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SULPHURIC ACID AMMONIA ALLOYS SYNTHETIC POLYMERS GLASS
Sulphuric acid is used (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) To manufacture fertilisers To manufacture paint pigments To manufacture detergents To manufacture synthetic fibres To clean metals To manufacture plastics As an electrolyte in car batteries To manufacture other chemicals
Manufacture of sulphuric acid Contact Process Stage 1 In the furnace, molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide, SO2. The gas produced is purified and cooled
S + O2 → SO2
Stage 2 In the converter, sulphur dioxide, SO2 and excess oxygen gas, O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium (V) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 450ºC to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3 2SO2 + O2 2SO3
About 99.5% of the sulphur dioxide, SO2 is converted intro sulphur trioxide, SO3 through this reversible reaction. Stage 3 In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acis, H2SO4 to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7. SO3 + H2SO4 → H2S2O7 The oleum, H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7 + H2O → 2H2SO4
The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO3 directly to water. SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 However, this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide, SO3 reacts too violently whith water. This produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acis, H2SO4 mist. The mist is corrosive, pollutes the air and is difficult to condense.
Sulphur dioxide and encironmental pollution The following processes release sulphur dioxide intro the atmosphere (a) Burning of sulphur during contact process (b) Extraction of some metals from their sulphide ores (c) Burning of coals or fuels with high sulphur content Sulphur dioxide, SO2 can cause acid rain. Natural rainwater has a pH of about 5.4. Acid rain occurs when pH of the rain is between 2.4 and 5.0. This is due to the reaction of sulphur dioxide, SO2 with rainwater. 2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O → 2H2SO4
Ammonia and Its Salts
Uses of ammonia (a) Manufacture of fertilisers (b) Manufacture of synthetic fibres (c) Manufacture of explosives The properties of ammonia (a) It is colourless gas. (b) It has a pungent smell. (c) It is less dense than air (d) It is very soluble in water (e) It is alkaline gas. Manufacture of ammonia Haber Process
1. Combines nitrogen gas, N2 from the air with hydrogen gas, H2 derived mainly from
natural gas to form ammonia, NH3.
2. The ratio of one volume of nitrogen gas, N2 to three volumes of hydrogen gas, H2 is
passed through the reactor. 3. The mixture is compressed to 200 atm and heated to a temperature of about 450º C. 4. It is then passed through layers of iron catalyst to speed up the rate of reaction 5. The ammonia gas produced is liquefied and seperated tto get a better yield. N2 + 3H2 2NH3
6. The unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled and passed back into the reactor together with the new source of nitrogen and hydrogen. About 98% of nitrogen and hydrogen are converted intro ammonia
Preparation of ammonium fertilisers 1) The major plant nutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium.
2) Nitrogen is used by plants to make proteins in stalks and leaves.
3) Nitrogen is absorbed by plants in the form of soluble nitrate ions, NO3-
4) Ammonium fertilisers contain ammonium ions. In the soil, the ammonium ions are converted to nitrate ions by bacteria. 5) Examples of ammonium fertilisers: a) Ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 b) Ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4 c) Ammonium phosphate, (NH4)2HPO4 d) Urea, CO(NH2)2 6) Contain a high percentage of nitrogen. 7) Can be prepared by reactions between ammonia solution and acids.
An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal.
Composition • 90% copper • 10% tin
Properties • Hard and strong • Does not corrode easily • Has shiny surface
Uses • In the building of statues or monuments • In the making of medals, swords and artistic materials • In the making of musical instruments and kitchenware In the construction of buildings and bridges In the building of the body of cars and railway tracks In the making of cutlery In the making of surgical instruments In the building of the body of aeroplanes and bullet trains In the making of souvenirs
• • • •
70% copper 30% zinc 99% iron 1% carbon
Harder than copper
Hard and strong
Stainless steel Duralumin
• • • • • • • • • •
74% iron 8% carbon 18% chromium 93% aluminium 3% copper 3% magnesium 1% manganese 96% tin 3% copper 1% antimony
• • • • •
Shiny Strong Does not rust Light Strong
• • •
• • •
Lustre Shiny Strong
Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known ad polymerisation. Synthetic polymer Polythene Monomer Ethene Uses Plastic bags, shopping bags, plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Piping, bottle crates, carpets, car batteries and ropes Artificial leather, water pipes and records Safety glass, reflectors, traffic sign and lens Clothing, sails and ropes Ropes, clothing and carpets
Polypropene Polyvinyl chloride, PVC Perspex Terylene Nylon
Propene Chloroethene Methylmethacrylate Hexane-1, 6-diol Benzene-1, 4-dicarboxclic acid Hexane-1, 6-diamine Hexane-1, 6-dioic acid
Disposal of synthetic polymers has caused environmental pollution problems. (a) Synthetic polymers are not easily biodegradable, Thus their waste will block or clog up the drainade system, thereby causing flash flood. (b) The burning of synthetic polymers will produce gases like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. These gases can cause the greenhouse effect and contribute to the acid rain problem.
Way to solve the problem (a) (b) (c) (d) Reuse Recycle Use biodegradable synthetic polymers Dispose of unwanted synthetic polymers
Glass and Ceramics
The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2 which can be found in sand.
Generally, all types of glass have the following common properties: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Transparent Hard but brittle Impermeable to liquid Heat insulator Electrical insulator Chemically inert
Type of glasses 1) 2) 3) 4) Fused glass Soda-lime glass Borosilicate glass Lead crystal glass
Made from clay, for example kaolin, a hydrated aluminiumsilicate, Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O.
Properties of ceramics a) b) c) d) e) f) Very hard and strong Brittle Chemically inert and does not corrode Good insulator of electricity and heat Very high melting point Resist compression
Composite material is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal, alloys, glass, ceramics and polymers.
Reinforced concrete. – – – Concrete is a composite material which consist of a mixture of stones, chips and sand bound together by cement. Strong but brittle and weak in tension. Steel is strong in tension. When concrete is reinforced with steel wires, steel bars or any polymer fibres, the resulting combination is a very tough material with more tensile strength.
Superconductors – – – Capable of conduction electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature. Used in the bullet trains in Japan and medical magnetic-imaging devices like magnetic resonance imaging, MRI. Also used in magnetic energy-storage system, generators, transformers and computer parts
Fibre optic – – – – – Consist of a bundle of glass or plastic threads that are surrounded by a glass cladding. Able to transmit data, voice and images in a digital format. Used to replace copper wire in long distance telephone lines, in mobile phones, video cameras and to link computers within local area networks, LAN. Used in instruments for examining internal parts of the body or inspecting the interiors of manufactured structural products. Low material costs, high transmission capacity, chemical stability and is less susceptible to interference.
Fibre glass – – – – – Glass is hard, and plastic is elastic. When glass fibres are usedto reinforce plastic, we get a strong composite material called fibre glass. Has high tensile strength, can be easily coloured and low in density Can be made into thin layers, yet very strong. Easily moulded and shaped. Has been used to make household products like water storage tanks, badminton rackets, small boats, skis and helmets.
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Produced by embedding photochromic substances like silver chloride, AgCl srystal in glass or transparent polymers. When it is exposed to light, silver chloride, AgCl is converted to silver and the glass darkens. It becomes transparent again when silver is converted back to silver chloride, AgCl when the light dims Suitable for making optical lenses, car windshields, smart energy efficient windows in buildings, information display panels, lens in cameras, optical switches and light intensity meters.
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