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1 Theory Questions
Part A : 5 x 2 = 10 marks
Part B : 1 x 10 = 10 marks 20

2 Record & Observations 20

3 Exercise 40
4 Viva 20


1. Define the term Statistics.

Statistics can be defined as the collection, presentation, analysis and

interpretation of numerical data.

2. What are the utilities of Statistics?

It presents facts in a definite form.

It simplifies mass of figures
It facilitates comparison
It helps in formulating and testing hypothesis.
It helps in prediction.

3. What is a statistical package?

A statistical package is a suite of computer programs that are specialized for

statistical analysis. It enables people to obtain the results of standard statistical
procedures and statistical significance tests, without requiring low-level numerical
programming. Most statistical packages also provide facilities for data management.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

4. Name the some of the statistical packages used by the researchers.

Stata - comprehensive statistics package

StatXact - package for exact nonparametric and parametric statistics
SAS - comprehensive statistical package
Mentor - for market research
StatCrunch - comprehensive statistics package and statistical survey tool, with
community sharing of analysis

5. What does "SPSS" stand for?

Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

6. Who developed the SPSS?

SPSS was founded in 1968, SPSS Chairman of the Board Norman H. Nie
collaborated with C. Hadlai (Tex) Hull and Dale Bent, two of his fellow Stanford
University graduate students, and developed the first SPSS program.

7. . Who are the beneficiaries of SPSS?

Market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government,

Education researchers, Marketing organizations and others.

8. Write the utilities of SPSS.

Market research
Product enhancements
Product preferences and usage
Customer attitudes and behaviors
Demographic surveys
Referral identification
Population/member demographics
Employee satisfaction surveys
Employee attitude studies
Work schedule preferences
Benefit analysis
Government agency surveys
Policy analysis
Constituent preferences
Crime analysis
Academic surveys
Testing and evaluation
Student interest studies
Professor/course evaluations

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9. List out the window types provided in SPSS.

Data Editor.
Draft Viewer.

10. Write the release history of SPSS.

SPSS 15.0.1 - November 2006

SPSS 16.0.2 - April 2008
SPSS Statistics 17.0.1 - December 2008
PASW Statistics 17.0.2 - March 2009

11. State the awards secured by SPSS.

Company to Watch Award in 2008

winner of the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur Of The Year© 2007 award
2007 Nucleus Research Technology ROI Award
2006 Industry Innovation & Advancement Award

12. What are the types of variables available in SPSS?


13. What do you mean by Dummy Variable?

A variable with two values are called Dummy variable. E.g., male and female.

14. What do you mean by categorical variable?

A variable for which numbers are simply identifiers and do not have
mathematical properties, such as order. For example, the sales territory in
which a company’s customer lives (Central, North, South) is a categorical
variable. Also called a nominal variable.

15. Give the examples for Categorical Variable.

A variable with several values are called categorical variable. E.g.

0 = East

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1 = West
2 = North
3 = South

16. . How do you read a SPSS Data?

Click on the button “Files of Type”.
Select the option “SPSS(*.sav).
Click open.

17. Write the procedure for analyzing the data in SPSS.

Launch SPSS.

Get data into SPSS. You can open a previously saved SPSS data file, read a
spreadsheet, database, or text data file, or enter data directly in the Data

Select a procedure. You can select a procedure from the menus or use SPSS
command syntax to transform data, calculate statistics, and to create charts,
interactive graphs, and maps.

Select the variables and run the procedure. The variables in the data file
displayed in a dialog box for the procedure.

View and manipulate the results. Results are displayed in the Viewer. You
browse, edit, and pivot the output and save it for use at a later time.

18. Write a short note on Data View.

The Data View shows a spreadsheet view of the cases (rows) and variables
(columns). The data view contains numbers and text. It can not accept formulas.

19. Write a short note on Variable View.

The variable view displays are the metadata dictionary where each row
Represents a variable and shows the variable name, variable label, value label(s), print
width, measurement type and a variety of other characteristics.

20. What do mean by correlation?

Correlation analysis is tool of determining the degree of relationship
between the Variables.

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21. Define Sorting.
Sorting defines the order in which data are arranged in the data file and
Displayed on your screen.

22. What is positive correlation?

Two variables are said to be positively correlated if both variables are change
in the same direction. i.e. increase in one variable value will increase the other
variable at the same time decrease in one value of variable leads to decrease in

23. What is negative correlation?

If the two variable change in opposite directions they are called negative

24. State the methods of studying correlation.

Scatter Diagram Method

Graphic Method
Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of correlation
Rank method
Concurrent Deviation Method
Method of Least Squares.

25. Bring out the basic difference between correlation and regression.

Correlation coefficient is a measure of degree of co variability between two

variables where regression analysis is to study the nature of relationships between
two variables.

26. How do you express the regression equation of Y on X?


27. How do you express the regression equation of X on Y?


28. State the purpose of computing correlation co efficient.

Correlation coefficient is used to simply compare two factors to see how closely
those factors correlate to another.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

29. State the purpose of doing chi square analysis.

The Chi Square test is used to test the significant different between observed
and expected frequencies. Always the Chi-Square test is used to test whether
there is significant difference exists between two variables.

30. Define the word ‘Average’.

Average is an attempt to find one single figure to describe whole of figures.

31. What are the important types of average?

Arithmetic Mean (i) simple (ii) weighted

Geometric Mean
Harmonic Mean

32. What is cross tabulation?

A table that shows the relationship between two or more variables by

presenting all a combination of categories of variables is called as Cross

33. What do you mean by frequencies?

Tables showing what number or percentage of respondents gave each

answer to a question are called as frequencies.

34. Explain the term ‘Non Parametric test’.

Nonparametric tests — Statistical tests that require either no

assumptions or very few assumptions about a population’s distribution.

35. What is an Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is an assumed statement which should be proved or disproved

while doing the research analysis.

36. State the types of Hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis
Alternate Hypothesis

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

37.How do you infer the chi square analysis in SPSS output.

If the value is less than .05 the Null Hypothesis should be rejected.
If the value is greater than .05 the Null Hypothesis should be accepted.

38. Define Research.

Research is the serious academic activity with the set of objectives to identify
and find the problem or find the solutions to the problem by systematic way of
organizing, collecting and analyzing the data related to the problem.

39. What is full form of ANOVA and ANACOVA.

ANOVA – Analysis of Variance

ANACOVA - Analysis of Covariance

40. What is a sample?

A sample is the part of the population under study.

41. What is Population?

Population refers to the whole of area under study or in simple terms,

population refers the whole people related to a particular research problem.

42. What is MANOVA and MANCOVA?

MANOVA – Multiple Analysis of Variance

MANACOVA - Multiple Analysis of Covariance.

43. Define Variance.

Variance: a measure of how data points differ from the mean

44. Explain the term research design.

Research Design refers to the step by step approach towards research. It

explains the sequence of activities involved while conducting the research.

45. What is desk research?

All types of research conducted with in the organizations are called desk

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

46. What is documentary research?

Documentary research involves the use of texts and documents as source

materials: government publications, newspapers, certificates, census publications,
novels, film and video, paintings, personal photographs, diaries and innumerable other
written, visual and pictorial sources in paper, electronic, or other `hard copy' form.

47. What is mapping?

It is a valuable technique for visually displaying relationship between data

related to the problem.

48. State the differences between Qualitative and Quantitative research.

Qualitative research is based on quality attributes of the Data. Where as

Quantitative research is based on quantity attributes of the data.

49. What is cross sectional survey?

It refers to the survey of combination of clinical and community


50. What do you meant by interpretation of data?

Interpretation of data means giving meaning to numeric obtained from the

statistical research analysis.














Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai



What Makes SPSS Unique

For more than 37 years, SPSS has been the clear leader in analytics technology. Here are some of the
reasons that customers have selected SPSS software to drive their decision making:

 A history of innovation
 Solving organization's most challenging business issues
 A complete, 360° view into customers
 Comprehensive predictive analytics technology
 An integrated, enterprise-scalable platform
 Real-time decision optimization capabilities
 Easy integration with operational systems
 Open, standards-based architecture
 A faster return on your software investment
 A lower total cost of ownership (TCO)

A History of Innovation in Analytics Technologies

SPSS is the leader in predictive analytics technologies. For more than 37 years, SPSS has enabled its
customers—more than 120,000 corporations, academic institutions, healthcare providers, market
research companies and government agencies—to better focus their operations and improve their
performance. Our software helps organizations optimize interactions with their customers, regardless
of whether they're patrons, employees, patients, students, or citizens, and ensure that the actions
they are taking today will positively affect their ability to reach tomorrow's goals.

SPSS customers include:

 Customers in more than 100 countries around the

world use SPSS analytics
 Both the Republican and Democratic parties poll
citizens using analytics from SPSS
 All 50 U.S. state governments use analytics from SPSS
 The top 10 largest market research firms use SPSS
 More than 90% of the top U.S. universities use SPSS
 More than 85% of the top consumer packaged goods
companies use SPSS analytics
 The top 10 pharmaceutical companies in the world use
SPSS analytics
 The largest newspaper companies in the U.S. use SPSS

Solving Organizations' Most Challenging Business Issues

Whether you're a commercial organization seeking to attract or retain customers more efficiently,
increase the value of existing customers, or minimize losses due to fraud, SPSS has a solution
designed to meet the needs of your business.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

Government agencies use SPSS predictive analytics software to detect fraud, non-compliance with
laws or regulations, and to protect public safety and provide homeland security. Educational
institutions use predictive analytics to manage resources by predicting demand for programs, and to
raise funds cost effectively. Non-profit organizations use these technologies to anticipate program
demand and raise funds. Scientific and healthcare organizations carry out lifesaving research,
improve patient outcomes, and manage their business operations effectively, through the use of
predictive analytics.

For more than three decades, SPSS has enabled organizations to anticipate and quantify changes in
people's attitudes, preferences, and behavior so that they can confidently adapt strategies and tactics
to meet their goals.

A True 360° View of Your Customers

In this era of increased competition for customers, organizations that capitalize on their customer
interactions at every touch point achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. To gain this, however,
you need more than just a customer's transaction history and demographic information. You must
understand their opinions and attitudes, what they say or write, and what they do when they visit
your Web site.

SPSS solutions help you both understand and predict customer behavior by using a unique combination
of historical and demographic data from your operational systems and attitudinal data gathered
through the many channels you use to communicate with your customers— your call center, Web site,
surveys, and other vehicles. Our software enables you to develop in-depth customer understanding by
using all of your customer information together, both traditional structured data and unstructured
data, such as call center notes and responses to open-ended survey questions. No longer will critical
customer insights remain hidden and unused in data silos. The result is a 360° view of your
customers—a comprehensive picture that enables you to act quickly and effectively—and gives you a
decisive advantage over your competitors.

Comprehensive Predictive Analytics

SPSS predictive analytics software improves business processes by directing, optimizing, and
automating decisions made throughout an organization. Predictive analytics includes both the analysis
of past, present, and projected future outcomes using advanced analytics, and decision optimization
for determining which action will drive the optimal outcome. The recommended action is then
delivered to the systems or people that can effectively implement it. Unlike other vendors that offer
either limited predictive capabilities or predictive analytics that cannot be deployed enterprise-wide,
SPSS' comprehensive technology is highly scalable and interoperable, enabling you to perform
predictive analytics across disparate data sources and leverage your existing technology investments.

An Integrated Platform for Predictive Analytics

Unlike an isolated analytics tool with limited applicability or an elementary analytics component that
meets only a fraction of your business objectives, SPSS technology is robust and expandable. With
SPSS software you can address your enterprise's predictive analytic needs, whether they require
reporting, statistics, data mining, text analysis, Web analytics, survey analysis, decision optimization,
or a combination of these capabilities. Our integrated technology suite is designed to expand as your
predictive needs grow.

Real-Time Decision Optimization: For Effective Decisions that Need to be Made Now

When interacting with customers—over the Web, on the telephone, through direct mail, in a store—
SPSS technology can deliver a recommendation, along with supporting information, on the most
appropriate action to take with that particular customer. Our software evaluates possible alternative
actions, predicts which one a customer is likely to respond to, factors in which response will be most

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

beneficial to your business, and then makes the recommendation to the systems or people that can
take the action. The result is greater achievement of organizational goals, whether they're associated
with revenue generation, cost reduction, customer retention, or fraud prevention.

Solutions that Easily Integrate with your Operational Systems

To maximize the value your organization gains from predictive analytics, it has to be made a part of
your day-to-day business operations.

SPSS provides technology that allows businesses to easily and effectively use predictive results by
embedding them within their existing applications, such as marketing campaign management systems,
call center applications, and more. Our software integrates with software from a wide range of
vendors, including Siebel Systems, Oracle/PeopleSoft, SAP, e.Piphany, and many others. By
integrating predictive analytics into your operations, organizations gain measurable competitive
advantage through the improvement of their business processes.

Open, Standards-Based Technology

SPSS software follows industry standards such as OLE DB for data access, XMLA for data/format
sharing, PMML for predictive model sharing, SSL for Internet security management, and LDAP/Active
Directory Services for authentication and authorization, just to name a few. Our technology is easy to
learn, works with your existing data structures, and easily integrates with most CRM vendor's

A Faster Return on Your Software Investment

Unlike many other software solutions, SPSS predictive analytics solutions don't require long
implementation periods. Predictive analytics from SPSS can be implemented quickly, so your
organization begins reaping immediate value. Customers are up and running within months, not years.

For example, BankFinancial, an 80+ year-old financial institution with more than $1.5 billion in assets,
implemented an SPSS predictive analytics solution designed to optimize marketing campaigns. Within
two months, the solution was up-and-running and the organization experienced a 700% increase in
campaign response rates.

FBTO, an insurance company and part of the Achmea Group, one of the largest financial services
providers in the Netherlands, implemented a predictive analytics solution from SPSS. In two months,
FBTO achieved measurable increases in marketing response rates and lower overall marketing costs.

A Lower Total Cost of Ownership

Your organization has already made investments in data storage, operational systems, customer
relationship management solutions, IT infrastructure and, of course, in staffing. Unlike other vendors,
who require additional investments in hardware and components such as proprietary databases in
order to effectively implement their solutions, SPSS technology is designed to work with your existing
technology infrastructure and staff resources.

To match the standard functionality of SPSS technology, competitors often require customers to
invest in an extensive IT infrastructure as well as purchase critical functional components "a la carte."
SPSS keeps your cost of ownership low by providing you with open technology and flexible licensing
options. Our software products integrate both with each other and with your existing systems, so you
get exactly what you need to accomplish your goals.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

Explain the Windows provided in SPSS.

SPSS provides specialized window types for end users. In the SPSS object model,these windows
correspond to OLE Automation document objects that have methodsand properties that support most
of the functionality found in the user interface. The window types, their purpose for the end user,
and the corresponding OLE Automation object can be summarized as follows:

Data Editor. The working data file is displayed in the Data Editor, which is a spreadsheet-like system
for entering and editing data. The corresponding OLE Automation object is Spss. Data document.

Viewer. All statistical results, tables, charts, and other output are displayed in the Viewer. The
Viewer makes it easy to browse and edit your results, selectively show and hide output, and move
presentation-quality output items (for example, tables and charts) between SPSS and other
applications. The corresponding OLE Automation object is ISpssOutputDoc.

Draft Viewer. Output is displayed as simple text (instead of presentation-quality output items) in the
Draft Viewer. Editing is limited. The corresponding OLE Automation object is ISpssDraftDoc.

Syntax. Syntax is displayed and edited in the syntax window. You can type the syntax
directly or create command syntax by pasting dialog box choices into a syntax window,
where your selections appear in the form of command syntax. You can save these
commands in a file for use in subsequent SPSS sessions. The corresponding OLE Automation
object is Spss SyntaxDoc.

Script. The script window provides a programming environment for SPSS scripts.
Scripts allow you to customize and automate many tasks in SPSS. The script window
doesn’t have a corresponding OLE Automation object—it is a programming

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai