register? 3z

How do I make a verb

rr: lhr:re any special times I should use the?

r rr

l, tlu. r.orrect sentence in each pair.



I r ir lir, iltiA {[ri* liitur"l'inrr is h:1crtlq,.iif.fen*nt rt,tA rnr .:.iiluctiinl Ir I i:i tniullg cliF{rr:r"+:rrJt ' .t lr,, llllrkr HhOw:* nilr;qlrrjp r-,1 lvtpl,tinu ip Bpilrrin in l,i7tj Ir rIrr"l,rri ,lnshq:rwn iirenurnL+ni.:[p-er-rui*lvnrkinqinEi,ilulnin I?7(i


22 23 24

Adjectives and Noun or



adjective.z 4l
courses and


Verb confusion I




* . ' ' . . .

r' r r,;r. //l(, rvrrlr t:()untries or places where the name refers to a group of islands or states: rfte t tttrtttl ,\t,a.tes, Lhe Aliddle East, the united. Arab Er,irates, the UK nrrllr superlatives: the best, t.he lon.gest, the highest r,vrllr cardinal numbers: the.first, the seconcl, th,e thircl r'lrt'. there is only one in the world: the enttirontttent, the interrrct, tlrc s,.n. tr r r t'l'er to the only one in this particular area'. the gol)erntnent, tlte tlrc ri rtrtr

tlrcphrase: thesameas


\\r.rlrrn't ttse the rvillr a single country or place: Arnerica, England, China
to talk abou ,,ornething i

se the




1ifu one


28 29 30

Noun confus ion 2 _ advertising, travel and young people \A/hen do I need to use an apostrophe? 5I Common spelling errors 52

ltt number eight i,s considered lucky

r,:t the eriistake helow.

in, some coltntries.

Test 10 Answer key


Your harrstyle is not

same as mtne.


iornplete the sentences below using the words in brackets. Decide whether or not to use the, or whether to use the plural.

I .' I I


in is very different from lite in my country. (America) According to the graph, of people moving into the city each year has more than doubled. (number) The total figure for 1976 was as the total figure for 1982. (same) Obesity is much more common in .. .... than in my country. (USA) The graph shows that ........ increase occurred in (greatestl
Life travels around kilometres per hour. (moon, earth)

I'he main advantage of ................... is that it gives us access to irrlbrmation from all over the world. (internet) My father has fished in .................... all over Austr alia. (riuer)


at a speed of3,700

Singutar or plural?
Tick the correct sentence in each pair"

hir:lr trouns domnt have a plura! form?


1 a f ltt"lne nni: :levrlrrl prrti:frm.r,n.ijh ilris irlen b I l-err,: {lt\o {ie..r\itn,:ni i,t,oL:L:lrl vtilh lhiI id{rr::r 2 llr;rrU clrttril't1 {)r,lri;}r{rj'tliLrni lrr,ovjrlij q j ,J**{ jreri}:r, .' 1 b ,\iLLn,q lh,:li.i1il r.rnqnrri*r.r-trr:.,rr provit}:s ,_l ,l+:rll ,:r1


l, I lrr. ( rlrt-ucl sentence in each pair.

If you use a prural noun, you must use a plural verb. The verb must ,agree,with the noun:
leodcrl petrol. (pluralverb + plural nou IIikastucbtirrgduri,gtrt.rin.ybr.rtmylrierudprejbrsst,cr.yingat,i.ght

i lr,r,r',,lrriulr.,ilfitLL l*r:r;mplr*fenilJr"l:liL_rlmelt[ I r, ,, l, I lri "rr,r: rut)rlii'itl*e it--r cl(tm;:.,leie nlil Ll.,:lrrfllrinuni ' I r l ,'ir, i Lt ::*:rr:rch urt ruu cuuputnn l r:r:r.tlri onlrr, firi,:l t'*',v infornlllr,:nr: r;bu,li ffre tr",pr'ri:,, l, rl,' r 1,h jcnqrr:lr'*-ir-:ir tnrtr;r.rrrnprltcnlccr-lirlonlgflirrrl irlil-lh.inioi,nr:trt:,rr ilLoul [iir, ir-,nir-,,,rr ilr)unsinEnglishare'uncountable'.Thismeanstheydonothaveapluralform.



courttt'y {.ltere at e uery Jbtu car.s tlt(,tt

,r r , ( ( r il r r)ron uncountable nouns are: aduice, aduertising, food, furniture, garbage,

ttt(t t i()



knowledge, money, shopping, time,



singular verb)
We use a plural noun with:


' . ' ' * '

numbers greater than one: 30, I0A sttulents manyi Ir. is anrtoyi.ttg rnany d.riue trtust bectt.trse the number o.f;. T'rte ruurtber af,btrses on r, rootrs has it.lcre Note that we use a plural noun but a singular

plural vetbs: are, were, haue, do, play, etc.: Trzere

eu-e c.t

\r rrlr rrrrr:0urltable nouns, you must use: . tlr,. sirrgtrlar form: food, information, money

t lrt

tlr I amount of I much I some: llotu tttuch nwfiey tlo you lrrute?
n'affic on tlte tofid.s is
-flt.ere irt.creo.sirtgcrtt:Lt yeny. i.n

lot of books ott tl.rc toble.


l, ,unotutlof
.r ',rrrgrrlar ,r


utas alrettrl.y a


tltc l'lrrt

rrorlr is uncountable, you cannot use:



vertt after the

We use a singular noun with:

are singular (news, mathematics) and some nouns have a different form in the plurar (ch,crren, men, women, peopre).

. a/an ot onei fi c{Lr, t)fie s/Llclcn t /r Note that some nouns can look plural but
Correet the rnlstake below.

singular verbs: ls, was' has, does, plays, etc.: Tlterc is ottly otre bedrootn itt tlre.[lat.

' . . .

tr>rrn:aAvieet,fLtll+i+fl+es, i,fti:efl+1{+tioa+,-k++ot+*+tge; @W, ,t lt'tt / many / number of:aJe*+hopping,+ttany+xiffie,-tl+e+tt .r rrrrrtber: +hta:+rtweis ie*tfi+rai*x+
.r ;rlttt'itl

l( t t t'- / t !r. ?r,4t+itl],


.r ;rlrrral

verb;lher*were-a1f*leJit niaae i*+heJ!r*.

want to add a number to an uncountable noun, you can use a piece of I ttntt' I o few pieces oJ: n Ttitce o.f ttclt;ice, lltree pires o.f .fitrniture, o Jbtt, pi.eces o.l'gurbagc
yr rrr




of lyornan

('rrrrc(;t the mistake below"

studying science

The number of garbages we produce is increasing.


lncreased dramatical lv J


3 tu ffi_

'l'he number



Untlerline the correct worC in each sentence.


the nlistakes in these senterlces. There rnay be rnore than one rnistai<e in

7 A person I people I really admire is my uncle. B My father watch I utatches a lot of sport on TV

2 'the number of men I man studying science has decreased. 3 There are a lot of persons I peopLein my class. 4 I enjoyed studying mathematics a lot; I found it r themvery interesting. - ' --J urrvav 5 The news were I wasvery upsetting. 6 Howmany classes I class doyou have today.z

The childs I children are playing in the street.

, .r,

il scm{ence.

I ' i t , t, , It

My tutor was very helpful; he gave me one very good advice about how to study. I was srrrprised by the number of times it took us to reach the castle. You need a great deal ofknowledges to become a doctor. 'l he informations we were given by the tour guide were not very helpful. When we visited the park, we were upset to see so many garbages left there. \,Ve arrived late because there were so many traffic on the road. I can't wait to visit the market and do a few shopping. 'l'he furnitures in the hotel room were quite old but they were very comfortable.



or phrase in the following sentences, Thegarbage is I arecollectedeveryTuesday. Advertising in the school newsletter fs t area waste of time. A lot offood in restaurant s is I arethrorm 4 Manv ittea t ideas ror new produc,, il:T*Xr".turing stage. 5 My sister gave me rots of atluice r aduices that was / werevery useful. 6 .ver three hundre d stude.nt r stutlentssigned the petition ro. u ,r"* study area. 7 There are a lot of sim,arity r sim,arities'between your country and mine. B There is I are more women on my course than me

Underline the correct

i ,,,,t, ,r r Irr. lnllowing advertisement and 1,, 1,1r1 r,,t'r ilr tiret L'lox.

till in the gap in each question using one of

I 2 3






Are there


Iloom for rent


2 .)

.... a

.lr,rtr: house close to lrrr:, Must helP to PaY

5 6 7

etc')' I rrllr; (electricitY,

I rrr rnore details

lbod included in the rent? lot of traffic in the area? .... any other transport nearbY? ... does the electricity usually cost? .... any pets in the house?

' :;1,;::Rank j
#1 usi*g ,ne of the *'ords from rhe trox. Decide wherher you need to

plrorre: 376 8900

money will I need to pay each week? . people are living in the house? .......... a lot of furniture in the room?

Number of people accessing the internet per 100,000 people
79.306 76.027 75.539 75.527 68.140

rll rr t!rt"



word from the box. Make any changes ncceslrary.




child company



New Zealand

#2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7


Faroe Islands

t I lrc travel agencywas hopeless; they didn't even give us ollc uscftrl .. ' I lrt' rrumber of new ........ being built in our atea has doubled. I N lost Iarge ..... ... operate on a global scale nowadays' t Nlrny . believethatglobalisationhasbothadvantagesand


Korea, South

67.406 64.925

, r, , tt

lirtlay, in my country,


........... do

not exercise


much as in the


Australia Finland United Kingdom


l'lrc blades of the fan are made of ............................ in my home town but my favourite is the l lre re are several kinds of ........
lirrry. I lrere has been an increase in the number of


62.914 62.209




killed by cats

lr is



rec{ the l4 mistakes in the text below.

lrc globalisation has had an enormous impact on many part of the world. Nowadays,


i,ternet users. (4)_. .

(l).................. ... . .. shows the top ten countries in terms of internet usage (2)... ............. ........ .^rrn+r_.:^ e)... country is New Zealand, ,,vhich has (3)......

in some of most remote parts of world, we can connect to internet and conduct

lrtrsiness. However, they is advantage and disadvantage to this. One disadvantages, for

..._.. ;il;;;;i"nor






at ar. Howev".,


l:,*?:::l Surprisingly



"'-o"r ...... ..

ot users' with over 75,500 people per 100,000 accessing

r,rrrrnple, is that the local culture and language can be affected. It can also mean that lot:al businesses has to reduce their prices to compete with biSger overseas companies. I lowever', there are advantages; for example, globalisation can bring more business to a srrralI area, which is good fbr the local economy. It may also help to stop young pelson rrroving away from more remote area. If a young person have the chance to run a lrtrsiness and be successful no matter where he or she lives, then perhaps more people will choose to stay in these smaller communities. It also means that news from around llte world are available to evetyone, and this can also reduce the feeling of isolation.

UUhen do

I use the present simple tense?

sentence in each pair.

ow (to I write large numbers? I t lr,' r l'r'rect sentence in each pair. I rr llr, ,,1(,v()r'rrm{}nlnperlttenrnillir.rnsdcillqrsoneducoi"innlcsl gecn lr 1,, , ,vrr\trn{rrtt spent ten rnillion dn{lors on educqtion lclst geor" I rr ll,, r','wrlr'{) llrnusnnds of peop,le rrt the fooiboll rnr:tch" Ir IL, r',' w,x'c rr Ihooscnd of per:pie of fhe footF:all rrr:lch

1 Choose the correct

We use the present simple tense:

' ' '

to make general statements about our wo rld: The earth moues around the sun. to show a pattern or general truth: People work in order to meet their basic neec with adverbs of frequency: arways, usualry, often, sometimes, neueri peopre who too lazy to walk ofren use their cars instead.


lqr,lr n,t,

titlk trbout a specific large number, we do not add s to the number:


I I l, I ll ll l, I l( X

r|r t I ttr rldred



thowand (notM t million (not +e*+nillionll

ll1r, rrrrrlr tlr;rt lrlllows is always plural:

lrccn ai least three thousattd sttt'd'emts at the protest' idea of how many: W*, rr,,,, tirr, grlrrrirl tbrm of large numbers + o/to give an approximate protest' lltt,t, rtttt',1 ltrtlt ltt:tttt thousands of students at the lht


rrttr',1 lttrt,r'

we form the present simple tense with the base form of the verb. we add s or es to Ionn the llrd person singular:

f{rr r rrtr tt',r'rt ittsleird of one. Oneismote formal: world' ll I tt ,,,r ,t ttttlliott rktlla,rs, I ruould probably take a year off and tauel around the

l)tt l,tt t,l,.trt

ltkty you ltlay he/she/it plays ute play you play they play

I watch
you watch
helshe/it watches
we watch

people attended last year' lSys, tlt, trr ttt,.t tttill.i,on, people attendetl last year.b:ut: 2,001,967

ftr, rr,,rrrrlly rrsc nUmerals for numbers that cannot be written in one or two words:
i(1 ll.itctions in words: half a (million)'' a/one third of a (million); three (million): rtl tt ( rtr ill.i'tt,)i one and a quarter (million); one and three quarter


you watch
they watch

lp+Ht lr,r


lho mletake below.
A lllorriim(ls of peoPle

iililt! l0 :;oe the royal


My brothcr

('lnrc to


the roYal wedding.

3 Correct

the mistakes in the sentences below. 1 People should act according to what they are believing. 2 In general, I think our government spent too much money on space travel. 3 Nowadays, many people in my country have sent their children to sr 4 These days, more and more people travelling to very distant places single-sex for their ho 5 I am hoping it is not too late to save the environment. 6 The female hen laying on average 5 or 6 eggs per week. 7 Younger drivers is more rikely to be involved in a car accident. B Most doctors are agreeing that the only way to lose weight is by doing more


tlrr' ( rlr t'('cl trttmber in the sentences below'

r,l,,t,,,r lrrrrl ;rrrlained hidden for athousands I thousands of years. were seen here in 1990' l-ilp r 1,,,,1 ,,ltrrws lltul l.hree hundreds I threehundredwhales the ceremony . will watch a half of a billion f ftteo r r rrr /, r l r r r l l l t i l l.i.o n I three and y tlr lttttttltul rlrtl,lars I sixhundred dollarrent each month' can cost three quarter of a I t,rl,rt,, trr tr ry t'ity is very expensive; a small house

I llrrrt'tltttrlttrs of amillion dollars. *,llhilt tl t Alilliott.s of dollars are spent on space exploration each year. in the school. fiElh, rr rr rrr, tlr:rrr .srx lrundred I six hund,red.s ofchildren were enrolled so far' computers billion half and a one I billions t ll l l V l rs sr tltl o ne and a half

t r

There is

there are

)r r

1 T'ick the correct sentence in each pair. 1 a if ,rr rl ir-r,,r,:li/ npilr,iu1.j



r r lrr,

gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Can you describe a typical morning at your house? Well, my father always (l) ...........................(get up) first because he (2). . . . ................... (start) work at 7 o'clock. The traffic (3) . ....... . ............... (be)



lh*,rhi1r We use there to say that something u{srs. vvraruu.rr5 exists. We we ruse there rJ with a singular subject and

A. e
We use there is and the

. (n()t

!.,rc c




it is or they are to tark

,ras bee,,

very bad in my city so he (4) .. (haue) to leave at 6 o'clock. (leaue), he (6) ...... Before he (5) ..... Qaake) my brother and me up. I (7) .. (get up) straight away but my brother (B) ................... ........ (prefer) to sleep as Iong as he can, and he (catch) the last bus to school. My mother nearly always (9) ............. (I0) .. ............. ........... (make) our breakfast while I (I1) ........... ............... (get
dressed), then


. (leaue) for school at about 7.30.

lrrlrrr: //'s

rirn*he i,resent


fur rttv

si.;tt,t: --

We _ verb do to form questions and negative swith there lrt.r is and in th,e r:ultboat.d? Th, ,n .,li 7 irr,, n-r,'n,, irt the car. 1ylasses l,.itclrtrt.(no(?fiers-+ '*t':.::-",":tcll sotrlt-atultlrcrcctresortte'bou,lsi,rhe

__ r,r11o1 {ir \,, _ vvrrdl l()nn ;,,1rr, is ctalryjng)

L r( lr {:iruh anlount (l -5) with its correct written equivalent (a-i)" You ll need to ,rr I I lrt, rvords caref,ully.
t0l;,000 a thrity-five dollars

'1,15 1


Oorrect the nristake below"



{.-B 'r,/. ,,

I rrrrl

three and a half million dollars C three hundreds and five dollar d thirty five thousands dollars e three millions and five hundred thousands dollars f thirty-five dollars t three hundred and five thousand dollars h thirty-five thousand dollars three hundred and five dollars

i2 mistakes in the

essay below and correct them.

eYa. veyy

Irr my coun+ry rlgncullura

im2ortant. tach ye+r ot\r lerncrs gyd\i'ry

Before they built the supermarket,

utide vanaty



and this Vtlpad

lo reduca tha amount

price oF Frash food in

oF lood




tmport, which also radtrced.



sVaps. Lila

3 Conrect the mistakes in the sentences below. l In developed countries there is many possible solutions to this probrem. 2 There no clear trend in the data.frolirir"., g.rpf, l. 3 There is no electricity and ur" ,o 4 Fortunately, they are still a lot iu-*.i", i,, tt i. a."u. of gooJp""rr" in the world. 5 It is a very srnall village so rhere ;;,-;il any targe supermarkets.

in the high street.

r; sanv+vrc. difficult For Farmrzrs becawsa lV'air day begun very aarly and lhey oFten urorks until lqte qt r;ght. -ftv. upallsr oilso making thair urrking 's ,,ondttions vary difficult al ttmas. Wfrat is yraya, nr.ny larmars are faal:ry lhat thzy do not reLatva, o. Fatr pr'ce lor tha;r products. wa era. ns{.d lo,

farncrs to stay in this industry. Narndays, b\9 sttperrrsrkat iakrng a larga arraunt oF ll.v. profits tfrat should 9o tp lV{. larnws.
govarnrnant rwda.d


; ,,: i|;Jililili.,i,.
How much

large gup


*o.k ,h"'l'l|",:


working in "o,, this


of living and sararies earned. - "-


ad.dress this situation and nake


that thay prolarlirg this vrtal rndustry.

Fill in the blanks in the text with numbers from the table. Three of vour answers should contain a fraction.
#1 #2

rtr lr
I r.

r(:littive prCInoun should I use?

oftractors used in agriculture: top ten countries Country Amount

United States Iapan
4,800,000 2,028,000

I rlrr (.,rr('( [ sctltenceineachpaif' i i hr llrLri w'hrri 1Ju* ihrrrk i* nlghi; r r r1 I , iu ','rlrl'l rt'u hinh ie' rigfil; I, ', , ,r'\ril['r-il l)nr-'1*r'l thul r-rrc tnrpr:rr"lrrriN r

#4 #5 #6 #7

I,750,000 r,525,000
1,306,700 1,264,000 1,030,800 905,000 885,000 SOURCE: World



l]rlitlnrt clle itn[ri:l'1rlli " l,r"rut'rll

linirl:tt-torts" in ':rchl*'"'inq ll] cllilit'vrr)'r Ircl:'ri'il":;-r



r lrrrtsrl

areusedtoconnecttlvoseparateclauses: lrr()lroLltls (that,who,etc') clause 2 pronoun relative

tt ,, ,tt,



t are irttportrtrtt irt achieuin'gLtctppirtess'

Germany Turkey

and cannotbe left out' we use: \r lr, rr rrrlrtt ttlttion is essential to the sentence 'l-he chattthat is on 1-tage )0 s/zoru's " or people:

#9 #10

, tlt,ttlrr ttrlcr to things . tllt,t ltr tt:ler to people: Tlrc ttLxnber oJ-women who were enrrtl'letl"' . rr,ltrrttrrrefer tothethingthatortheihingsthat:Theg'tternmenlsltttrtlt'l
t \ tn't'ltttt-+x#o*e*tnt+)'




Resources Institute

he done) r,,ltttnrttt:;l Irc rJone. (= the thing(s) that must (not T@t!'ffifi1't1+11+ttsl pronoun relative one tr rtr. llrrr[ you should only use

'l-he table shows the number of tractors being used by the top ten



countries in the world. The united states has the greatest number of tractors, with almost (t)..........ft.ri:.:llj.rLlt:1y......... . fapan has less than half of this amount, with just over (2).......... ..... , and Italy is ranked third, with a total of (3).................... . India has just over (4).......... ..... , while poland, France and Germany each have over (5).................... . Of the bottom three countries on this list, Turkey has a little under (6).................... Spain has
less than


, I r r ', lo the subject of a verb' Compare:

llt.',ltttlt,tl.l.sthttl]teacltal,Lcoln.efrorul()UerSeGst:tltufiriesstud'entsistheobjectoftheverb thit canbeleft out: '[|rc strdents I teach all' conte.frortt"' r, , /, /,, so the relative pronoun the today' studenfs is the subject of r lt, :ttttlcn.ts who ctre studying MP skottlcl see me Ms-a'+e tttt tttutli"e pronoun urho cannot be left out lnol


tlt (tre sturlying,ro /Irll' Ii.4F

r,, i i


see +x+++xlq+)'


and China has just over

(:rlr(ert the mistake below'



Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with either

1 ............ are several reasons why I wanted to talk to you. 2 I have printed out the letters. are on the desk ready for you to sign. 3 On the next street corner is an excellent newrestaurant. 4 ............. have a wonderful swimming pool in this hotel.
5 7

it, they

ar there.

I rreed to find someone play the Piano for our irssemblY next month.

I rrcecl to find



for our assembly next month'

We had a lovely holiday in Florence. .............. really is a beautiful city. .............. were several robberies in the area last week.

were your parents born here or did .............. lnove here from another country? Is .............. going to be a meeting this week?

lrn'ect the mistakes in the sentences below when you spend too much money' | .l-his is one of the problems that what can occur Gillies' :l 'Ihe teacher inspired me most at school was called Miss

.tTherearemany."",,ug"..donotfeelcomfortabletalkingabouttheirproblems. power'

4 It can be very frustrating for those what do not have very patient and kind' 5 People work with sick aia elderly people must beoften live longer' (i People what continue to work after the age of 65 7 I understand that You mean' enrolled from 1999 to 2005'
The chart is on the


the number of students


do I ehoose between and, butand or?


rilt.rr y yerbs

Tick the correct sentence in each pair. I a 1 ulilllrilltr lliqrr/r!rriJf1flits"rirt

We use


llr{:it,i.,r*11,i11fg,6,1 r.:rllre;

\'l/,t.rlcl .yort so,te terr. arc.d bi,st:t*:Isi ()()r.t can h;rve

andtojoin two similar ideas:


l;otii oI the,t)
= pr-rsiti'e


i;oili:r, r;rili:r,

contras t b etwe en tvvo difrerent i deas : Ylttrt'i' :,:::, tea .i.: but : :".show I t cl\n't ltrt,t'e r'ttty rxt'ffee' l'nt afroitl' (l havo tea rregative) - r)rrr,rii\//.1




ltrr,r, rrrc called auxiliaryverbs. This means that they help to change the


1r (


Wc use or to give an alternative:

llitrrlrl ytri N,tc: r.

r tr


or suggest the alternative idea: wI'rr|r irrcrr t,, g,, t,,r,atrr!,u:e ?t tt w(r'\ ntiningornof- (= rvitether it rlrineiJ rlitir,l rrriri) or r,vjrether

Altcr il /


two negative ideas, we use orif the subject and the verb are the s.r t t t, t, t ct r a r r t t.f t t r.t t - l _cktn|ltr+ur+*etdttfilee .f c t


lilt? so,t(: tr:rr or ro.f/be! (= !oLr

wili clr.rsc ot,therrr)


r .,,, 1l()l i lttLilr+-r+sx,*l Do yctt't a'greei ff:e) fr^,_,,i.,_,-_...., , r rrr r,, ,,,(,(r .,rirrr otht Ler question words: t4lhl, li i rr , ,l rr rllr iz,r; vt:rb tbrms to make the continuous tenses: i'., t,r t. I i,;lr i rt (itttt{ (rrr.rt*srrrrfiatgIryghsfu) t ! rl,, 11 1 rl rvitlr thcPastparticipleto
t r;11

rtlr llrc intinitive to make negatives


rcnWhy ytt+t+g+vt4)


*" ,u

t rt''l
h,t,, t,,, tt )

makethepassive_see unit lg)


lr, ,

rllr ll)(' l)llst participle of the verb to make the perfect tenses: r,, lrtr tlttlt,ntotttlt.s. (lto[ lt++tleeal+erertr l*Jeefi+erc)

1;', rr

Sorrect the mistake helow.

I :,,t
4 ri'i


r;rrr"'rr,rrslrrrrr negativeswithoutdoif anotherauxiliaryverbisused: trt,tt rrtt, /r,.ir..,{rr*i lktlrN+r11:1,5ga41.+t+g


,rrs[ irgfee with the subject of the verb (see unit trtrtI I)rt fr+ttrtUe>$he+.rlt i+tk1et+?:)

2).. f],.s.7,6111,

(a,xiiiary vcrlt


Ienny loves the snow Fill in the blanks wittt anrl I but t or

Jenny loves the $il0W

and James hal(lri lt,



ttat. colege
go to the beach.

see a

no universiry ,il,:::X],T:::,,.:;-arr; rorrow?We could



. . ._ . after that w. r,.t

reaching the age or 100 ... .... -" .... more rs is tncreasing. "" rnore i 4 He hacl a computer, *iri.,,, a without ^"^_phone connection ""^rl-^ he couldn,t acr;r,ss llt*r rnternet.


li lr=rt




' ,1,,, r , ,u r lr icrrtl likc to eat?

,,/. \rll,i()lltg1 ' ,lr I trttr rlr1ttr,(ftClay?
r,,r rllr rl,r|r \r/illtyoLl-

6 7
o ()

I can,t remember which. really like watching it. alia, England America, y()lr. lit

t1,,, t ,, |rrl I'r lrr q1,ll;1q. fltt ,' ,,' I' rrrnrrJ, llrr,prlno. lt,', l, ,t, rt,,l r ln ltr,t lirr two years. ... ,,, rl rrr \11p1,1ictr lfir, lor theirholiday.

Test S

r rlr

i,, rtr, t,l.urJcs with {],dattr

\ lr r r l r \ lrr

the box.

(ionrplet+:.erltences r-g *sin1; ond I bu,




_... ....

rtr rt.orand a stritarrxe --nding from

rr lrr

My grandtather doesn't have a DVD player

5 The tour fee includes all meals and transport........ ............. 6 Nowadays, it is difficult to study without a computer 7 I like most drinks
The price for the hotel includes both breaktast ....................

a lon't l wil

r, t,lrr r r ;" r r'rr l,rrr ""..... used to cut rhe aruminium cans to the correct size. rr.r w.'-y, I ' not going to tell your mother about your test result. ' lr I t, r \\,(.ius very strange clothes; she .. ... notcarewhatpeoplethink. ,r 1r rr r I tirishedmyhomeworkl Illl r,,, ,, t, Irl.rrrk irI Ilrr:lililrn,.ringessayrvitholleltord.

, !

rr rr

you get home last night?

you gOing tO get a


you been? I ............. been waiting here for ages. .,. arriving on the 6 o,clock flight tomorro*Lorning.




laptop at home.

...not entry to the museum.

...even a television at home. go to the party.

beach collecting shells

fr rnista[ in trre

,r',,re that too much money is spent on protecting atllttt'tl" 'rrr. endangered species and that we should spend more money lirrlrrrr; 'rrt.r the people on this pranet instead. what are your




l'rrl t'*r'lct'r Irlc


co^versatio, helort.

lA = travel agent)

(1) hate them, they ptay an important role Losing 'v"ri'rr. even a tiny insect species courd have " a very targe r*rg': rr r ,rr rr',,ril rbr exampte. recent studies have shown that when there are l=rvr r rrr " r", rrrt're are arso fewer birds. This means that crops wil suffer E=,r,r , t,rrrl., pl,rV,rn important role in poltinating ptants, (2). ..... they ;l=,, , ,1 rrr,r,r t,, llr,rl are harmful to ptants.

rl , r r,,,rr lr)v(. animals


rrr "111 '

714: No,


I'm afraid there don,t any flights to the island. I see. How much is it cost for a family of four?



lr'| ,,r'|1"



$1000. Is that include the ferry?


as dependent on lhe tt"v r'''i''| | ' rrl rrris world as they are on us. They rery on us to protect


,rr, ,rl..o very vulnerable. If our crops fail, this could have "''"r'(r,('rc(!s for a[ of us. In other words, we are

''('s'rirr to be the most dangerous animai on our planet,

it includes all transport or hotel accommodation.

ifisr, r 'I

ttl, (,,)

6 7

I The students struggle the most are those without any maths qualificati,rrr, 2 It was my grandmother first taught me about art. 3 I'm not really sure we have to write about in this essay. 4 A thermometer is an instrument is used to measure tentperature. 5 I am writing to apologise for I said to you last week.

/[sld a rctratrivc r]rorrouil to eacrr of trre f*Howi*g se,te'ces" which two noI nrted ;r r.elative 6lrouo*ll? .,vironment. If we do not, their numbers could begin , even worse. they may become extinct attogether.
are already doing (6).............. they can to protect this is not enough. Nowadays, people always




t,,,, llr rt ,,rrrrrr, ,r,,ple

pt,t r', t,rr,., tlr, rrr,wr,:;t ,trrd latest gadgets, (g) sd +t"'t'rt' 1rrrrr1rr",. r.rrrlruters or toasters (9)

Bl =r,,,t,,

r,r,,rt (/)

what happens to the

venus is a planet you carl sometimes see without a telescope on a vr.r-y r.rr,4;, Yabbies are creatures live in rivers and lakes in Australia. The people I know on my course are all from my previous school.

are thrown away? we s can have an impact on whether vive. We (11) ....... need to stop e behave-


we do need to change both

filow do I use modal verbs? 1 'Iick the correct

serltence in each pair.


ur lo + ilnfinitive?
, , rr

i r I !ri
I l

('t-l s(_.ntence in eat:h pair.

a li l,,f.rt'ii.l lr, il|i:; l'tlri[, iir'.tLl rrr,lr,i ii:-i, :,l,rt,t ir[r,r',,r rlr,, i |illi b l!',uL:,r,ltr:r,Icl,r'.uir,'it'ii,ui.J rir,:lr,i'sfl,.l l,r:,ir,t,r.rl,ii,:rrl'i a ili 111r1,,.11,; 'ririi.iri:iti:,.ilt[,]riir11li'i:)r]i'ri,llrili iiririrr)l|t',,-r.l,,rir .frt tlri: iilll'r' rriril()t'rlrr tr .lli i{ttJl 1ri1,;i l'p1:iir1 ,,t,lu,:l lll','ii llii',,i:,illr,t b
The following modal auxiliary verbs are followed by the infinitive without to'. can, could, may, migh,t, must, shalL, shouLd, will, tuould: llihen. trntu,l.lirtg, u'r, shottld.{esl}ect llte {:ti.!)l.onls ol'{lte (ou.ntrlcs ri,r, r,


,t,,r,l Iitrllrriri llr:.



ir,i ri(

i il, J,lj


itrti'iit it,, ill

i r

, t,iil,- _ii:,tili;tirl;,,|ill
rrrl rr il

ivc ittter the following verbs:, seem,

' . !

',tl' t

lttt'l)ut(,, ltrontise,

a.sf,', affortl, decirle, deserue, heLp, hope, want, utouldlilce'.

+eye* ; sho++14-t*,Str+#ig

Modal verbs form questions and negatives without using zlo: Cntt I lrclp.1r.rrri'(nol: Dt+[cw+ ke]p1et+?) Will yotr rtt{,eI nt? tt'iiatt ! tu't'i.t,it'l (not{)tlpu+rrll*rce{rxe) .\irtt tttttsltt'! tt,0rr],rtltttrllila, (n()t :le+t4oil+s1-++t#.t++t+t*yahe*N-+lt^-1
Wlrt'rr r,vt' tllk irborrt obligation or necessity lusir,gl;llue or need, we use fo + inl'irril I ltlyr ttt litti.slr ttty us\i!:nn!L,trl tltis utr.'tl;ettd" I ttutl to lrtlk io t'orr
Irr t;trcstiorrs ancl negatives, haue to and neerl l,o behave like normal verbs and wt' rl l)tt yr;it ltttttc lrt lt{tlt ('.\trut lrit ltyctk./it.sLi'(lct hr+r;r-},gH t$ P{+y)

rrr: ltt rtrriuc lulcr ond. lfl.ter tltese cllys. i , ,r I t ltt t)ltl(' tttott.kl lilee to hmrc tn.ofti Dtoney. , ., 1,,,, I rl,.,r lollowccl by to + intinitive: l, ,tt u l,t,tt, lo


t{rite bafore I go l.o u.uiuersily.


ri: .,

, ,t 1,,1 rt

, r1,,,, \\ r. rrst' r.zg: o,uoid, carry on, consider, deny, enjoy, fin.islt, giue up,
Lr,r'1t, liL'c,

pracl.ise, reconunen,d, re.srsl, sriggesf:


lrittli tttrtt,it's rtl tlte aiit.ctt.ttt. (t:rLtIe;+i<ly+c t+wtel+) : r i,, I r,,r,.rlsolirlloweclby-lng: t ht,.l l"' ,, ,i,,1 !tt ltrttt'itr1i l,ltrr reltly. itat ++her+*VOg+.+eyly)

r,r,..rllr.r spttttl ttt.oney atdspettd tittrc-.

.t t,,t




rtrottt,.l ltu.ltirlSl ODs


tt?onllt.l,Ve spent $2OO bttyittg CI):; tttott.tlt

I'lic.i'soiri I t!.*n'l trced



tttt, ortttt.

lile(ping bag. (not i tea<tx+i<t*ri+tg)

J: =1,:'rr"l,,tttl rintrltxtliingforittfitrrrurti.onontlteiutertrctSltcspentouerthree
Etr,= t,,,.r ,tt1 l,,t llllltttttrtliott tttt llte iutCrrtel.

Cntrect the mistake below.

* .. ,

rl, ,r


, ,ur l)(. lirllor,vetcl



lo + intjnitive.

Correet the ll-listakes in the senterrces tlelolu


u .)



Nowadays, you carl to find internet facilities in most hotels. We do not should accept this situation ally longer. lf we want to fixthis problem, we rnust trying or-rr best to change our irlllllt We haven't to stop rlsing cars altogetl-rer but we do have to use thenr lcss r Do we can solve the problem of greenhouse gases in our lifetime? Need you to take any fbod and drink with you, or are there shops tlrt'r t'!' 'Paula, you really must to study har-der if you want to pass the exanr.' ln my school, we have to left our mobile phones at home.

lllr p.r1, ri, rlrr lollowiltg sentenccs using the verb in brackets. i,: I ! , rr,l( ilt, \v(,t otrlcln't atlbrd ............... ... newtextbooks. (bay) .(iceska,te) *,t. t, 1,, rrllrr tlr.,nnl lrow. .... r l.r rl, rn13 lirrward to ... .,.......... ... wlten your course finishesl2 (do)
rIri :rrrrp so that it doesn't stick to the bottom of the pan.' (sflr)

r,,,r lr r, I'r,,nrr,,r'(l .. ...... mebuyacarwhenl gradttate. (help) til,lr, rr 1r, rrr r l.rrr tirnc .....thebestpresentforthcirmothel. (choose) , i,r' I rrrcrlicine at university. (study) i 1,,, ,i r, r,rl ... abarbecueonthelastdayofterm.(hale)

Wmrhs m*tmq" mdlectiv*s rctte$ prepmmxtEmmm

'l-ick gh* r:orrec-"t s,erilel-rLe ilr e;u:!r ;;iiir"
lr riiutt:; isru{.i afi$u!-li{-l{ ltsirill tirc

iir {,t;l<:kt'l'",

a 'l'i:.rilii,r i.rlrii''Ii,,;ri ntir: r illl,:l iill1 tr:r l,lili lir ':l,lttllri b \itr,riiii,.,frii, ii-,lir,,.tfl,lnigli 5fr11 ii:iil,iiriil hr,l, lliilr a ii iri r,lr,11 fl lttr'1cr'.ttir, i i,rhri I ii il, r.r'.tlirt l]tt, ii''t'sitriritilil r,',rlrr;
With Jbel + adjective we use the -ing lbrm of the verb: ifr,ri .iIi /1/1,,i/lt t!rt ttol rtiLt,ttyi./iref cnui;'i;rt*.ltl*: sltutrkiwg ilil7,1;r;lr


stamps at the newsagent's'? (can/buy) to the post office. (Yeslcan. Not/haue to/go)


:ff :;'"-tffi1il *:: ili,* *T:,,':':i;,':)

the test on Saturday? (need to/Joeltake) .... to the party on Friday. (shouldlnot/go)



Afrer be + adjective, /oo + adjective and adjective + enough, we use ro + infinitivc: /:r,ai-r lerltptrilr tts see liat ti'iii'it:;iil nyt itu'tl (lrrri i trt't.tlre11,rys,'t';:tli; r'ir'r)

f.lrr rl,, r',.,)l;


tittgittllcr usialgthe Wrilrls in ilrag:ketS,

go to school. (instead (despite)

lit'it'tlitrati,(t:;tdt:i.Vtn{.ttu.g!tt*twtriii:tst.tutt.i.(t-,ol :r.'.,+Hit1a\t'r!i *t;i1tiffkLl's+atltll

I I1r,,,, rt lr tltt' t:irrcma.Theydidn't =

I , rrt


After all prepositions (about, by, from, for, in, of, withotrf, etc.) we use the -ing lo thc vcrb; we cannot use a clause (subject + verb):

, , ,l rlrr.lrrrly. I clidnotknowanyone there.

:rlrr ru I

ilt,t,t,'lr,lti,t!,.r! iittt; !tl)ii:ii,; ;rt,r-t,ft.r,rrlgrllryisjllgit l)i\<!;titi)'.

i lt,ttti, \'ri: /or !r; i1.-iri;; ;it(":(; tiiit{ it tL'ilit ttt.\'.sirirlicr i l, rtit,',ttiti lltr rl,,,r; lrlliirrurtr !ili.nlci.x14tlttiul ittlt!r! ti.'ititlt! lt;tl;jsr i! ti,.'ti

the future. There are so many problems in the world. (in spite

r1,,rr,,,,,,,,l r,,,.,,,,,,r,1.w"
, No[(: l.ltirl despite, in spite of and instead of are considered to be prepositiorrsr tir'rlitlri()t..1('./ iiir'.1rltd*,.sgtitey46't1;vep1 trrt:iiLriig.rrttit::; (rrril#*spii,:Irt-';iet)


;;ro ;;

n^roi rairtp,i,.,

r. ,r,


l,.r\ r' ur('

sontc money. They didn't buy me a present. (instead of

'i!rr'u,r. ti! tr; 'iti'!i!,,'itts[txtd of s*ill,E sirztir{iit l:rsttic Lt.!ltt :;i !iottl \D(tt i+t1;luttl

t,..,t i


ll,, ,, rrl,,r\
1i:1 ltt 'l

\\r rrt orrl ol'ltusiness.Theyspentthousandsof dollarsonmarketing.

If the following verb is negative, we use not + -ittgi iit" ;itst :r iol: rii:spite tu)l !:t'tl
I:(t0d gi(itlt'i;

$mrreet the nristake helovs"

I r,,r r ,l , r rr!: i,,II'r lr{.fab}{ti{ii,lte"'lc;}ftsl.i,el"u. !.qtu:ltilv







Alice won thc 10ililt in spite of sltrr wf,t youngesl l,l'lyfll,

ing clo you like doing in your spare time? joy to listening to music and I a]so like doing sport in my I r r r t I r irrk t:vcryone should to Iook after their body and try keep lrr I l,,r 1 ,,r)r ( (.t, irncl T was actually offered a place in mylocal soccer r,, r |, I rr r r I I r; rr I trrrrr it down because my parents wouldn't to allow t-ne

l, rr I r r l ol

t , ll I rr.,rlly i,, i r( l


iJnrlerline [he ccrrr"ct word or phrase itl the serltelrces irelow,

It was easy understanding I to u,nderstand why they liked living closc tr r t ltu 2 'fi/hen they finally arrived, the students were too tired cooking I to ctntl' tty .) I felt very nervous presenting I to present my assignment to the clitss. 4 The large tree prevented thern from gettirtg I to Setwet in the rairl. 5 l'm sorry for causing I to ca.useyou so much trouble. 6 The lady in front was wearing a hat that was too big seeing I ro .sc('()v('l



r, .rrr\

rr('!v skills

youwouldlike to learnin the future?

,' , ll


L,rrrl, I lovc nrusic, so I would love to learn to play the guitar one


t1 1,' r,

r I rr,rs \,()unger, my parents suggested to studying a musical l,' rl I rr rl I wasn't interested at that time. If you want be a good



r, r r

1,,r r

r';rlly n)ust to work hard and keep to practising every day.


r r

I rr,:rs spcndiltg a lot of time to studying so I couldn't do



l'heystill couldntalTordthehotelin spiteof


l tlteyrecei.t4'(l;t ll)'rlt

l,, r L l,r r l

looliirrg [brward learning to play some time it'r the future.

They decided to rent a flat ir-rsteacl of staying I to stay in a hotel.

Fill in the lrlanks with t]re corrr:ct ttrrrn of the verhs in the box.

E. ;J"


1ir:nrn(tr ffir


after allaw, advrse, maketsuggest?

,q11, ,rii '-1



speak (x 3)


I, i lii ,,,'' r,r i ri',ri), I',,i I . I , ri ;l ' tiillrlrr t, ,, t,i,,iirl1


1,,:ll, irll






't, ,


i.. r ' ' '' ii,, r

lollouled by -lngif there is no object and by to + infinitive if tltere is

r, r rtlltr,rrr,(ltrilkbegrrsl.ottgusi.l.rr.asiriE'rrlilish. (nticlirectotrjcct) ), t,tllottn"tl usl.ittctlkttslurtgttsi!ttusinBrgtisir. (irsisthr:,c1irec:tobjt,ci)

l,,ll,rrr r.rl lrv llte intinitive

(ttltti\(, ulknu, forhid,



i! , rl rr rlrr rlrrr,t t oltjecL ntust come between thc verb and the infinitivc: 1 .tt. ,' , ,l ttt t rloL' lo sit tlta li'artt o.l lter rin: (not 5fiet1/o,'rt,tl n:ri+14cr 4ttg) ; .i i i t
tlr,.,,r.vcr.lrs iLre fb]lowcd by tct + intinitive: be aduised, l,r 't nttt(lt', l)( lnrmitted: I rr , 'i= ',lr , ,l t, t tnttur'! nty' !rtt'tl ugcttt (/s soon {ls tlrc llkttt.c lrittCcrL It, r,' itr,tll. !tt 11lalIls1y1t rr ltrge dosa 9.i'itrt !t1,,tltp ttttrSc
, i,
be a.lktruecl,

Wclc<lnre to our school. I ar-n the principal of the college ancl I'd iust like to sitV it wolds whilc your teacher is pleparing (1) . . . .. you a short video about o lovely town. We are all vcry pleased that you have decided (2)...... ....... . .. al ollt college. Some of you are here for only a few weeks, so you can't affbrd (ll) .. ........... . .. any tirr.rc in your studies. Lcarning (4) . . . . . any larrllrr involves (5). . .................. ..... that langr-ragc as much as possiblc. So fi'om today, I recommend (6)... ........ only English. \&hile you arc here, you shoulcl r:ornlr (7).... . ..... as many friends as possible from other countries so that yorr rh spend too much time (B) . . your own Ianguage. Well, I think tlrt' virlt,rt ready rrow. I hope (9) .... . .. the opportunity to meet you all indivitlrrirlly 4l
lu n ch.

i =*

, ' t,, t, rll.rr r,rl

t,t r.


izg lvitl-rout a clirect object:

t,,l .,.,'ttt!: lt,tt tlt,t,ii,


r,lrri,tolrjr,r'l,youcaltusetheinfinitivcwithclutto,otatlmtc.lause: F-a, =rtttt t,,l tt,t. 1:i,t(ttt ttlt)ttiA rtr'. jOlttt Swggestedth{r.tilrcgOtO4illottit:,
I llro
rrrl,rl.rkr: below.

Filtr in the blanks usirrg the words in brackets.

I 2

I dicln't n'rind washing the dishes. I was

Your essay




. .. (happy I do) it. I morlc) because the handwt it ir r1i

.... (too I d,iffi,cul.t I ttttclerstu.nd).

3 Alex fclt .............. (excited / .qer) ready tirr the party. 4 l'm renting a llat because it was . . ... .. (too I expensiuc I ltuy) ort, 5 Our team was just . ......... .. (not I fit I enou,gh / ruln) the match. ii There is so much bad news that I often fccl .. .. ...... . (sod I watclrl tllrl
on TV

, ,,t,,rrr,.rrrtl tloingyourhontcwclrknowif youwunttowatch'l-Vlater. h l,,,,,,,,1,, r1, rrr,trl{, tnc to clcauup myroomwhcnIwasyolLng. llri,,r,,, 1,r, 1r,,1;l1l 111y1 be allowed usingnobile phones inthe cinema i i,l i rr,,,rlrrrlrlr,n srrrokingin manyrestaurants andpublic areas I r tr r L ll,,rl I lrlirlly rnacle workrnyncrv D\lD player. 1,,,ii,, ,,1 r,,llor ;tl rt'siclentsnottoleavingtheirwindowsopeltatnight. ii, !, ,ll 1,, rrr! tlxtt you enter the rruscltm as rnauytitncs as you like. rr r r,. , , , rlr l l() {o to the palk tbr our encl-of-ternr party.

SfmB, d'r"y,


matd rsrrffi{*s}"}fper


i*ft&fl' mr$!metfru,es srtd

ilr circh nilir,

Eis t{$tti

:1. i'!r:trr 6[lr] r:t;l'r ot l. scii"[r'ri{]iJ it.r r:'lac!l 1;lill'

r ,t1 :;(:!"i{cnL:r:

a i',)l,lrislll,..,rri,l:ir-,t,rjitrrrttLii,Utlrt'l'ilrr,'rrtliltrllrt:l,lllii ir.;:rititirrl b lorr:rir[ liirit',ili'] lrlritr lti i,rl{.1r,'l ili{rrlt', rr,rili)r.rll r",ir iirr: {n1r::,:,1 irl:lhirr-il, a I iir] rjil\,1r,r't)l1){rrti trtt'<i lifiifrl-ritirl lil,r: iiilttr Lllil \Ii,l'ri $,ii:Lrr:1,,'i'tti, b Ilr,:,':ii.,iirrlrflcfllli lri(r,rl',::lltiirllrrriltiriirlriii'r,,trlriil,;;,il'irtLrrcrll',[,,r1,
Some verbs have a different meaning when they are followed by -irzg or ro + infirt


rr:n,.i rl ,.,irt;r,i'i.uti Jr
Lltri:rr i tt,

il, \{ri,ii i.,,-1,1,"1I iirL'llilit





i+rl"1i rr,t, i

i,t l"rxiiir'ii

j'j Jt iii ",!ljllliifi,-]l11,,,,.iilri-i ril'r;',,rrr':lti,:l I|)1:-1'lilliil'rll iillrt'H'"lr:1rltl l1,r i)f lil)iill:l) 1i 1c.]1r,riti i, ; Lill!,i]r'liiiiJ lr'.

Stop+-ing=tostopanactivity. Stop+to +infinitive=tostopapreviouslymen(it

activity in order to do something else. Compare:


s Io


yt l.t i.i, i w

,,r,r, r(lt,'( liv('s are always followed by a specific preposition' It r t, r\ \'ou rrre bad at, good at or surprised ar something: . ",i ,1i (it liit"irrrititL i 0.1 irttp!t itiltO t'til;tt'. lfrrrr,,,rrrI tt,iIh.Wesayyou areangryaboutorptleasedaboutsomethingbuta'?gry
,t rrt, ,,y


,titL'i,t,i:, i!,!.,!(,i)!tt',,it,,,tiir(i !lii'.i'stqltiti,ti ltl tt;tztt'lt rt lttti:,L ii-iirrh 1'riir,,rt,,1t irr ll.r rir'r ;{J \!i,i{ [i lirc ri llck]


lril.ri (.. they


'liy +

,tytl tttith ii person: , ! ;i! \' ,1pii' lrtit itt,ilt tt,tiii.1,t#tgl-)'ruillt Joirt" \li, r, l r, l, l to l t l u l. w c use about or with; after wo lried We only


:use abo


-itr.g= to attelnpt to solve a problem by doing something. Try + to + infirritiv

;rllcnl[)t arrtl ['ail to clo something. Compare:

I 1,r,, t! li,Uil{j:j iilr, I ti, iriti !ii1, r1.t,1r,, 1,li /.i 1,1.ri1,r,ll (lrtl. (i hl;i:titrlt r.l ifi littr'i lltt l:rll)

i,,,,"rrrtlgri u'i!ft l *lsorui.lrat r,rir.r l' lc'stri l:; ! itr,\ rit'r,tt,tin"ied i4f24;1iy tltc lt':;i







rrlways followed by a specific



i\ ,lt t tt tt\t, itt, clrop in,

ltttt'tct I n'ttrr:rnlrcr + -in,g- thinking back to a special/significant time in thc pirrl, Ittrgcl I rctrrcntber + ro + infinitive = thinking about something that must [)('(lollg the firltrrc. (iompare: L..;.;;l.r,tJ;Ciri. -si.r.,i;,,f , r i ; t, i i i,,,,,,,,, t, r i tl, t t i : t, liir1lt.',i;-r'i'/ ltiiis Iilit,.iit'ttt:tl irr llrr' ! ; i ; i i :; t r"p rt,, t Jpfrgt- 1ii 3;rv7l7 {", i;1' /tr'il',,; i /rltt,L;l] iiiisi i rrrL: i rtlri'rrlrt'r, llrt'tr I rrrll r



between them: ftftt,,,, r. r ,,'ii tT;t''l'iitttttl;r!ti(lii'rlli!l';it:llit'luir'r'/'t |r'r|i'r'Jd,li,'\t,ti'tirtrttt:tttl ii $ r., r. 't,lt',rrrtrr1lt ol', distuluantage of, example of, number of, percentage of, use of' lttliltir': ', rl i\ ln,,.,.,,r ',r:1,tlJrlr,;ttttt,;i'il 11ri.

in, rise in: :,,, r.i j p ttl ;t,tt:i6.tii.'1, {tt !!t it; rtt,tt l i' l':; :tii't:i ittp, rrl rrsI two things, we talk about th dffirence
fall in, increase


ih* r,'iistaka hei*v*.






{ire fu[,ir,1t vqilll ttrrr'{)t}rrect l'asnr of tltr; l'rr}-t ilr [tratkcts.

.... too

I Nowadays rnany people want to stop ......

The burglar

hard antl crtio1' lllrr

pt tlr, l,l

candles for the birthday cake'4 (/rrrl') the windowwith a knife but cotrltlrr'l lill lll a postcard to your grandmother whtltl yott'tl rtwflS 4 ........ a lttttt lr lrtr',tl I 5 At I2 o'clockeveryday the builders stopped the pyramids on our trip to F,gypl (r'lt/tl 6 I will never forget .

remenlber tried . . Don't forget

Did you



,,,t r! r;,' t+ rt: , r 1,, , r \,,r\

;ri rlLli'r^tr

iycllit nltis lrrrid


t]te c$ri-ctlt prt:pusiti<ltl'

t i
, .r

the two ttltals' 1r,,l,rl,rtr,,n is lit[ greater, so there is el biS ',,rr irtg tlloney is that you w--ill be able to enjoy your retirement

painling 61 drawing.


r li ,rrrlr, , ,.,


'llhecooktried .


...... moresaltbutthesoup wasstill loo lrl;trrrl I across the road but I have no ideta lrow I lttr lt'tl
tiri ir.

, lrrlr

"r]rloned is increasing each year' ltt'tt rvith obesity probl4ms talking on the phone' while rr rrrlli lrtskitrg is reading gmrtails

numbersos6 urrdin1997,witha30%rise' the lecture very much' . r'obotics, ,o h"

hospital. (ranlk)


r, r,r,.r slt'irdy

1;he numberof road acclidents'

Test 5 1
Hill in the lllanlcs using the correct form of the verbs irr the box.


scntences' l,r,: rllr."rorrgcI worul or phnase irr these

\( r

L , r


1 r

r,,,;ilrle 1u ,r1ake peo ple giue

was at school' ar/in sports when I

t befbre the Pertbrmance' t in the race'


it i:t


email reserve


,r tr
rrrr ,,,1,,.t

Library Rules
ilt t,ltt

)................ ...... itlr li) irl.r: li rl ll, r,l, :i


irrrll ii''rt'lttll

)' "" ""' """"'

i' l,r L t r i rfilt^f' r"liil'iL:I i'' rll :" irl-1':t 'l ,L li

t r, ''

tlremisiuhcs[tll lhe r,,rdrri(.g'limr:d tr4 misna'icesirrtllisessa3i'Connct:t

on lhe -o'kfn"ce anLl many heallh problems' rs o d'orn


opped ansueringllct ansuer the door' irlr mY exar-n results' and night' brttsltyor'rr teeth every morning


, ri irIt,\", llit,,r ,i,,,

I i'"

are no"y Sood -learly, lhero



(l) t'o st'op peoplz /


ir rrll .li:

.......... ,r
,l Lrl i'.-'\,,,;rl'rr l'liliir " rr li

lrrl'i l,'

n l, '

ill,t;l'.,L,',1r, ' : I :r;,1 :i

r \rlj, l:ll I l,'il,'r

tllilrri, "... rl'r l i'l I

F'ind tlre

places in the text whcrr: yotr need [o add a preposition.

rs lhP- rosPonstbrlrly ol fhe I 2 ask oursolves -hefhe'' lhrs on (Z) m^nl ar?-^s oLlr A ;r?- can sLe-,lhrs p'oblzn has an rmpac/ t'hs gc6nomy lf people spencl loo ,,,r:c-ortoot' erryaplq'fo' t'hro '5 noney fo' fher' fufu"e ,,, ::-rgaret'fzs' lhey arll not' savl as .tnuch need lo lake co'e of , rt lhey become itt tt''u 3o '-'nment' u-rll hove o dut'y t'o zducot'e pzople aboul / , , ,, * /hz Sove'nment' does (5) be u92"Pd for , t ,t,-,tqgea fqr sagfun! ond -e shoul'| oll (b) qduiae PeePleJe not' t , , l,.3u.tever' 'f i' nof"unouahlusl lo

Thc chart shows the nurrber people moving between the villages in tltt: sottllt cities in thc uorth in recent years. The rnair-r diff'erence the two sets ol'ligrrrr", lt the pcrcentage people living in the south is decreasirrg steadily, whilt: tlrlrc ltrtc rise population figures lol the nrlrthern cities. f ire biggcst increase popttl,tllrrll nor.thern cities occttrred in 2001, and this corresponcls with the biggesl tllr rr rrrrntlter people living in the southern villages. Since 2002, the ntttttbt't itrlr,tlrl lroth the north itnd the south has remained stcirdv.
7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000

5o^z govetnment's hovs olteody t \ )vLrntnLnfs tlo"

(J) t'-rre'l


| ,, ,

(8) lc'ud ftodtru uays t'o largzf , ,')ouLrnment's houe also succass' In my courtfry' az only ,1 ,-acfurers utit'hou/ (lO peopte qrl. oat' pz,',t'eJ rlkg ttl our alJn homes ond lhrs rs an zffeclrve u'tay t'o ,'-aurant's or bafi' T bel ievz UZ) lhq nutnbz' ot al leasf t'o

t'o ptop sttoNrng




lo adopl ',-fl gouecnm92t'5 qhrldten to ' -evettt tv,o"q

lhis s/'a/qy In lhis :^1, :"

up lhis unheoilhy h"brf

r990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005





s ffi fte r




m$xr-t Hl$;*fir,,

X '1 !('k Itre ec;rr*,rI

U | O b


jli *;:.rlt pllir,


' .ii.r:r,\'iir."(: iei t,;tt:i1 lrilic".

Irlli i r.,ri.llr:!(r l,'i l,"iillli{1

lrl , ll,rir

rri,i-l i.],,-rl,i


| lyrr rrriitri),riir.r t'1,-'1i'ilrt,i 1r:r l i,i.r

ii',t iri-irj
lt,, 1tlt;




r1li,r 11.r,:i

i'i;r, :,i,

:rl lliti

ll,t rt l i

' |,1 rt,:rrJi,rril lrt ,l{tritl'l ,, ] r,ri,Illl r,\ iii \li)/it I


i irit irr,:l"l


-li,4i:i lir, .ilitJili.l r jt ) iii{i |r i,t ii


ilJ.llYil r1l:rlil

Some verbs must be followed by a specific preposition. Sometimes more than orr0

preposition is possible and sometimes there is a dilference in meaning depentlir which preposition is used: Agree.We say you agree with a person clr an idea: i i t, I t t ! t i ttyt'e.c it, i i I t lllr, .llili,r,r it t jtr,i r I .r 1l(,1'l it/:ll. Brrt if you give your consent to something, we use agree toi ,i,'rrtir .,l,ilrr iiil //t.i ,it11i itttt t' t:{ft,:;1. ji; trlit l crtsi,liil, Altologise. Wc say you apoLogise ro someone but you apoLogise for something: \ti;itt, ,titirfi'i,t, ,ll iir.rri /1f'r{rr,Irrr-tiril itt ()i!i ti,.'i:!ltltl;, !ttt'rti,-ilt,y,iitlit il,itttltttt' ltittrl ottl, knout, learn, teach, think. These verbs can all be followed by alxtttt: i it , ,t il,i,,'; i, i;,,)t!:), tr! i(,;i{1"'r,': ilittltl li.!t' iit !!tr.,,tltii,ttt!rt.t,.; 'l'ltirtk tirrr be lirllowedby about or of to talk about opinions or luture plarrs: \\'!iri! iltt ir,,i llrirll,l*'if.rr'"'r{,1l,'lf-rj tIr1,;11,,i, a{.}i!il)tt;{at Jiri,,,'Iiriti;tiilit] iir,t'ji,r".ij,ilii.:tf,,;,J,,,r,,.'',i:ir,i:!vt,,i,.io r1;7l1ri'l.ti11')*,\';t.,i.itj irt.1i;1,r.;j;ilr.i. l/r,,gti,r,(lrrlrttd Look.We use k)ok af when we tix our eyes on something and look for wht'rr wr' searching lbr something: Illr'r,rt;Jc ;fI i,rri,.:tittci'i.' !:;t : i i I f )t"r! :!i ii fi l,' i't,r'lt;*i,.ed list ,iti';i(tt!it'i!'{)"'.- t'i't,i 1'11r./,'1'1t' ilr,r'l'li,;r ,1.'r, il

month ol' part of the day, but oru with a day or date: r' ,rj ,,ii'jxtr^ \'i', litir!t i; {,}Ji .i:j{ {.tl'jl;,{rr:1.: j}l irt!.{{.rir,;'.rirr;-,'}, ,,r rr rllrrr tirne and withthe rueekendand night: . ,i /l;i iii,firlr./,i,i, /)i! iitttilliit,aj #;{i$i' 1,,r rrr r,rlL ill)()ut a length of time; r I irrr 'l"tj Y':;'11"t
r r r rtlr ir year,

,,, ' ' rl lr r ilics, r:ountries and places to say where something is or happerrecl:

, ,

r, ,, r

/// \\ rllr lr lrook, newspaper, magazine, journal, film orTVprogramme to rr',r(l ()r sitw something:
, ij ,'tjrr lt li;l iir:t, ititli,!i! ! r/i{,..lii'ii/ fi",lil ilr;r/

,r',rrlr r lrrntl,college,uniuersiry,workandh.omeandtoref'ertoabuilding:
,,,,i 'i, I r itii'l'l ill,i-rirlr.' tltt,i,triillr


r lrl.rt

c lo slrow destination:

, r ,r. ,r'ii,.. lq ti::'lilii

ti,,l,i it'r,':r,,,r.,i'ti r rj.

l'll have to walk at work
during the train strike.


0*rr;rrlt tke i&istai{,e i}elolv.

I spend a lot of time

looking at my car keys

t {

iiI irr i$rr"lli,iiriq.e Iiii;!ii"l th*

{.{}i:r'!:!]n ill-r-.groullilr:e" ,

I I don't know very much .... ...... ancient history. 2 'I'he manager agreed an increase in staff holidays. 3 The airline apologised .. ... ... losing my hlggage. 4 How did you find out our college? 5 What are you thinking ............ doing in the school holidays? 6 We went to the zoo because I wanted to look . . .... the pengrrirr:' 7 l agree theteacher-you reallyneed to itnproveyour lrrrrrlrnrtlllttp B 'Wrat are you 1ooking.............?''My glasscs, I can't find therrr lrrywlrr'rl




llrt'lilrrary and then

lilnr. l/ tll

go in together?

I rrlilislr .......... 3years.

Arrstralii.r next week. Tlrey are going to stlldy
/'::10 so . .. .... Sydney.

we'll need to get there before then.

lr y runll('l ... ... the nlovie we sarv last night. lr, ltrrrll<.. .. . niglrt.

Tick the coffect sentence in each pair.

a b a b

Our'stunr{oi.d uf living is rncich be.i"{er thcrn in the p:ost Our stcrncltrrrj fon iivlng is nrlch [:elter flicln in the past Write o ietter complairrt to the nroncrgcn
Wnife tr leflen cif conrpk:int

lht. t, u talk to high school students. FiIl in the blanks using the correct form of otru

lltr. vcrbs in the box, and a preposition.

lI of





look (x 2)



to tlre


expressions: cost ofliuing, letter ity of life, standard of liuing:


high cost of liuing nowadays.

peopteoft en""0",,,n*':;i;:Wz:#:",1;tr#X;'ffi:;';:;;tack,teader,
hoping to persuade a rarge number of peopre to wark to work. O/is used in some prepositions: in front of, instead of. I decided to take the bus instead ofthe train.
Also after because and as
The gouernmem is

O/is also used after son

o/is used to tark about quantities with some words: qmoltnt, number, a rot,

tlrrrt time of year again when our final-year students start to (1)"""""""""""""' need to be made before then. Your teachers 1u,, 11lttvr,rsity and all of the clecisions that (2)"""""""""""""' them, so I ' lhnl yorr needed some advice on this subject and I quite just that. First, talk to your teachers. Not only do they [Hv,, r.r,rne along today to do lH,t .. . . ...... lyou) their subjects, but they can also give you some very useful illv[,r' about your strengths and weaknesses. Secondly, make a list of what you pinpoint what you still lht,rrrlV (4)........................... university study. That will help you



llpr,rl t0 (5)........................... . The internet can be an invaluable tool, but there is little if you don t know what you are (6) " ;trl t r l i n searching for information the study time just (7) valuable of Irllrlrwise you can waste hours
t'utr l l)t.l

ter screen.

a resurtwhenthey are followed by a noun or gerund: m with usbecauseof his badleg. (not@ad*e{) demoted qs a result of the weather being bad. (not as_*x

llln'rcct the mistakes in the following sentences. is another side to the argument, I I irgree to what you are saying, but I think there tt questiol I hc difference with your essay and mine is that I only answered part of the mistakg,, for spelling writing our ( to checking the importance stressed )Lrr teacher ll trees in the area. 4 lrruit bats emerge in night to feed on the many fruit ( in 10:00? morning )an you meet me tomorrow h ll l've been working in this coffee shop in six months. My birthday is in Bth November; when is yours? I il Alex started piano lessons on luly last year.
Arld the correct prepositions to the following conversation.


correct the mistakes in the foilowing sentences. There may mistake in some sentences.

be more than one


a .)

5 6 7

It is difficult for very old peopte to have a good quality for life. The lakes remained empty for a long period time during the drought. I missed out on a good job promotion as a result my illness. The government for my country tries to consult everyone about important issues. I u,rote a letter complaint to the airline because they lost my tuggug". There are a large number different t),?es cars on our roads nowadays. The leader for the opposition was very angry with the resurt at the election. we ate at home instead to go to a restaurant because we couldnt decide what tlpr food we wanted.

ThAnks for coming everyone. As you know Sue, our receptionist is off siql and it may be some time before she's back (1)'........"" work' I'[ have a replacement tomorrow but today we'll all need to help out' Well, I teach (2)............. the afternoons, but I could cover reception (3)............. an hour this morning. I just need to make sure I have time to

prepare for my presentation (4)............. the university (5)...........'. 17th June, OK, I'[ put you dovrm for 9:00 to 10:00. \Mhat about you Margaret? Mu,ry: Margaret: Actually, I can do a couple of hours this afternoon because I managed ts get a lot of work done (6)............. the weekend. I've promised to take my class to see a play (7)............. Friday, so I really need to get that organiseq


this morning. That's fine. I did have a meeting (B)..-...'.....- the city (9)."""""" 11:00 but lq* cancel that and cover (10)............. three hours from 10:00 to 1:00 mYself tvy,, done, everyone! Thank You.

2 '\Ail-rat's Ann doing?, ,She,s looking at I forher passport., 3 I rnust apologise/or- I tobeinglate; my car broke down.

Underline the correct answer. I I quite agree /o I tuithyou.

0w (lo

I make a verb passive?

)/,r,r-tl,r ir'r

il,-ii: iltrrrri,


I'i.,i,: ir'lrliir iirr'rir

Cornplete the letter using the information from the notes.

tr, I' r' ';ivc is tbrmed with the verb ro lre + thc' past participle of the verb: ,rt,t tt lttl,,\, o grea.t dea,l of nnney is spent on a.duertising.

, il .

, , . r r , i ,,



L r l r r to De should be changed in[o the correct Passive r, r , .;imple is sPen.t l, , , rl is being spen.t 1, , nt t:rrltil.tttous LU&s SPellt irrtl l)ilst 'lr' wasbeingspent |,r,,)iltilruous been sPettt , has ill I ;rcrfect r1r, hanl.beenspent rlcLrt 1',


Dear Sir

arrr writing to colllplairr lrbolrt u recent holiciav I tool< with


yo,r corrpany.

,,rrr,rlt,tlrenegative,weputnofbetweenthevelb tobeandthepastpalticiple: tt, tlcrc nat told that the hctd, chan.ged. I lr, 1, q5.;ivu cein also bc used in thc intinitive lbltri: r Itrl,Irttr trcecl to be taught the correct way to behaue in pttblic.
rlr, r rrrodal verbs, we use passive infinitive withor'rt fo:
',',ttrr' trrlu.Lts beLieue


(l).. ..... ...

accornm.rl^tio, w.s ter.iblc.




rinly that. but lvc cotrlcln't usc thc ltool becirusc ol(2) .. ...,.,. wuulcl have rikccr t. to trrc rrcaerr nror.e.t'te,, but on thc first -u. crrt his tbot baclly as a resLrlt ol-(3) .. in
wc cliscoverccl there rvas ir lo[ ol'brokt-n glass in thc sancl.
Seconclly. we paitr

[1 lvirs \cr.-\, rrt.risy as , rcsult of were workingon itclaya,it night. Not


that childrert shoulclbe seem and not heard'. t',rt rt,illbe paicl on the last Friday o.f each rnonth. (lrlrrcct the ntistake below"

rrry s.n

thr- sea rhcre, and

.f nrore), 1or trvo trips. The to Mt .. _. .. . . Tn ftict wc cor-rlc.lr_r.t oven sLrc the top of the nrountuin because of (-5) . The sccclnd t'rp wirs ta. sh.w i, thc lrc.l ti'^vn. H,lv.ver.. rnissccl rhc start of thc 've show as a leslilt ol'(6). .. . .... r)n thc wiiy thcre. Furlher_nror.e nry rvil'e cndccl up in hospital lLs a r.esLrlt of (7) .... at the
gi'eal derLr

Fltlrl u,as

bccausc ol.(:1)

I gave this painting by my grandmother.

r)r.r-Lrct I lrr:

the mistakes in the following sentences.You do not need to change the tense.

rcstliuran[ tlrerc

I wotrld be gratctul
\bLrls tuithl'irlly
Fraser Ctrllcn


you eoLrld relirnrl the eclst of oLrr.trip.

, l'lrc r:lass has allowed to eat ilr l.he staff dininS room dr,rring the rerlovations. I I lrc potatoes carry along a corlveyor belt to a rootn where they wash and peel. I I lte tcacher tolcl to take her class out of the school if the fire bell rang. , 'irrroking do not allow in any part of thc aeloplane. r, I lrc. nruseum was being lenovating when we were there, so we coukl rlot visit it' , lir!s tickets can buy at any newsagents. ir \t'rr,r employees have instructed not to operate the photocol.lier until they are tlained.

lrouse was sell for over onc

rrillion dollars'

When do I use the passive?

Tick the correct sentence in each pair. I a ,\!*ir,; ilrir-ri,it,lrri\,,, l_.{,t -lir,rjl,:l ;l".r)iltiilx it,l li-rrl ,.iir,lrl:il, b li'iiL.lt1 Irr"it.Lr rIt irrr,"., ,-li,:r, I 1116,!ltr.,.)r| I iril, rjlfirrlllr 2 a i-lriri,jrrirl l,lr,:,|,1 Ir1'1.,,. i l,tir,l I'i.r,r, b lirir. iri!riri!,,rtij lufi,ril [urr,i l.,iIi ,i urll l,jil]

Itlh.rl rr; reflister?



l, t!,{' r'(}rrect senlence in each pair'

i,tj rll'1"xr.rr'1l ,liil',-ri;ir,Ii1iii'i',

I r lr r l,


lill, rrl'!"\/lrl'ili:lllr''llllr'rlrlri'llr'li'ilr ir'::1'otjriiil':l{'rr':'liiiulliiirllr\!{:)i))illi' l|ilri' I tri,l t,r';(i'plr Irl:]ii::'.'ir iirill i';l' lL' lrrlr',r ii,rrr iri/lilll I't'lrl'::ir"ili ilfr\'!rl' ,.,iril'ri,r)i-,I,:ii,,'1ll",l iirrli ':iril'jr',,itirt'rr'lr-il'tttrrlililfi'o'rl''itirlllti'4rtri'|lii:r

with active verbs we usually

use the fbllowing order: subject + verb + object. we uso the passive when we want to p,t the object of the verb first: object + verb. comparoi L-he teacher told the students !o r:lose thci,r boaks.ilctive (subject ,,,erb 'l'he stutlemts were tord ro trose t!rcir's. = passive (oirjcct + r,ertr)


We use the passive:

' * ' '

r t


when we want to make the object the focus of the senten ce.. T,he boaks u,ere solcl.) 0 srrtnl.l profit ct.t tlrc :;t:ltou!. (the focus is on the books, not the person selling thern Note that the verb (were) agrees with the object (the books). when the colltext tells us who carried out the action: A law tpns introtl.u.cecl fo r)t.otcct lteoytle in this siLttaiir;rr (we know that the government did this) wlren it is not important who carried out the action: lrt f!rc [,atrtr.y, the slwes are t'leaned n.ttrl Ttttcl;ed itrto ltoxcs 5alp (we do not need to know who does t Note that we can inr;lucle the'subject' by adding by + theperson/grou p: A rat o.l. s lt: t n a te f i.a ls cr tr r ! d I e recy t I a d. by large nranufntturers.

' treans using thc riglrt word in the right context. For formal essay writing, not use informal language' l irrr l l rSI use a formal register. This means you should ,',,r ,lrottld not use: . rrrlrrrnral vocabulary: not kirl,s;ok;bucks;heaps.You shoulduseamoretbrmal , , r val ent instead: chiklrert; alL right or acceplable; tttoneyi fitany or a great tleal' . ,1 rrrlrols on their own in place of word s: not(%;$; &; @' You should write the wt)l'tls |t ltrll.. percent; money; ancl; at. Note that % and $ should only bc rtser'l witlt (rrot 75 ,,rrrrrcrals. For smaller amounts we write $50 (not 50 dollars) ttr:rd 75t"'l'
r, I , L
l r i

. .

t t r' t r

l). The nouu fortn of p ercent is percentage' rlrlrrcviations: not m; yrs; kgs;rzo. You should write these words in



r,', r rs;

rll r lrpitalletters: not i,,ir)i,,\l,itr../\,1i,.r, i:,r. -,1,1 g irt the following examples:

lciloslkilogram,s; number.{ L l,.,r\r


should usecapital

l, ttt'rs onlywhen appropriate: Nowaclays people think

I ,,,,1.


2 Correct the rnistake below.



,,,,r/,iirljc.s ruu.sLel*apso!$*eksontttluerti,siilS.-utrtstengeatdea.lofmoneyort.. t tiiti i!r.c'h.rostt to 67.5. -- the percettlage rose to...

nt,,,t,l theyx;2001 anrl 2005, orter Ztt-peol:tlc rli.ecl.

tlLe ctucr

2 million..-



(:(,rrt:ct the mistake below.

The new hospital cost over

200 million bucks to build

lrr' new hospital ......

change the loltrowing sentences fr.rn active to will ,ot need to chango the tense. You will need to decide when to leave out the subject.
I A factory worker checks each box for quality. Each box The government does not permit children under r6 to work. children The washing machine is wasrring your clothes at the rnome nt. your croiltes .. .... 4 A mechanic will repair your car this afternoo n. your car ..... .... 5 The agent has sold our house at last. Our house

( r ri r r:r: t the register errors in the fbllou'illg, scntences. There may tre nrore than one"

7 The

Sonrething tore the back of my coat. .I.he back o.f my coat ...... employer pays the stafI more for working at the weeken d. The staff . Burning tyres give off highly toxic chemic als. Highly toxic chemicai, . .... ....


| ',( )nre people believe it is ok to hit small children' , tritls today are much more comfortable using technology than older people. I I rc no. of people without a job in the yr 200 I was 3 '5m' I I lrc government needs to create heaps of jobs to solve this problem. , ,,\ I,ARGE AMOUNT OF $ IS SPENT ON DE\GLOPING TOURISM. r, I lrc female employees tend to go ollt more during their lunch break than the guys' , i,t'/o of students agreed with the ctecision but the To that disagreed was far greater' rr l'lrc baby blue whale gains 90 kgs per clay'

Test 7
I\{atch the people or group to the correr:{ sentence. the government

ill ,r i!ri,


in the following paragraph using the infnrnration ill lhe diagranrs"


to rnake a tradi(ional canoe

tl're hospital stafl'




nrairr dish rrras servecl ou a silver plattcr 2 Laclr year the lnost improvecl stttdcnt is chosr-'tr .) A rrcrv [ai,v has been llasseil to nrakc tlrc dtLrrrping of r'r,aste illc'girl 4 T rcalisccl nrv lccys har] lreen stolen clrrrirrg thc brcak-[n. !r Sinrolr is being trcirted irr"llinor btrrns. 6 Our lrcr,v government r,rrill be clr:ctccl on f rntr' 2(lth


rillrltic lrcc

Strip the balk

Soak the bark.


ftlow rewrite the sentcrlces in thc activc using the smlriects i'rorn the box.

rl, , rl rrrlt itfire , l,,rr rl lo lttttn.

Placc tlrc btrrk between trces to shape it.

Scw thc eclgcs togethcr

l0 verlr-s thal sirould he in


pilssive und




r:essary charrgcl.

\\ |l /"

There are two main types of training; 0ehavi0ural and 0bedience Behavioural training should do 0n a 0ne to one basis.This type 0f training uses to correct any bad habits your dog may have developed, such as

lr, ,l

lorl'r ur)oc

lndigenous peoltle use thern to cartch tish

l, r\\ lroui rr traclitionirl canoe (1)


climbing 0n furniture. 0bedlence trarning should do often but only for short periods ttl best to train your dog just before meais s0 his meal associates with a reward for llrc lt

It is important to keep y0ur puppy safe from danger. Many young puppies inlurc lrt their owners don't realise how curious they can be. 0ne way t0 protect your pultlty lH giving hirn a special house The house can make 0f any suitable material but il nrttal en0ug,h tor the puppy t0 mOve ar0und c0mfortably. lt can use f0r house traininll y0tll 0r [0 protect him fi'orn very young children try to win your puppy's atfection by allowing him to do wh;tl ltn your puppy rewards with a cuddle and a pat when he jumps on the furniturc, llttttt continue t0 d0 this To correct jumping, first y0ur puppy's feet should placc llllly the fioor.Then the puppy gives a treat when he is on the floor. lt is importattl ltt tt that other people know they cannot pet hirn or reward him if he jumps Ltp.
You should never

. First, a suitablc 1t'ec l llrt:n tlre biLrk (3) . oll in one piccc. Ncxt, tirc, bark rrr ,r rirrt'r so that iL becornes soft arrd pliable. It (5). .. ... .. lrrrt it slrorrlcl [(i) (rrot) to [tr.rln. Tn orcier to shape thr: r betrvccn two trees that are grorving i:lose together. -. l, rrl. lrrscooled, tltccclges (8) .,.,. i.ogether.Yourcanoc I lrr':t' t'ltnoes (10).. .. fbl lishing.

tr i llrr

lr iril-,l,il(r'\ ill tlrr,. fOllowilrgtr:Xt.

rl,, rrl oI Pt'oPJe who shop otrliner ancl the typcs o1'strrfl'thatb<trrglrt F,'r I I rl.,,rt. ,,,,, lrrrrrrr'Vs;y6ll11lontrarrcl anrlaccontmodal.ion,anclthesmallest

r,,L,t,l,url,orrliltcr,vasnotcotnlnolt bc.lbrctherr.The%ofpeoplc rir'1 ,r ,, r, rl srtitll initially and it took ages lor trleople to begin using this i lr r, rir,rlr)r itv ol pcclple still wanla visit shops in lterson to do tlteir 'r)', rrl tlrr,llotrlulrrtionsaytlrcVhlrveevelborrglttanvthingonline r'r= , L, :r, I lr r r rr,,r'rl orrlirrc shoppilg, 7r'r,Zo sa1,,they havc- ltcerrt receivecl goocl 1 tlr, I rlorrltl tlelinitely use it acair-l

pr'rrtlirrg on groct-.rics. 1'he first figLrrcs available are litr tl're yr

Adjectives amd adverhs

X 'I'ick the correct sentence in each pair,
a J-iilsr,llij'i:i,fllit,rrli_'jlliriir:trlrlllrrin,i,:tiliii,l,.lr.rr b i-l,i:t,jri'ilr.l,flrr:i: ilrlir ir.j r ,tirir:iilr:, i,1,,liir, l,,rlrii;,


$r meliective?
rtrltl'iI.r,,,:llii, litrri'ri ii:tirr.l{ilrli'llllrillr
, ,i' i:,,.1,t.,i'

r,, i, llrrL'('()ilr'ect sentence in each pair'

I,t lr , ,l l,
, rrr


b li

t:i L.;ir.r,-,r

lllll l-r,rr,i,i,


r ,r:r, iifr lrr,r ,''lt'ii i,'lt,'"'il': irli lir'i lL(riil'rri rllrjlrli l ll,l;ll.j ]lll:llll ii:|."It. .'ll.illll, ll]] ] l ijl]ii.l 11,.1... I jill.,:li]illii]ljjil]{,

rtlrlir,Lrl i:ltr it,.ri ir;.i,,,r,


ir)rlr)ji i,t,,tirr,irtrrri

ilrllrii ill'l tt-rrlil'rr rli ili;;ilr-lt'il::'rr li]l


':i!'{rili)ii I il' irirlI

Adjectives are used to describe a noun: 'titckri, rife is t,er.t, cantprirsfed. (compricaretl describes the noun /fe) To describe a whole idea or situation, we can use r/ z-s + acrjective + that_cravse or Ir + adjective r rr., r inlinitive: It is essen'tialthntyorr rtrittg b,cL crrr .f'.yottr hoorts !rc.fbre trte ertd o.f ter,t. It is irrrporto.ttl t, begi.rc sttrcll,itrg s.rtt,rcrl tuct_,k.s,rre rltt, etc,,r.

Look at the tbllowing list of rr'tinres it is easy to confuse a noun with its adjective' ,,,r rrrrtottly confused nouns and adjectives: Adjective

Noun no$e



educational happy healthy mature


notsy responsible signi.ficont

silen t




ttrrlttl'ifl tlt lt lle




uahnble youtlg

* 2

Sonre adverbs are irreg,lar, e.g. fast, ho,rcJ, weLl: l1e ro,n a.s fast os h.t: t:otilrl

Corrcct the mistake helow.

Notc that inualuable means very valuablel m'et't tlrtrtr @ontett ti'ttrlthL:rt'' A/clr ancl wofftencan onlybe used as nouns: N'lttre entl:loyees is ittr;rurrrslrtg \l,rlc and,Jbmale arc,,se.t us adjectives: l-lte ntttttber oi'fentole

,,, it |t'LLr. {rot+i+]}++{',9 ert+pksyee+) and 'fen'tale' Do not rrse thc two \,rrr slrould ret'er to either men antl wonten ot rnale


lrIlcrent terms togeth et"'Mrtk+e*1+krv+'t:lit;o+t+nu+x'lxt-!'Jx'x,tt*t7{41; orreet the mistake beiow.



l'm looking for a good

Michael's studying Underlirre tfre correct wortls, I I didn't play very goo d I well in our last football match.

pair of sPort shoes

l'rn looking for a ..............

r rrrrect t!'le mistakes

in the sentences



r .l I

goods and the real ones' I car1,t tell the diftere.t between the fake designer 'l-he advice my tutor gave lrle was utrvaluable ilr the exam'


4 5 6 Seuere 7

I Seuerely ptnishments may not help to reduce crime. ur.forlunate I u,.fortunately, I arn unab]e to attend the meeting this saturctay. rt is uitaL I uitally important to adclress these problems before it is too late.
of patliament' ln some countlies, there are no women mernbers background' 1l I can't study in silent; t treed to have music in the r; A child who is loved is a happiness child' 7 Both wonlen and males neecl to be included in these decisions' tl I'he landlord complained because we were making too tnuch noisy'

1 1a b
rlr.rri't knolv

courses and study

oneof thewords lrlll intheblanksinthesentencesbelowusingthecorrectformof
lrr llrebox.

Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 r,rrl-,el,e

thn Iilrrr:inu ls

l-urit ::il,,lrner J ler-ir,n*iJ wli-h
,lrrr th+l ,:rrrilr,rrr.,


develop different




to join the school debating team' of new businesses We hope this new source of power will lead to the """""" ltt our area. 'l'here is a great deal ofevidence that a diet offast food is not "" """"""""""" ' " for your actions' Il you make a mistake, it is important to take discovery' his of At first loe didn't realise the ................. """ "
I clidn't have

(not Learn describes an ac

continuous form

Know is used to show that you have memorised something or that you are certa of something: I know ail of the irregurar uerbs. Know describes a state, not an activity (not ) and we cannot use it in the )'


' | I , {i

study is usually used to talk about

tearningirregutar uerbsfor the test.we can atso tearn the piano. We cannot use learnby itself (not f nr tearning

war I this

trr*. lnot*"q"*s*4i*r*o)l.tudy

whole subject area rather than individual sk at uniuers ity (not_I_am_stad:ymg*ow am studyingfor the test on Friday. about: we're learningaboutworl

"tiif.i))If.frZr'lTr, f", -k, t*1


" between the twins' lt was almost impossible to tell the like sugar and buttel ingredients ln some ways, it is better to use ............ rather than manufactured foods. for the Studies have shown that exercising three times a week is """""" " """" "

in a similar way to study torefer to a subject area: I am takingr course in marketing.It is arso used to refer to the individuar subjects within a course: I haue to take at least 3 marketing subjects to get the diploma. Enrol is used to say that you are risted in the official records for a course. I haue jt enrolled in an art course.

Thlce can be used

lorrect the

mistakes in the following text'



Well, I think people are more concern these days about being success in their career. And nowadays you really have to be very well education

languages as well as other subjects.

3 Complete

3 Choose

the correct verb to complete the sentences below. 1 We're learning / studying about Artcient Rome this term. 2 I',ve decidedto enror in / rearna photography course 3 I can hum the tune but I don,t know / leain thewords.this summer. 4 In high school you lcnow / study many different subjects. 5 Before you can fly a plane, you need to learn / studyhowto land. 6 Jane is learning / studying inlondon this year. 7 Do you know / rearn the telephone number for the school? B I can',t go out on Friday. I have to learn / study for my end-of-year exams.


the following sentences using the correct form of the words in brackets' " different' (significattt) The figures in the tr,vo charts are number of houses sold increased """" """"" """ ' (slight)


in 2005. (sharp) These figures fell ...... (incre dible) noisy. ........................... was concert 4 The Eiffel Tower on our trip' (sad) the see get to we didn't .. lr , (extreme) 6 The lecture on robotics was ..................'......'. interesling' from 1995 to rose course the in 7 The number of students enrolled


I feel that we spend far too much money on space exploration'


Circ_Ie th,e

corlectwords in the following extract.

confusion 2
a good

describing charts and fi$ures

"It takes more than good quatifications to become

teacher." To what extent do you agree?

l'k'k the correct sentence in each pair'

of teachers when I (1,) rearned studied at schoor. son were interesting and some were boring, some were (2) excettence excellent and others were not so good. But what does it take to make a good teacher?

I had a mixture

I :r lrr 200? th,c figure inrrecsecl lrom 30]{ to 25il'' b In lrfi02 ihe f igune .1osx1'$ssed from 30li- to 25"i' e{tcl'r geclrr ir ir l-he fltc,w r:h,:lrt cli*plogs the qpcrrrlifq r:f eie*I-riciLg con*$rned 5 he {rkrvy rlront sht-lltrs thc ,-ytr:lntitg of electriciig corl*drneul eoch g*mrt

l)r:scribing charts iraphs and charts can shoru facts: 1990' people employedby the company in t9B0 artd t'lt(, two Sraphs show the number of

I'ltese figures

important. A good teacher needs to use their (g) imagine imagination to create / Iessons that are (9) helping helpful as wetl as (10) education / / educational. They also need to gain the (11) respect / respectful of their students. such teachers are usuarty (tz) extreme / ixtrimety popular with students. It is (1.3) important / importantly for teachers to be (14) genuine / genuinery interested in their students and their job in order to do it we[. perhaps there wourd be fewer probrem students in schools if there were more ,good, teachers.

for I lresefigures illustrate Wcdonotlsedemonstrate,disptayortelltodescribeachart.Comparethefollowing: (= show how something works) Iltc salesman demonstrated' th'e machine for us' on the screen' (= show on a screen) I tnk at the figures displayed' 'l'irc girls'*oi *o, dkpliyedfor all to see' (= make sure it can be easily seen) or written account of a story) l)irt I tell you about my aicid'intl (= give a verbal
I)escribing figures rose in May lf tigures go up, we tse increase ot rise: Temperatures The number of bats fell in 2004' If the flgures go dornm, we use decrease ot fall: ot show little/no change" The figures ll the figures stay the same, we tlse remann steady show little change since 2001'
I'm using slides to disPlaY the size of the Problem'

each year' ind.icate that the company rc growing in size something: of proof or use illustrateto refer to evidence better fiLanagement of our resources' the need


sentences below' Choose the correct verb to complete the

sion 3 1
a b a b

- money and problems

crnd mfir.o,ri{ nou
[11.t r.-j1:]t.f-i

n confusion 1

- money and work

Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

onn-: tlrr.lqfrri rntl;"'r-..

'l'lck the correct sentence in each pair'


nl,r: uJrrlnr:lirrq tr$r"e $nr:l jT)o{,e tnrjt,{fl# rJn orjJ}.s en+l-l We rrne,-:i tm::itn6r lfris pnob{ern fls iju$rn r:s pm**fL:k_."
We n+:,*d fr:, sr-rlv* f


I lr 'l llc'se whcr r:lt-r nxrrr0ul wnnk often eclnn {ess rnonegl" b l lruss wlrr: ck' rnclnunl tvnr{t c'f 1*n or:lln losti wttlltl+:ri"
:r a
1'eop:le rnriill,sut r;cmprrlten shillr firl'"j

llls pnohkl,rn #$ Li$or n* prur:srble

ri di{rfiuolt io get o'rofr ttt'rl'v'ld':tgs' ii diflr6'Ji{ tr: get o'ir:h llo\Arc'i(lus" Fenprk: withor-l'i conrpuier knnw{ecJr:e find

Money: buy or spend?

is paid eac]tyear" The l\ salary isthe total amount that a professional person an a'ttractiue sala'ry' marketing iob offers opportunities to trauel and

.^wageistheamountofmoneyearnedeachweek/monthforcasualormanual per week' work; Tim got a painting job with a wage of $a00 .Weusemoneyinu-o."g"teralsense:Nowadayspeopleneedtoearn'alotmore m,oney to be able to buy ahouse' (noleer*+let+e+e-we#s)
We are

buying more petrol than euer before. (= the focus is on the petrol)

Problems: auoid, fix, preuent, repair, resolue, solue

Myiob is to manage the staff' or a particular Jobrefersto the tlpe of workyou do: task: Af home, my iob is to do the ironing'

.WorkcanbeanounoraVerbandisusedinageneralsense:(uncountablenoun) (vetb) My dad works in a bank' It took a lot of work but I finished the proiect' to train in the workplace rather worlcplaceis the place *h"r" yo, *ork If is better

time, and skills refer to practical Knowled.geret'ers to facts you have studied over I haue good rypirug skills' ability. compare: His knowladge of history is amazing. Unemployment ftgures

thdn at a college.



a boss' this week' Employee = a worker' emlcloyer =

It took me two hours

to resolve the oil leak

Conditions at the factorY
were so bad that the emPloYers

decided to go on strike.

Fill in the blanks with a suitable verb from this unit. 1 It is important to teach children how to save

2 3

cannot . all of your problems. How much did you . on video games last year? 6 We closed all the windows to ............. the rain from coming in. 7 I have to save a lot of money because I want to . a car next year. B I can do most things at home but I can,t . electrical goods if they don,t work.

Iike Chernobyi. Winning a great deal of money

We must take the necessary action . this issue as quickly as possibl If we are to use nuclear power, we have to do everything we can to .......................... a disaster


money as well as how to ......................

Fill in the blanks wtth a suitable noun from this unit'


' I earned' I paid more tax last week because of the extra to fix them' the mechanical 2 I know a lot about cars but I dont have scientist' famous the Pasteur' of Louis a .) I read a book on the life and "' """""""""""

and a higher 4 Ioe's .......................... gave him a promotion for this year's issue key a is 5 The problem of .....'....'.....'....'....

election' want to do it again' ever dorlt I that .."" """""""" 6 Moving house is such a big ' are not good' conditions in their 7 Many workers can become ill if the ' as it was affecting my school I gave up my part-time

Noun confusion 2

advertisimg, travel amd young people

When do

I need to use an apostroPhe?

rj(l.t-,ll irrll-1,,r,*n1
[:-:e oirlr,..1() {-j(-)]'rt*

Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

tir l, Ilre correci sentence in each pair'

a Ar]venlnrtrg i)t-l JI/ i.i thu [rerii lvu,,, ul iiir:,rr,:riru i]oeli'iril:ijitrfl.$t*r b /,rli+:rJircrlr:i'ri *5-ll," is Xlre [,etr*f u,ag c,f in,;:reusini-.1 ilr:r,il i:rjsinr:*s, a ikrrv wl$ Soilt i-rr:li.eri o i};riLlrk-:? b i'low lvilri lloi-tr 1-r,i5r 1o (ir:intir:iuir

I .t lr ' .r lr

I tit)

tU gOrll pnntp Un 0ilir'lnri''rii

r-'n $otrli'rlrrg' T worl"t be o[;le. t{'r rc'rrnt] lr:l illlor purtg irttire lrir*{: lhnn rrow rr:phitii"i'-:r:lerl ntot'e r,lrrl,..lreii'li tog:: i:ll.e tnouh i[r tlre Frto.{ thrrn tlr"'rnn i,lrli,ir+:nt togs ore #rddfi rnoxre, rnl:hiritrtrrled

i , ril ltlt'i'g.y li,ul


Aduertise is the verb and aduertisement (it can be shortened to aduert) is the norrrl, We can also use commercial to refer to TV advertisements: I saw cL really fi,uury aduertisenwttt I con'tmercial on 'l'V lttst rrrglil. We luse aduertising to refer to the

industry: I,/y sister tuorlcs in atluertising.

We use joarney or trip to talk about getting from A to B:'l-|rc jowrney / trip t o Atntrctlicr Lua.s rcctL!.y Iortg. Trauel is a verb and an uncountable noun which refers to taking journeys in genc

\Vl usc apostroPhes . t, shorten words and show that some letters have been left out: d'an't; h'e ruili - he'll: r .t)!)tol '- t:(t/t't: cotLkl ttot - crtultltt't; tlo ttLtt -' sh'e''d' ,r'rll ttot - tuort'l; she would -' informal language: l lrcse contractions are mostly used in spoken or

tttltt,tfi,nclPeterctttlltuh'erehcistt,tintlrcslajfi-comoriltltiso.|fi.ce. -,rllcrpeopleoranimalstoshowpossession:h4ary'shctt'th'ecat's'[ootlrlislt
\Vl rlo not use an aPostroPhe . r,vitlr possessive pronouns, such as its, ours, theirs' yours:

for lrctrtrs be.fore wc soru any si.Krt of life Air trauel i,s trcty drca.p these, Trip can also refer to a holiday or an excursion; I n.eeded a breuk so I decicled to tuk1 {t f ip to tltc consl. (rtot.kekled-tu-t-a+e-{+i+-aael) 'Weusuallyttseyouthtorefertoastageoflife: ltlki uloio.[lrur,ellitt,qittrtrl,vaulh
is rarely used to talk about people; instead, we use young person or young peoplc.

we trauelled


!lt,,t:cttcrlti.llarst(]ysi.ttitsr:ococtrttttltilttet(Lrttorph0si's iscont'plete' if we are using wtren we add s to a singular noun to make it plural' even (not: ++'5) Dt , ornmonly abbreviated word: CD's, 7-t"'s


(tttttlJ+e trrshowpossessionwiththings. Instead,weuse ofthe'.thelegaftketlutir

Ccrrect the rnistake below.


The male Emperor Penguln

looks after it's Young.

I wish I had something

l'he rnale EmPeror

Fitl in the blanks with a suitable word or phrase from this unit.
Have you packed any snacks for the train ...........................? The ................ .......... we placed in train stations bring us the most business. -) We need to give the ...... ..... in our society a lot more opportunities if we want them to grow into responsible adults. 4 I'll apply for a job in .......... when I finish my marketing course. 5 I was very unhappy with the skiing .. organised by your company. 6 Would you prefer to ....................... . by train or by plane? 7 Is it more effective to ........................... a product on TV or in magazines? B We are looking for a .................... ..... with an interest in computers to fill the post.

than ( rrr.r.ct the rnistakes in the sentences belort'. sorne sentences may have more , rr rc rnistake, some may be correct' I I put Jack coat on a hanger in the cupboard' :'] I cant understand why older people dont like modern music'

t I bought three new CD's this week' | 'l'he dog wagged it's tail when it saw the children' l, liresh avocado's on sale todaY! ti \\hich one is mine and which one is her's? ,' ( lan you put this in the car's boot for me? ll lt's about time you fixed that car of yours'

Gommon spelling errors 1

lont 10
Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

o ii*:,ine'ri:Fiir i:e',lrve fhi.,1 i11,131"r, llrrvti,j i:i,,., 1{r)1,[: w...]ii*.rti *r ,:]frver!*i*iil b ,'iu-:nn ir':r,rrf rlc i,,riirrl,t, .ljrrlJ" flraro: riilr:.rLtl, j lr* ru("r[r]

tt,r rrr.

ttre underlined words without a contraction.

\rrorr+-ln iir l4ur,rrlrtrueirrl,

some words are spelled incorrectly because they are similar to another word: ' to of too? I tuant to go to the ?tark. I wa.nted a new cotTtpt.tter b*t enrled ,p tuitrt rt prrytter foo. (= as weli)

' '

there or their? your book is there, on the tabLe. studetts buy the start of term.



t \ I y rlog won't eat tinned food. ... ............ ' I lr"r! never seen a kangaroo before. r Wt"cl Iike to see the menu, Please. I lilrc's already got a car. , \\/t' couldn't see any fish in the river. r, t lrcy've been waiting for ages. , I lrcy're leaving in the morning. ......... ... rl ll's .r shame you can't stay. .......... /
,'\rlrl l| apostrophes to the following conversation.

though or throttgh? seueru'L stur)ents cltose Rttssian though they lmd n,euer stttclied a language before. The tour guir)e led th.e grtu,p tht-ough sotne areas of ar.cient


Sometimes there is confusion over British and American spellings:

program = American rican spellings, but do not mix the two different styles: r. or: (US) It's nryfauorite calor. (notI*

',ttll.y: lmgoing to need some help to clean up tomorrow. Are you busylz Is1: Ill be able to do a bit early on but then Ive got to go to the airport. Murns platrc lands at l2:00. ,, rll.y: Oh, yes. Id forgotten your mum was coming. How long is she hele for?



Shes onlyhere for a t'ewweeks. Oh, so she wont be here for your party, then? No. That reminds me, I havent got anypetrol in my car. can I borrowyours?


tterc: accommodation, aduertisement, always, benefit, beginnirtg, l, country, dffirent, enuironment, gouernftrcnt, nowadays, occurred, passenger, restaurant, tea.cher, w ,.ich

are also often spe,ed incorrectly. payparticular attention to


rrrnplete the following text with a suitatrle form ofjou rney, trauel ot trip. Describe a holiday you remember where you went how you travelled what you did there and say why you remember it so
You should say

It says, 'Two star acomodation available. lncludes breakfast. Good resturantl

It says, '1wo star


3 correct the spelring mistakes in the sentences

I The goverment of my contry has introduced


5 6

a nIew system to encourage recycling. , I am not qrrrp sure rrrinJ. ^*_-r^ , has wich of ^r+1_^ the students brought there camera. to be sure to read advertisments carefully. ).J^1-lr_r1.",need It makes good comercial sense to invest ti_" urri,rr*"/ilro.,. Or.,lnes. My geography teatcher taught us a lot uUort tn" The passangers had to walk throught "r..,.iroire;i severar corridors to reach the plane. My sister has to watch her favourite TV programme every nite. There are many benifits in using tne interrrJt to b.ok acomodation.

I took lo trarpt a bike+iding (l) .. .... . -- lo W'don when 1 Na6 n.I rven+ wi+h a kiend. Firsl we 0) ......... to W+ +o Dove(, by +rain and +l.en \/ue had ano1lff train ta) Wlrre We cafi* tlc feny. T+ v,)a6 a really raEh cra66inq and my kter'd ntas .. We tad ?tanned lo s?end *wo q lltee sick +l whole (4)
one holiday

rcrv1e./ntr( vi,as


arund France on wr bik"-6 and, D,-* i+ rained cons+anfly and atfer orrty a tew daye, a,)( +enl6 Y\)ere &atlinq Nel howe we fett quife and we Mciud to go home.on tlc (b)




wa6 rny


holiday afroad wi+hari


c.rrect trro I2 vocaburary antr spe*ing rnistakes in trrc f.rorvirlg


Arr:,url:il k&$
llrrll I I I

'There is far too much advertising on TV these days., Do you ag"ee?


5 6 7

advice, was





5ou watch

proSramvy\e on

that TV'. o." o verl

i:"::l:,ls It oiten seew\s as throu3h chiraren are 6einl specificall3 Laryr"d 65 Lhe commercial industril lecasse lheS malg lh"r. comm""ciar. ,""1cororful and loul-, and sa even ve(\ \ou^1 chillren ar" arLracL"d Lo Lh"m. r tt,.in{it is importont Lo rearis"
mor" care nith ho, this meAium i.. used.
elfecLive teachin3 tool an/ we shoul/ lherelore

'atch a larl numbrr ol aaverLisinl ro. IL s""ms that Trice we 7a1 for lree-lo-air TV But is this price hr3h"r than ,. realis"? Not onl4 ar" constant adverLisinls anno5in3r but th"g also m"an that ar" Eein3 louths {old 1o bu5 thin3, lhel donl need ar ea{ {hin3s tha{ a""n,{ heal{h5.




rlou shoura expecr terevision adverLise is Lh"


' rrol llte same as mine r I llrc internet ' ilvers I Arnerica t llre number t, , tt
lrrtl 2

llre same tlre IISA tlle greatest 'l'hc l'hc rrroon. moon, the earth

2 I The table 2 The number one 3 the largest 4 The United Kingdom 5 the list 6 the lrnited States 7 the Faroe Islands

the world Sweden

llr , it

{)omplete fhe crossworcl below.

)tnet ren stud ying science increasecl

I ' i

hildren chil nlel len

peo eople
WdS /as


31ls 2 Is there 3 Is there 4 How much 5 Are there 6 How much 7 How manY
Is there

10 Malta 11 the same 12 the internet

ti r It

clas lasses

pIl erson wat ratches

lrril 3

I tb 2b :l irrnount of garbage I I ...very good piece of advice about'.' 2 ...the amount of time it toclk us... :l ...great deal of knowledge to... 4 The information we were

4 I pieceofadvice 2 houses 3 companies 4 people 5 children 6 plastic 7 transport 5

(1) Globalisation has had; on rnany (2) parts of the world; some of (3) the r.nost

12 a place to eat 13 I'm not sure

3 advantage 4 the person who leacls a class 5 our surroundings 9 currently I I a person who travels on a bus, plane or train
one to choose.



I 2 6 7 l0

the start
a place

to stay

tlrc opposite of neuer

happened another word tbr comtnerce we use this to sell a procluct

5 6 7 B lhe furniture...was
Icst I

givetr...was not very helPful' see so much garbage left there. ...tlrere was so much traffic... ...and do some shoPPing.

quite old but was velv comfortable.


remote; of (4) the world; connect to (5) the internet: However, (6) there are (7) advantages and (B) disadvantages to this; One (9) disadvantage, for example; Iocal businesses (10) have to reduce; stop young (11) people rnoving; more

relnote (12) areas; ayotlngperson (13)

has the chance; ncws fronl around the world (14) is available.



England is a . ............ not the same

Itis 2is 3is 4 ideas

Unit 4



l lb 2b

9 catches l0 makes I I get dressed 2tg 2f 3h 4b

72 leave

lrrtl ll

I I lr ,tr ' lrrrt.lames






4 ...people travel to very distant... 5 I hope it is not... 6 The l'emale hen Iays on average... 7 younger drivers are more likeiy...
...doctors agree that the only...





3 1 The students that/who strug[lle... 2 ...grandmother that/who first... 3 ...sure what we have to write... 4 instrument that is usecl to... 5 ...apologise for what I said... 6 Venus is a planet that you can... 7 ...creatures that live in rivers... B The people that/who I know... * Numbers 6 and B do not need a
relative pronoun.


or r10t



ltb 2a 2 Thousands ofpeople 3 I thousands 2 three hundred 3 three and a half billion 4 six hundred dollars 5 three quarters of a rnillion 6 Millions of 7 six hundred
one and a half bilh.on

Unit 6

. 2 lwctmillion 4 3 oue and three quarter million 4 one and a half million 5 a million or one rnillion 6 a million or one mill.on 7 nine hundred thousand 5 I There 2 They 3 there 4 T'hey 5Ir 6 There 7 lhey
Unit 7

-o' ' chains ( l0) take a large; -l,he "n.or.r,.t.,, govenlment (l l) need/needs to addr.ess; lhat lhey il2tprotect rhis.

(7) makes their working; many farmcrs (8] feel thar: We {9) need ,o

I ttb '2b ,' We are going


to play tennis. Do you want to join us?

.r I does '2 are


ltb 2b 2 there were a lot more little shops 3 I ...countries there are many,.. 2 There is no clear trend.,. 3 ...and there are no factories... + lot...

4 have 5do 6is 7 have

lcst 3

three quarters of a million

I I 2

4tdid 2 are 3 have, have 4is 5is 6 Do, am 7 does B have 51or 2 and 3 but 4 and 5or 6 what 7 but I but 9 that
10 or

...or even a television at home. ...and we walked along thc bcach collecting shells. .) ...but I got a little lost near the end 4 ...or not to go to the party.



12 and
Unit lo

...but not entry to the museum.

...or a laptop at horne. ...but I don't like coffee. ...and dinner.



Test 2

How much wort is there to do?

I I gets up 2 starts 3is 4 has 5 leaves 6 wakes 7 gets up


r lb 2a 2 someone who/that can play the piano 3 I ...problems that can occur.... 2 ...teacher. who/that inspired... 3 ...teenagers who/that do not feel... 4 ...those who/that do not have... 5 People who/that work with... 6 People who/that continue... 7 I understand what you mean.
The chart that is on the left...


...plenty to do, (1) but I (2) do not want... (3) Canyou sllggest... .IA: ...island (4) that is only... TA: ...there (5) aren't any flights... C: How much (6) does it cost... (7) Does that include the ferry'.2 C: TA: ...all transport (B) and hotel...

1lb 2a 2 can't smoke in this lestaurant 3 I ...yor-l c.rn find internet facilities... 2 We should not accept this... 3 ...we must try our best... 4 We don't have to stop... 5 Canwe solve the problem...? 6 Do you need to take any food... 7 really must study harder... B ...we have to leave our mobile...

2 II


3 doing 4 stirring 5 to help 6 choosing 7 to study


ovcr'gll00 lluying food for the party I to buy 2 to ice skate

I rb

2 3

Test 4

I to understand 2 to cook 3 presenting 4 getting 5 causing 6 to see 7 receiving


in spite of being the youngest player

9 I happyto do 2 impossible to mark, too difficult 3 4 5 6

understand. excited getting too expensive to buy not fit enough to win
sad watching

5 6 7

I really (1) enjoylistening to musicy everyone (2) should look after their body and (3) tryto keep fit; soccer but I (4) had to turn it dolrm beca parents (5) wouldnt allow me (6) to it; myparents (7) suggested musical instrument; If you (B) want be a good musician, you really (9) work hard and (10) keep practising every day; (1f) spending alot of tirr studying so I couldnt do it then; I,m (12) lookingforward to learning to 1 to show 2 to study 3 to waste 4 to speak

t I working 2 to buy ii to open 4 to send

I-r to have

3 5 6 7

to stop people smoking

2 many areas of our life

One important examPle of this be worried about this Problem advise people not to smoke

4 the disadvantages of smoking

6 visiting 7 adding I walking


tried increasing tried to find

allow smoking


speaking to get

l la 2b 2 very pleased about their final results ll 1 good at or interested in 2 difference between 3 advantage of 4 increase in orrise in 5 interested in 6 percentage of or number of 7 example of
decrease in ordroP in

IO people are not permitted to smoke

1I make people stoP smoking t2 the number of cigarettes


I suggest (that) all Sovernments


t4 prevent more children taking uP

Unit 16

1lb 2a
looking for my car keYs 1 about


'l'est 5


I 1 CanyoubuyorCanlbuy 2 Yes, you can. you don,t have to go 3 Do we have to hand 4 No, we don't have to give 5 Does Ioe need to take 6 he shouldnt go 2 | Theywent to the cinema instead of
going to school. 2 I enjoyed the partydespite not knowing anyone there. 3 I am optimistic about the future in spite of there being so many problems in the world. 4 We all enjoyed the course despite having to work so hard. 5 My parents gave me some money instead of buying me a present. 6 The companywent out of business in spite of spending thousands of dollars on marketing.

Unit lB

I t to borrow 2 to bring 3 to store 4 reserving/You to reserve 5 to copy 6 emailingiYou to email 7 to use 2

2to 3 for 4 about 5 about orof 6at 7 with


Unit 17

r lb 2b
not allowed to skateboard in the park I I suggestyougo anddoyour... 2 ...made meteclean up myroom... 3 ...allowed to use mobile phones... 4 ...forbidden to smoke in many... 5 ...I finally maderrerkmy new DVD playerwork.
...not to leave their windows... 7 ...permit you to enter the museum...

2 3

B completingi (that) You comPlete the number (1) of PeoPle; dffierence (2) between the two sets; the percentage (3) of people living; a rise (4) in population figures; The biggest increase (5) in population; decrease (6) in the number (7) of people living; the number (B) of inhabitants

r lb 2b
walk to work during the train strike

...suggested going/(that)we go to the park...



Ita 2b 2 I had to stop to tie my shoelace

31at 2 give up 3 working 4at 5 coming 6 to answer 7 with

to brush

lin 2at 3 for 4on 5 to, in 6at 7in Bat

Unit lB

l1a 2b 2 in front of the Post office



2 3

...a good quality of life.


long period of time. a result of my illness.

The government of my country... 5 I wrote a letter of complaint... 6 ...number of diff'erent types of cars... 7 The leader of the opposition...the

result of the election. ...instead of going to a restaurant... what type of tbod we wanted.
Test 6

5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 lla

the hotel not being finished the water being so dirty

', (; i ll

A large amount of moneY is sPent

on developing tourism. (N'B' not all

capitals) ...than the males. ...but the Percentage that... gains 90 kilos or kilograms per day

the weather being so bad

it being covered by cloud

the bus breaking down eating undercooked chicken

money (4) is spent on travel; amtlttnt of money is (5) spent on groceries; are tbr the (6) year 1995; The (7) percentage of people; it took (B) a long time tbr people; people still (9) want to visit ihops; 75% saythey have (10) received good value for moneY.

Unit tg

2b 2
was given rhis painting by my

I I think about 2 agree with 3 teach you about 4 know about 5 find out abollt 6 looking for 7 Iooking at 2 I I agree with what you are saying.. 2 The ditlerence between your... ll ...the intportance of checking... 4 lirrrit l)ats etrerge at night to f'eed. 5 . .tontorrow r-norning at 10:00? (j ...1ltis coffee shop for six months. 7 My birthclay is on Bth November... [l ...1titrr-ro lcssons in Iuly last year. 31at 2 it-r 3 for 4at 5on 6at 7on Bin 9at 4 I with 2 lor 3 for 4to 5 because 6at 7 because of Bto
10 for


3 i 2 3 4 5 6 7 B

'l'he house was sold for over... The class was allowed to eat... The potatoes are carried along...they are washed and peeletl The teacher was told to take... Smoking is not allowed in any...
...was being renovated when...

I :l ,l 4 5 (i 2

Bus tickets can be bought at... New ernployees are instructed...

Unit 20

l1b 2b 2 should be worn at all times 3 I is checked for quality. 2 under 16 are not permitted to work. 3 are being washed at the moment. 4 will be repaired this afternoon. 5 has been sold at last. 6 was torn. 7 are paid more for working at the

Unlit22 the princiPal 1lb the Sovernment 2b the burglar hard for his exams 2 staff the hosPital 3 I well the nation 2 sharPlY Each year the principal chooses the 3 gradual most improved student. 4 clear, easily a passed :J 'Ihe government has/have 5 stronglY of new law to make the dumPing 6 Severe waste illegal. 7 UnfortunatelY my stolen had burglar 4 I realised the B vitallY break-in. the during keys Simon treating are staff hospital The 5 Unit 23 for minor bttrns. 1lb 6 The nation will elect our llew 2a government on Iune 20th' good Pair of sPorts shoes 2 Behavioural training should (I) be done 3 I I cant tell the difference between"' on; This type of training (2) is used to; 2 ...was invaluable in the exam' Obedier.rce training should (3) be done 3 It is important to eat a healthy diet"' often; his meal (4) is associated with a 4 ...ncl female members ol parliarnelll reward; PuPPies (5) are injured 5r I can't studY in silence"' because; The house can (6) be made of 6 ...who is loved is a happy ctritcl' any; It can (7) tre used for house7 Both women and men neccl to bc training; If your puppy (B) is rewarded included... with; feet should (9) be placed tirmly; 8 ...we were making too much noise' the PuPPY (10) is given a treat'

B are given oif by burning t),Tes. Unit 2l 1]h 2b


2 3 4

cost over 200 million dollars to build 1 is acceptable or all right to...

Children today are much more... The number of the year 2001 was 3.S million. ...create a great deal or a large number of jobs...

1 is made 2 is chosen 3 is stripPed 4 is soaked 5 is then heated 6 r-rot be allowed 7 be placed B are se'o,'n 9 is finished l0 are usecl (by indigenous

Unit 24

11a 2a

to enrol in an English language course 1 Iearning 2 enrol in

people) The graph shows the (1) number of people; the tlPes of (2) things or

3 know 4 study 5 learn 6 studying / Know


products that (3) are bought; most

(1) Nowadays, if youwatch; alarge number of (2) advertisements - orcommercials (3) too; television (4) advertising is the price we pay;


constant (5) advertisements or commercials annoying; mean that (6) young people are being; things they (7) donit need; seems as (B) though children; targeted by the (9) advertising industry; they make (10) their commercials very (11) colourfirl and Ioud; realise that (f2) TVs are a very effective teaching tool

3 4 5 9


nowadays passerlger

11 12 restaurant 13 which 14 country 15 different



1 2 6 7 8




For Fraser and AIex The author would like to thank Iulie Moore for her help at the start of this project and Th6rbse Tobin for her invaluable advice and guidance.

Illustrated by Iulian Mosedale

The Cambridge Learner Cotpus This book is based on information from the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a collection of over 90,000 exam papers from Cambridge ESOL. It shows real mistakes students make, and highlights which parts of English cause particular problems for learners. The Cambridge Learner Corpus has been developed jointly with the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations and forms part of the Cambridge International Corpus.
To find out more, visit ltr,triv.camb ridge. org/ el t/ corp us