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spss theory

- SPSS PROJECT
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1 Theory Questions

Part A : 5 x 2 = 10 marks

Part B : 1 x 10 = 10 marks 20

3 Exercise 40

4 Viva 20

TOTAL 100

PART A

interpretation of numerical data.

It simplifies mass of figures

It facilitates comparison

It helps in formulating and testing hypothesis.

It helps in prediction.

statistical analysis. It enables people to obtain the results of standard statistical

procedures and statistical significance tests, without requiring low-level numerical

programming. Most statistical packages also provide facilities for data management.

4. Name the some of the statistical packages used by the researchers.

StatXact - package for exact nonparametric and parametric statistics

SAS - comprehensive statistical package

Mentor - for market research

StatCrunch - comprehensive statistics package and statistical survey tool, with

community sharing of analysis

SPSS was founded in 1968, SPSS Chairman of the Board Norman H. Nie

collaborated with C. Hadlai (Tex) Hull and Dale Bent, two of his fellow Stanford

University graduate students, and developed the first SPSS program.

Education researchers, Marketing organizations and others.

Market research

Product enhancements

Product preferences and usage

Customer attitudes and behaviors

Demographic surveys

Referral identification

Population/member demographics

Employee satisfaction surveys

Employee attitude studies

Work schedule preferences

Benefit analysis

Government agency surveys

Policy analysis

Constituent preferences

Crime analysis

Academic surveys

Testing and evaluation

Student interest studies

Professor/course evaluations

9. List out the window types provided in SPSS.

Data Editor.

Viewer.

Draft Viewer.

Syntax

Script

SPSS 16.0.2 - April 2008

SPSS Statistics 17.0.1 - December 2008

PASW Statistics 17.0.2 - March 2009

winner of the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur Of The Year© 2007 award

2007 Nucleus Research Technology ROI Award

2006 Industry Innovation & Advancement Award

Numeric

Comma

Scientific

Dollar

String

A variable with two values are called Dummy variable. E.g., male and female.

A variable for which numbers are simply identifiers and do not have

mathematical properties, such as order. For example, the sales territory in

which a company’s customer lives (Central, North, South) is a categorical

variable. Also called a nominal variable.

0 = East

1 = West

2 = North

3 = South

In SPSS, go to FILE/OPEN.

Click on the button “Files of Type”.

Select the option “SPSS(*.sav).

Click open.

Launch SPSS.

Get data into SPSS. You can open a previously saved SPSS data file, read a

spreadsheet, database, or text data file, or enter data directly in the Data

Editor.

Select a procedure. You can select a procedure from the menus or use SPSS

command syntax to transform data, calculate statistics, and to create charts,

interactive graphs, and maps.

Select the variables and run the procedure. The variables in the data file

are

displayed in a dialog box for the procedure.

View and manipulate the results. Results are displayed in the Viewer. You

can

browse, edit, and pivot the output and save it for use at a later time.

The Data View shows a spreadsheet view of the cases (rows) and variables

(columns). The data view contains numbers and text. It can not accept formulas.

The variable view displays are the metadata dictionary where each row

Represents a variable and shows the variable name, variable label, value label(s), print

width, measurement type and a variety of other characteristics.

Correlation analysis is tool of determining the degree of relationship

between the Variables.

21. Define Sorting.

Sorting defines the order in which data are arranged in the data file and

Displayed on your screen.

Two variables are said to be positively correlated if both variables are change

in the same direction. i.e. increase in one variable value will increase the other

variable at the same time decrease in one value of variable leads to decrease in

another.

If the two variable change in opposite directions they are called negative

correlation.

Graphic Method

Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of correlation

Rank method

Concurrent Deviation Method

Method of Least Squares.

25. Bring out the basic difference between correlation and regression.

variables where regression analysis is to study the nature of relationships between

two variables.

Y=a+bX

X=a+bX

Correlation coefficient is used to simply compare two factors to see how closely

those factors correlate to another.

29. State the purpose of doing chi square analysis.

The Chi Square test is used to test the significant different between observed

and expected frequencies. Always the Chi-Square test is used to test whether

there is significant difference exists between two variables.

Median

Mode

Geometric Mean

Harmonic Mean

presenting all a combination of categories of variables is called as Cross

tabulation.

answer to a question are called as frequencies.

assumptions or very few assumptions about a population’s distribution.

while doing the research analysis.

Null Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis

37.How do you infer the chi square analysis in SPSS output.

If the value is less than .05 the Null Hypothesis should be rejected.

If the value is greater than .05 the Null Hypothesis should be accepted.

Research is the serious academic activity with the set of objectives to identify

and find the problem or find the solutions to the problem by systematic way of

organizing, collecting and analyzing the data related to the problem.

ANACOVA - Analysis of Covariance

A sample is the part of the population under study.

population refers the whole people related to a particular research problem.

MANACOVA - Multiple Analysis of Covariance.

explains the sequence of activities involved while conducting the research.

All types of research conducted with in the organizations are called desk

research.

46. What is documentary research?

materials: government publications, newspapers, certificates, census publications,

novels, film and video, paintings, personal photographs, diaries and innumerable other

written, visual and pictorial sources in paper, electronic, or other `hard copy' form.

related to the problem.

Quantitative research is based on quantity attributes of the data.

Population.

statistical research analysis.

PART B

REPORT.

RESEARCH.

ARE THE BENEFICIARIES OF SPSS PACKAGE.

INVESTMENT ANALYSIS. USE YOUR OWN EXAMPLE.

9. HOW DO YOU SORT THE DATA IN SPSS? EXPLAIN WITH FLOW

CHART BY YOUR OWN EXAMPLE.

For more than 37 years, SPSS has been the clear leader in analytics technology. Here are some of the

reasons that customers have selected SPSS software to drive their decision making:

A history of innovation

Solving organization's most challenging business issues

A complete, 360° view into customers

Comprehensive predictive analytics technology

An integrated, enterprise-scalable platform

Real-time decision optimization capabilities

Easy integration with operational systems

Open, standards-based architecture

A faster return on your software investment

A lower total cost of ownership (TCO)

SPSS is the leader in predictive analytics technologies. For more than 37 years, SPSS has enabled its

customers—more than 120,000 corporations, academic institutions, healthcare providers, market

research companies and government agencies—to better focus their operations and improve their

performance. Our software helps organizations optimize interactions with their customers, regardless

of whether they're patrons, employees, patients, students, or citizens, and ensure that the actions

they are taking today will positively affect their ability to reach tomorrow's goals.

world use SPSS analytics

Both the Republican and Democratic parties poll

citizens using analytics from SPSS

All 50 U.S. state governments use analytics from SPSS

The top 10 largest market research firms use SPSS

software

More than 90% of the top U.S. universities use SPSS

software

More than 85% of the top consumer packaged goods

companies use SPSS analytics

The top 10 pharmaceutical companies in the world use

SPSS analytics

The largest newspaper companies in the U.S. use SPSS

software

Whether you're a commercial organization seeking to attract or retain customers more efficiently,

increase the value of existing customers, or minimize losses due to fraud, SPSS has a solution

designed to meet the needs of your business.

Government agencies use SPSS predictive analytics software to detect fraud, non-compliance with

laws or regulations, and to protect public safety and provide homeland security. Educational

institutions use predictive analytics to manage resources by predicting demand for programs, and to

raise funds cost effectively. Non-profit organizations use these technologies to anticipate program

demand and raise funds. Scientific and healthcare organizations carry out lifesaving research,

improve patient outcomes, and manage their business operations effectively, through the use of

predictive analytics.

For more than three decades, SPSS has enabled organizations to anticipate and quantify changes in

people's attitudes, preferences, and behavior so that they can confidently adapt strategies and tactics

to meet their goals.

In this era of increased competition for customers, organizations that capitalize on their customer

interactions at every touch point achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. To gain this, however,

you need more than just a customer's transaction history and demographic information. You must

understand their opinions and attitudes, what they say or write, and what they do when they visit

your Web site.

SPSS solutions help you both understand and predict customer behavior by using a unique combination

of historical and demographic data from your operational systems and attitudinal data gathered

through the many channels you use to communicate with your customers— your call center, Web site,

surveys, and other vehicles. Our software enables you to develop in-depth customer understanding by

using all of your customer information together, both traditional structured data and unstructured

data, such as call center notes and responses to open-ended survey questions. No longer will critical

customer insights remain hidden and unused in data silos. The result is a 360° view of your

customers—a comprehensive picture that enables you to act quickly and effectively—and gives you a

decisive advantage over your competitors.

SPSS predictive analytics software improves business processes by directing, optimizing, and

automating decisions made throughout an organization. Predictive analytics includes both the analysis

of past, present, and projected future outcomes using advanced analytics, and decision optimization

for determining which action will drive the optimal outcome. The recommended action is then

delivered to the systems or people that can effectively implement it. Unlike other vendors that offer

either limited predictive capabilities or predictive analytics that cannot be deployed enterprise-wide,

SPSS' comprehensive technology is highly scalable and interoperable, enabling you to perform

predictive analytics across disparate data sources and leverage your existing technology investments.

Unlike an isolated analytics tool with limited applicability or an elementary analytics component that

meets only a fraction of your business objectives, SPSS technology is robust and expandable. With

SPSS software you can address your enterprise's predictive analytic needs, whether they require

reporting, statistics, data mining, text analysis, Web analytics, survey analysis, decision optimization,

or a combination of these capabilities. Our integrated technology suite is designed to expand as your

predictive needs grow.

Real-Time Decision Optimization: For Effective Decisions that Need to be Made Now

When interacting with customers—over the Web, on the telephone, through direct mail, in a store—

SPSS technology can deliver a recommendation, along with supporting information, on the most

appropriate action to take with that particular customer. Our software evaluates possible alternative

actions, predicts which one a customer is likely to respond to, factors in which response will be most

beneficial to your business, and then makes the recommendation to the systems or people that can

take the action. The result is greater achievement of organizational goals, whether they're associated

with revenue generation, cost reduction, customer retention, or fraud prevention.

To maximize the value your organization gains from predictive analytics, it has to be made a part of

your day-to-day business operations.

SPSS provides technology that allows businesses to easily and effectively use predictive results by

embedding them within their existing applications, such as marketing campaign management systems,

call center applications, and more. Our software integrates with software from a wide range of

vendors, including Siebel Systems, Oracle/PeopleSoft, SAP, e.Piphany, and many others. By

integrating predictive analytics into your operations, organizations gain measurable competitive

advantage through the improvement of their business processes.

SPSS software follows industry standards such as OLE DB for data access, XMLA for data/format

sharing, PMML for predictive model sharing, SSL for Internet security management, and LDAP/Active

Directory Services for authentication and authorization, just to name a few. Our technology is easy to

learn, works with your existing data structures, and easily integrates with most CRM vendor's

technology.

Unlike many other software solutions, SPSS predictive analytics solutions don't require long

implementation periods. Predictive analytics from SPSS can be implemented quickly, so your

organization begins reaping immediate value. Customers are up and running within months, not years.

For example, BankFinancial, an 80+ year-old financial institution with more than $1.5 billion in assets,

implemented an SPSS predictive analytics solution designed to optimize marketing campaigns. Within

two months, the solution was up-and-running and the organization experienced a 700% increase in

campaign response rates.

FBTO, an insurance company and part of the Achmea Group, one of the largest financial services

providers in the Netherlands, implemented a predictive analytics solution from SPSS. In two months,

FBTO achieved measurable increases in marketing response rates and lower overall marketing costs.

Your organization has already made investments in data storage, operational systems, customer

relationship management solutions, IT infrastructure and, of course, in staffing. Unlike other vendors,

who require additional investments in hardware and components such as proprietary databases in

order to effectively implement their solutions, SPSS technology is designed to work with your existing

technology infrastructure and staff resources.

To match the standard functionality of SPSS technology, competitors often require customers to

invest in an extensive IT infrastructure as well as purchase critical functional components "a la carte."

SPSS keeps your cost of ownership low by providing you with open technology and flexible licensing

options. Our software products integrate both with each other and with your existing systems, so you

get exactly what you need to accomplish your goals.

Explain the Windows provided in SPSS.

SPSS provides specialized window types for end users. In the SPSS object model,these windows

correspond to OLE Automation document objects that have methodsand properties that support most

of the functionality found in the user interface. The window types, their purpose for the end user,

and the corresponding OLE Automation object can be summarized as follows:

Data Editor. The working data file is displayed in the Data Editor, which is a spreadsheet-like system

for entering and editing data. The corresponding OLE Automation object is Spss. Data document.

Viewer. All statistical results, tables, charts, and other output are displayed in the Viewer. The

Viewer makes it easy to browse and edit your results, selectively show and hide output, and move

presentation-quality output items (for example, tables and charts) between SPSS and other

applications. The corresponding OLE Automation object is ISpssOutputDoc.

Draft Viewer. Output is displayed as simple text (instead of presentation-quality output items) in the

Draft Viewer. Editing is limited. The corresponding OLE Automation object is ISpssDraftDoc.

Syntax. Syntax is displayed and edited in the syntax window. You can type the syntax

directly or create command syntax by pasting dialog box choices into a syntax window,

where your selections appear in the form of command syntax. You can save these

commands in a file for use in subsequent SPSS sessions. The corresponding OLE Automation

object is Spss SyntaxDoc.

Script. The script window provides a programming environment for SPSS scripts.

Scripts allow you to customize and automate many tasks in SPSS. The script window

doesn’t have a corresponding OLE Automation object—it is a programming

environment.

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