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Looking at the horizontal & vertical velocity components and time of flight of a projectile,also calculation of maximum height,range and velocity of impact.

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2D Motion : Projectiles

Vertical & horizontal components of velocity

**When a particle is projected under gravity at a velocity u at an angle θ to the
**

horizontal(neglecting air resistance)it follows the curve of a parabola.

**The particle has an initial horizontal speed of ucosθ, which is unchanged throughout the
**

motion.

**Vertically the particle has an initial speed of usinθ. It falls under gravity and is accelerated
**

downwards with an acceleration of g ms-1,where g = 9.8 ms-2 (approx.)

Time of flight

**The time of flight is calculated from the vertical component of the velocity. It is the time it
**

takes for the particle to go up, reach its maximum height and come down again. So this is

twice the time to maximum height.

If the time to maximum height is t secs. Then the time of flight is 2t.

Consider motion up to maximum height. This is attained when the final velocity v = 0.

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2D Motion Mechanics topic notes

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Maximum height attained (H)

**The maximum height attained occurs when the particle is momentarily stationary, before
**

falling under gravity. The vertical component of speed is zero at this point(v=0).

Range(R)

The range is simply the horizontal component of speed multiplied by the time of flight.

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2D Motion Mechanics topic notes

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Velocity(speed & direction) at time t

**Solution of problems is to find the vertical component of speed at time t and combine this
**

with the original horizontal component of speed, which remains unchanged.

Example

A particle P is projected at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal at a speed of 30 ms-1 .

What is the speed and direction of the particle after 3 secs.?

(g=9.8 ms-2)

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