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MODULE – 4

Identify the Source of
Information
Sources & Collection of data.

> Select the data collection
approach.
> At this stage there is
temptation to organize a field
survey to collect the relevant
data.
>Field survey should be resorted
to only when all the secondary
sources of data collection has
been exhausted.
>Primary Survey is comparable
to surgery.
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>It should be resorted to only
after all other possibilities of
secondary sources have been
exhausted.
Secondary & Primary Research
• Secondary research or
secondary data is any data
that has been gathered earlier
but which has not been
specifically collected for the
current marketing research.
• Primary research or primary
data is data which has been
collected first hand. This
involves collecting data

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specifically for the purpose of
the study on hand from the
actual sources such as
consumers, dealers,
industries or other specific
entities involved or other
specific entities involved in
the research.
Secondary Data.
• Secondary data resources
include published sources of
data, periodicals and
newspaper reports, Internet
etc.

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• Primary data collected by one
person becomes secondary
data for another.
• It is sometimes possible to do
a lot of good iiry research and
get useful data. Yet the study
may require primary data to
obtain the current status or
specific details
Limitations/Disadvantages of
iiry data
1. Reliability of data
Reliability of iiry data depends on
the purpose for which the data
had been collected and it may not

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match the requirements of the
present study.
2. Accuracy of data
What degree of accuracy was
employed? Was that achieved?
Does it match the requirement of
the current study?
3. Suitability of data
The data suitable for one enquiry
may not necessarily be found
suitable in another enquiry.
Eg. (1) Units of measurement
used in iiry data may be
different from the one needed in
the present research project.

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Say, size of firm can be expressed
in several ways as in
No. of employees; Capital &
technology employed ; Gross
sales & profit ; Net profit etc may
not match “size” standadard in
present study
E.g.(2) Class boundaries may be
different form the need of the
researcher causing misfit.
sufficiency or
4. Adequacy or sufficiency of
data
Sample size and depth of analysis
of the iiry data may not suit the

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researcher’s requirement in the
present study
5. Obsolescence of data
Business/ marketing
environment is dynamic wrt
consumer taste, economic
conditions, business trends etc.,
that the data may be a misfit in
the current research
requirement. Eg A study done on
the need for telegram for
communication may be obsolete
in the present context.
6. Relevance of data
With changing technologies the
iiry data may not be quite
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relevant in the current research
context. Eg. A study on manual
typewriters & subsequent
versions of electric & electronic
typewriters wrt consumer
behavior may not be relevant in
the study on CB w.r.t personal
computers.
7. Proprietary & confidentiality
barriers may prevent access &
free use of such data desired by
researcher.
> The above mentioned
limitations should not prompt
the

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researcher to blindly discard
the use of iiry data, especially
if they are
readily available from authentic
sources and are also suitable
or
adequate for the present study

> At times, there may be wealth
of usable inform,. in the already
available iiry data which can be
used by an intelligent researcher
but with due precaution.
Advantages of iiry data

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1) Low cost of data collection.
At times they may offer insight
and
relevant information which
may be sufficient to solve the
marketing problem.
Eg. Size of the market for a
particular product - the
quality of the study may
preclude the need for a new
primary study
2) Saves time and helps in
prompt completion of research
project.
3) Familiarity with the data may
indicate deficiencies, gaps &
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pitfalls in the previous study
which may help refine primary
data collection process, study
design, survey design, data
analysis in the proposed
research
4) As the researcher explores the
availability of secondary data
relevant to his project, his
understanding of the problem
improves leading to some
changes in his original ideas.
5) iiry data can be used as a
basis for comparison with the
primary data just collected.
Sources of Secondary data
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iiry data can be obtained
internally i.e. within the firm,
or
externally i.e.,from one or more
outside agencies.
Internal Sources of iiry Data
are those which are generated
within the firm.
Internal sources of iiry data
• Accounting Records.
• Sales Force Report
• Miscellaneous Reports
• Internal Experts
Accounting Records

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Eg. Balance Sheet, P&L
statements., measure
performance & growth
Sales Invoices can give details of
customer, his address, items &
quantity discounts allowed, total
sales in the regon / territory
during a period etc.

Sales Force Reports
In a proper format it can provide
a wealth of information, sales
force can be encouraged to
provide accurate &
comprehensive information, their
comments & remarks on the
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monthly sales, rapport with
dealers & retailers, competitive
activity, etc.,
Miscellaneous Reports
Any study done on earlier
marketing problems of the
company, special audits etc.,
Internal experts
Product Managers, Marketing.
Res. Managers, PROs, Advertising
Managers may home specialized
knowledge relevant to marketingl
problems.
External Sources of Secondary
data
Govt. Publication
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1) Registrar General of India –
Population Census Report
2) Central Statistical
Organisation (CSO)–Statistical
Abstracts of
India. - Annual Survey
of industries
- Estimates of
National Product savings &
capital
formation

3) Planning commission reports
- Basic statistics relating
to

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Indian
economy
4) Reserve Bank of India Reports
- Wholesale price index
Non Government. Publication
1) Indian Cotton Mills
Federation - Statistics on cotton
textile
industries
2) Stock exchange directories
-financial a/c, key profitability

ratios of listed companies
3) Bureau of Coffee Board
- Coffee production statistics

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4) Coir Board, Rubber Board,
Silk Board etc- Annual reports
5) The Steel Authority of India
Ltd (SAIL) - Stats for iron or steel

Industry
6) FICCI – Fed. Ind. Ch. Com &
Industry. Periodic Bulletins
IACC - Ind. Am. Ch. Comm
& Publications
ACCII – Ass. Ch. Comm.
&Industry of India

QUESTIONNAIRE
• It is a method of
communication

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• It is a tool or instrument to
gather data from respondents
in a survey situation
• Definition
A questionnaire is a set of
questions designed to generate
the data necessary to
accomplish a research project.
• Questionnaire can be
classified into four main types
i) structured non disguised
/direct questionnaire
ii) structured disguised
/indirect questionnaire

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iii) non -structured non
disguised /direct questionnaire
iv) non-structured disguised
/indirect questionnaire

A structured Questionnaire is
a formal list of questions framed
so as to get facts.
• The interviewer asks the
questions strictly in accordance
with a
pre – arranged order.
A structured Questionnaire is of
two types

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a) disguised and b) non –
disguised
When the object or purpose of the
survey is revealed it is called
non – disguised type
When the object or purpose of the
survey is undisclosed / not
revealed it is called as disguised
type
Structured non – disguised
questionnaire is one when the
listing of questions is in a pre-
arranged order and where the
object of enquiry is revealed to
respondent.

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Most marketing research studies
use this type of questionnaire
which is also simply referred to
as “questionnaire”.

Advantages of structured non –
disguised questionnaire or
Advantages of a questionnaire
1) It facilities the collection of
information in a systematic
and orderly manner as the

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questions have been
formulated in advance
2) Since the questions asked by
each interviewer happens to be
identical and are asked in the
same order, the information is
generally not distorted on
account of varying
characteristics of different
interviewers.
3) A structures approach calls for
a straightforward and simple
approach on the part of
interviewers . As such, even
less qualified interviewers can
be deployed in the survey.
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4) Such a questionnaire makes it
far easier to edit, tabulate &
interpret the data.
5) Such a questionnaire can be
pretested so that suitable
modifications can be made in
phrasing question or in the
sequence or both.
LIMITATION
Such a questionnaire is not in
a position to elicit answers
from respondent re. motivation
& personal reasons for his
behaviour. This is done by
disguised questionnaires in
qualitative studies.
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Eg. In-depth interview

Characteristics of a good
questionnaire
1) Has a good heading along
with object of enquiry clearly
stated.
2) Carries necessary
instructions
3) Well arranged sequence of
questions
4) Elicits objective answers
capable of tabulation
5) Has clarity
6) Has limited no. of questions

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7) Has good format-size,
appearance, margin, spacing
to look good on good quality
paper with good printing
motivating respondents to
answer.
Objectives of a Questionnaire
1. It must translate the
information needed into a set
of specific question that the
respondents can & will answer
2. It must motivate & encourage
the respondent to become
involved, co-operate &
complete the interview.

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3. It must minimize response
error - arising from
inaccurate, misrecorded or
misanalysed answers.
Questionnaire Design process -
Steps
STEP
1) Specify the information needed
2) Specify the type of interviewing
method
3) Determine the content of
individual questions
4) Design the questions to
overcome the respondents’
inability or unwillingness to
answer
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5) Decide on the question
structure
6) Determine the questions
wording
7) Arrange the questions in
proper order
8) Identify the form & layout
9) Reproduce the questionnaire
in limited nos for pretesting
10) Eliminate bugs by
pretesting and bulk reproduction

1. Specify the information
Needed.
(i) Review research questions,
hypothesis and objectives to
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ensure information to be
obtained addresses the
problem.
(ii) Prepare a dummy table to
describe how the analysis will
be structured when the data
have been collected.
(iii) Check if questions match
target group eg. Questions for
college student may be
inappropriate for housewives.
iv) Language – What language is
the respondent going to
understand & respond.

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(iv) The questionnaire must be so
designed that it can be used
in any language.
Eg. A Questionnaire printed in
English could be administered
to the respondent in the local
language he speaks, by a
trained interviewer who
records the answers in the
questionnaire.
2. Type of interviewing method
In personal interviews,
respondents see the
questionnaire & interact face to
face with the interviewer. Thus

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lengthy, complex & varied
questions can be asked.
In telephone interviews,
respondents do not see the
questionnaire. Hence, questions
have to be short & simple.
Mail questionnaires are self
administrated, so questions must
be simple & detailed instructions
must be provided.
E-mail Questionnaires also have
to be simple.
3. Individual Question content
Is the question necessary?
Eg. Questions unrelated to the
problem.
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Are several questions needed
instead of one eg. – Do you
think Coca Cola is tasty &
refreshing soft drink? – incorrect
double barreled question
Instead 2 separate questions may
be asked
i) Do you thick Coca Cola is a
tasty drink?
ii) Do you think Coca Cola is a
refreshing drink?

4. Overcoming inability &
unwillingness to answer.
Is the respondent informed or
familiar with the topic ?
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Eg – Asking husband about
monthly grocery bill when wife
does the purchase.
Can the respondent remember
Eg- What did you have for lunch
last week?
Can the respondent be
expressive?
Eg- Describe interior of a dept.
store you would like to shop in?
Such a question may not get the
desired response if respondent is
not expressive.

5. Choose question structure
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A. Unstructured Questions -
Open-ended questions that
respondents answer in their own
words.
Eg- What is your occupation ?
----------------------
Why do you think people
shop in department
stores.?-------------------
-----------------------------------
-----------------------------------------
--------
B. Structured questions
i) Multiple choice questions
Please tick the brand of
Shampoo you normally use.
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a) Clinic, b) Chik, c) Sunsilk
d) Head & shoulder, e) Any
other.
Please
specify__________________-
ii) Dichotomous Questions –
has only two response
alternatives.
Eg – Yes, No ; Agree, Disagree
etc.
Sometimes neutral
alternative needs to be included
Eg- Don’t Know, both or no
opinion

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Do you intend to buy a
new car within the next six
months?
____yes’ _____No, _______
don’t know
iii) Scales
Do you intend to buy a new car
within the next six months?

Definitely Probably
Undecided Probably Definitely
Will not buy will not buy
will buy will buy
1 2 3 4
5

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6. Choosing question wording
- avoid ambiguous words
eg. Do you think
distribution of soft drink is
adequate?
Instead: Have you ever faced
out of stock situation of Brand X
soft
Drink ? Yes ; No ; This
can be further simplified
- use ordinary words
Simplify – Do you think soft
drinks are readily available
when you want to buy them?

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- avoid leading questions
Do you think as a patriotic
Indian you should buy Gilette?
Better- When you buy a razor
do you choose Indian or
Imported brands?
7. Determining order of
questions
1. Opening questions should
be simple, interesting & check
eligibility of the candidate to
answer questions
Eg- Suppose the respondent is
required to be a graduate,
then the opening question can
eliminate non graduates.
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2. Difficult questions to be
included later & should be a
few in number
3. Logical order – sequence
and flow to make interview
smooth
4. Avoid crowding of
questions that confuse
respondent
8. Format & layout
- Format, spacing &
positioning should be comfortable
to read.
- Questionnaire may be in
several parts if long.

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- Preferably it is best to have
just one page
9. Reproduction – in good
quality paper for pre-testing &
main
Survey
10. Pretesting – The testing of a
questionnaire on a small
sample of respondents for the
purpose of improving the
questionnaire by identifying &
eliminating problematic
questions
> Misunderstood questions to
be reworded or eliminated.
> Length to be trimmed.
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> Information content to be
reviewed.

SCALES OF MEASUREMENT
USED IN BUSINESS/MKTNG
RESEARCH

Nature and characteristic of
Number System
Nos. have certain basic
properties.
First nos. follow a rank order
9 > 3, 12 < 24

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Second The difference or
intervals between pairs of
nos can be compared.
The Interval between 6 & 3
is the same as the interval
between 9 & 6.
The Interval between 36 &
24 is twice the interval
between 12 & 6.
Third We can divide one no by
another and interpret the
relative magnitudes of the
two nos by the resulting
ratios.
6/3=2 Thus 6 is twice as
large as 3.
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12 is one third of 36
because 36x1/3=36/3=12
Fourth We can compute &
interpret numbers because
the number system has
Unique Zero Point
The properties of numbers are of
special significance in the
context of
quantifying survey responses
esp. when measuring subjective
aspects such an emotions,
attitudes etc on a scale.

Scale-A device constructed with
a set of members that serves as a
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yardstick or means of
measurement.
Measurement - is the
assignment of numbers to
responses based on a set of
guidelines. Eg yes is 1 ; No is 2
Scaling Techniques.
 Marketing research is often
concerned with the behavior of
consumers. They want to
assess their attitude to different
variables. Why is this
important ?
1) If the attitude of the public
towards a company or its product
is
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unfavorable, the company
cannot survive too long.
 So, a company should know
public’s attitude towards it.
Also, the company must
ensure that people have a
favorable attitude towards its
present products/services.
 The company must also look
into the future to anticipate
the preference of the public.
 Thus, a study of attitudes
becomes very relevant to
marketing researchers.

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2) Attitudes also plays a major
role in advertising. A marketing
researcher would like to decide
the copy message the
advertisement
should carry, how it should be
conveyed, the effective media that
can
take this message to the
consumer. Eg. Complan with
height, Junior
Horlicks with growth in
intelligence with an interesting
storyline suited
to TV

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3) A manufacture may embark on
an attitude survey to reveal the
likes &
dislikes of consumers towards
certain brands that would be
helpful in
his product development.
Attitude The sum total of a
person’s inclination and feelings,
prejudice or bias, preconceived
notions, ideas, fears, threats and
convictions about any specific
topic. Attitude is, therefore, a
subjective and personal
opinion. Attitude influences
behaviour. Purchase decisions
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are based upon attitudes.
Attitudes can change over time
Types of Scales / Scaling
Techniques
There are basically four types of
scales of measurement or scaling
techniques
1. Nominal Scales 2. Ordinal
Scales
3. Interval Scales 4. Ratio
Scales
1. Nominal Scales
Nominal sales are more widely
used than any other scale for
research in social sciences.

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 In a nominal scale, numbers
serve as labels to identify
persons, objects events,
different categories of
responses etc.
Eg. A. What is your gender 1.
Male ( )
2. Female ( )
B. Which of the following
influences your purchasing
decision the most.
1.TV ( ) 2.Radio ( )
3.Print media ( ) 4.Interntet
( )
C. Do you like ice cream? 1.
Yes ( )
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2. No ( )
4. Any set of nos can be used
as labels:-
05 MBA 26 05 Signifies
yearof intake and 26 subject code
of BRM
Arranging books in a library
– Physics 48, Chemistry 92 etc
Room No 406 in a hotel
signifies 4th Floor 06 – room no.
Limitations
Nominal scale is the simplest
of the four scales.
 It does not imply any ranking
of the responses.
 Only serves as labels
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 The nos. do not have any
arithmetic origin ie., no zero
origin. Hence no mathematical
operation is possible
 There is no distance
relationship in the scale
employed. Hence, unsuitable
for determining relationships.
 However, Nominal Scales are
useful in research (esp.
Exploratory). where broad
dimensions (frequency) of
variables need to be
determined.
ie., How many said YES,
how many said NO
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 Statistical Implication:
Calculation of Std.Deviation
and Mean is not possible.
Mode is the most appropriate
central tendency to determine
the most frequently checked
response in nominal scale.
2. Ordinal Scale /Order Scaled
Response.
Ordinal scales posses all the
unique characteristic of nominal
scales plus possess the property
of rank order. Hence, more
powerful than nominal scales.
Eg. (1) Consider the followin
Question
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How long do you spend reading
new papers on a typical
weekday ?
A. Less than 5 min.
Actual response 40%
B. 5 min to less than 15 min.
--- do --- 20%
C. 15 min to less than 30 min.
---- do --- 25%
D. 30 min or more.
---- do --- 5%
Rearranging above and ranking
them from lowest to highest
response rate, we have
1. D 5%
2. B 20%
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3. C 25%
4. A 40%

Eg. (2) Five types of house holds
with monthly income
House hold A B C D E
Income 6 10 5 12 11
(Rs. ‘000)
If the households are ranked
highest to the lowest we have
1 D Rs 12,000
2 E Rs 11,000
3 B Rs 10,000
4 A Rs 6,000
5C 5,000
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The point to emphasise here is
that the exercise is simply rank
ordering lowest to highest or
highest to lowest the given
variable and does not reflect the
internal differences between the
categories.
Consider another example where
acceptability of a soft drink is
involved.
Scale
%
Response
Ranking 2 I strongly like to
+2 10%

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Lowest 4 I like it somewhat
+1 25%
To Highest 3 I am
indifferent 0 15%
5 I dislike it somewhat
-1 45%
1 I strongly dislike it
-2 5%
Please rank the following
domestic airlines from 1 to 5,
being most preferred and 5 least
preferred in terms of price.
Rank Respondents
(nos)
Indian - 3 200
Spice jet - 2 250
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Deccan - 1 300
Jet Airways - 4 150

Kingfisher - 5 100
Mode & Median 300
Two measures of central
tendency are meaningful for
ordinal-scaled responses: Mode &
Median (category where 50th
percentile response falls)

Difference between Nominal &
Ordinal Scale - In nominal scale
numbers can be interchanged as
it serves the purpose of only

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labeling and counting. Numbers
in Ordinal Scale have more
meaning and cannot be
interchanged
3. Interval Scales
>This has all the properties of
ordinal scale plus the differences
between
scale values can be
meaningfully interpreted.
>This characteristic makes
interval scaled responses more
powerful
than nominal or ordinal scaled
responses.

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>Strictly speaking, variables such
as attitudes, opinions and
preferences
cannot be quantified to yield
exact interval scales. However,
within the
scale equal intervals are
assumed between categories.
>So an a particular scale, equal
differences indicate equal
differences in
value with regard to that scale
only.
Eg- How likely are you to buy a
new automobile within the next
six months?
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(Please tick the most appropriate
category)
1. Will definitely not buy
2. Extremely unlikely to buy
3. Unlikely to buy
4. Likely to buy
5. Extremely likely to buy
6. Will definitely buy
>Values assigned to this set of
responses run from 1 to 6 (these
nos. can
also be in reverse) and strictly
speaking from only an ordinal
scale.

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>But they are considered to be
interval scale under the
assumption that
respondents will see the
connection between adjacent
responses and
will treat the differences
between adjacent response
categories as being
equal, especially since the
categories are physically
separated by equal
distance.

>Unfortunately, verifying whether
the respondents perception of the
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differences between adjacent
response categories are equal is
very
difficult, if not impossible.
>However, the MR & BRM, such
scales are more often (than not)
treated
as having interval properties.
Consider above eg: Response as
follows
Resp. No. & %
Category of response
1 10 (5%)
2 10 (5%)
3 70 (35%)
4 60 (30%)
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5 20 (10%)
6 30 (15%)
200 100%
> Interval scales are more
powerful than nominal and
ordinal scales.
> They are quicker to complete &
researchers find them more
convenient
to apply.
>In a particular interval scale,
equal differences indicate equal
differences in value with
regard to that scale only.

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>Numbers forming an interval
scale, in addition to possessing
ordinal
scale attributes, permit
computation of the Mean and
Standard.
Deviation.
 In above example, the mode &
median are 3 & 4 respectively.
The Mean is 3.8 on a scale of 1
to 6.
(It is assumed that the unit
of measurement is constant
throughout)

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>Suppose, we administer the
same question to a different
sample of
respondents with lower income
levels than the earlier sample.
Say mean
is computed to be 1.9.
Although 3.8 is twice as large as
1.9. we cannot say that the first
sample is twice as likely to buy
a new automobile than the
second
sample.
-This is because, the starting or
zero point is arbitrary. Hence, the
two
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samples cannot be linked.
-Compare with a thermometer
that has a common zero point for
all the
measurements.

Workings = Calculation of Mean.
(1x10+2x10+3x70+4x60+5x20
+6x30) / 200
=
(10x20+210+240+100+180) /
200 = 3.8
2nd Sample response
category No & %
(1x120+2x40+3x10+ 1
120 (60%)
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4x10+5x10+6x10) – 200 2
40 (20%)
=(120+80+30+40+50+60) 3
10 (5%)
= 1.9 4 10
(5%)
5 10 (5%)
6 10 (5%)
200
(100%)
Statistical Implication: We can
compute mean, median, mode
Difference between Interval
and Ordinal Scale
Ordinal Scale gives only the
ranking of the alternatives,
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namely one is greater than the
other. Interval Scales provide
information about the difference
between one and the other
4. Ratio Scales
> Ratio Scales possess the power
of the preceding three scales plus
the
concept of absolute zero or
origin.
> Thus they have the order,
distance/interval and unique
origin.
> Ratio scales are the most
superior amongst all the scales.

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> Quantified responses forming a
ratio scale analytically are the
most
versatile.
>The ratio numbers on these
scales have meaningful
interpretation.
>Data on certain demographic or
descriptive attributes, if they are
obtained through open ended
questions, will have ratio scale
properties.
Consider following questions:
(i) What is your annual income
before taxes?

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Rs.
________________
(ii) How far is your workplace
from your home?

_________________km.

Answer to these questions have a
natural, unambiguous starting
point, namely zero.
Since the starting point is not
chosen arbitrarily, as in interval
scale, computing & interpreting
ratios make sense. In this scale it
is possible to say how many

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times greater or smaller one
object is compared to the other
Eg. – A respondent earning Rs.
40,000 p.m. is earning twice as
much as a respondent earning
Rs. 20,000/- p.m.
>Non metric data - are data with
only nominal or
ordinal properties
> Metric Data – are data with
interval or ratio properties
> The interval between nos. have
precise meaning for
metric data but
not for non metric data

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ATTITUDE SCALES
 Attitude is the predisposition
of the individual to evaluate
some object or aspect of his
world in a favorable or
unfavorable manner.
 Attitude Scales are sets of
rating scales constructed to
measure
one or more dimension of an
individual’s attitude toward
some
object (issue)
 Attitude scales are constructed
using Likert, Semantic
Differential,
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Paired Compassion &
Thurston Scales
Criteria for a Good /
Effective scale
1. Reliability- A scale or test
is said to be reliable to the
extent that repeat
measurements made by it
under constant conditions will
give the same result (assuming
no change in attitude).
2. Validity – The scale
measures what it sets out to
measure and any differences
represent the true differences.

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3. Sensitivity-The scale’s
ability to detect subtle /
minute differences in the
attitudes being measured.
It should have sufficient
numbers range to facilitate
medasurement of fine
variations in attitude. This is
achieved better by a multi item
scale.

1.Likert Scale
> It has an ordinal scale
format .
> It enables ranking of attitude
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> It consists of a series of
attitude related statements
(multi-item scale format)

Respondents are asked to rate
these statements on a 5 point
item scale.

Strongly Disagree
Neither Agree Strongly
Disagree agree
agree
Nor
Disagree
1 2 3
4 5
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Maruti 800
is the best car ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
developed
by Maruti Udyog

It is light
but sturdy ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
to take on
bad roads in India

It has got excellent
fuel efficiency ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

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It meets middle
class aspirations ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

After sales service
is countrywide &( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
excellent

Cheaper R & M ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )

76
> The statements are separate
ideas yet linked to a
common object (see
above example)
> Single – item scale formats have
single statement
format.
>The central tendency of single
statement indicates the average
attitude
> The central tendencies in multi-
item format gives a consolidated
avge
> The central tendencies in multi
– item format gives a consolidated

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average. The individual
averages & consolidated average
may indicate a
pattern in the relationship –
pictorial profile.
> This is one of the widely used
scales in MR.
2.Semantic Differential Scale
> It is an Ordinal Scale similar to
Likert Scale.
> It consists of a series of items
to be rated – multi item scale.
> Single item scale may be a
stand alone attitude statement.

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> Items are presented as a
bipolar adjective phrases or
words at two
extremes of the scale.
> The scale in – between may
have 5 – 7 points.
> The respondent marks one
category for each scale that best
represents
the attitude.
> A more common application of
the semantic differential scale is
to
develop a pictorial profile of the
attitude based on mean ratings.

79
> The profiles exhibit the relative
strengths & weaknesses as
perceived by
customers. This is one of the
widely used scales in marketing
research.
Maruthi 800:
1.Best car
Worst car

2.Sturdy car
Weak car

3Excellent Fuel
Worst Fuel

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Efficiency
Efficiency
4
Meets
Doest not
Middle Class
Middle lass
aspiration
aspiration
5.Excellent
Worst
After sales
After sales
Service
Service.

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6.Cheap
Expensive
R&M
R&M
Thurston Scale
> It is an Ordinal Scale
> This applies the logic that
attitudes are best measured when
comparative statements are
arranged one below another in a
sequence;
To get neutral statements
towards halfway point ; and
Extreme statements opposite in
character beyond the halfway
point.
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> The statements are arranged in
11 piles for the final scale. These
statements are distilled version
of many statements one would
have
studied and finally short
listed.
Eg Attitude towards TV
commercials can be studied by
using Thurston
scale as follows:
Scale Value
1) All TV commercials should be
prohibited by LAW
2) Watching TV commercial is
complete waste of time
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3) Most TV commercials are
pretty bad
4) TV commercials are
monotonous
5) TV commercial do not interfere
with regular TV watching
6) I have no feelings whatsoever
7) I like TV commercials at times
8) Most TV commercial are fairly
interactive
9) I like TV to buy products
advertised an TV
10)Most TV commercials help
people select best products

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11) TV commercials are fun to
watch than regular
programmes

> Respondents are required to
agree or disagree with the
statement.
> In a general trend if
respondents agree with
statements of scale values 8,9 &
10, they may disagree with 1, 2,
3, & 4. Neutral positions will be
5, 6 & 7.

85
>Median of the item nos is
calculated of 8, 9 & 10 
favorably disposed
toward TV commercials
>1, 4, 7 & 11 agreement would
indicate no organized attitude
toward TV
commercial
> Not applied in MR frequently
owing to tedious procedure.

Disadvantage 1) Cumbersome to
develop
2) Many bias can arise
in shortlisting & making

86
average statements
3) Degree of agreement or
disagreement is not
indicated.
Paired comparison scale
> This requires respondents to
pick two objects of a set with
regard to an
attitude.
> A series of paired judgments
between objects is made by the
respondent on the basis of his
preference.
> Suppose the respondent is
asked to show his preference
amongst
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Five brands of tea A, B, C, D, E
with respect to its flavor.
> He has to select one brand out
of all paired combination of the
five
brands

A&B B&C C&D
D&E
A&C B&D C&E
A&D B&E
so, 10 paired comparisons
A&E n(n-1)÷ 2 = 5 (5-1) ÷
2 = 10

88
> In each pair, the respondents
are asked to divide 100 points on
the
basis of how much they liked
one as compared to the other eg.
between A & B liking, 60
points to A 40 points to B;
between A & C
liking 70 points to A 30 points
to C etc
>When combinations are large
paired comparison is not
preferred. When
There are 15 brands to be
evaluated, we will have 105
paired
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Comparisons which is the major
limitation of this method

90