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MODULE – 4

Identify the source of information
Sources & Collection of data.

> Select the data collection approach.
> At this stage there is temptation to
organize a field survey to collect me data.
>Field survey should be resorted to only
when all the secondary sources of data
collection has been exhausted.
>Survey is comparable to surgery.
>It should be resorted to only after all other
possibilities have been
exhausted.
Secondary & Primary Research
• Secondary research or secondary data
is any data that has been gathered
earlier but which has not been
specifically collected for the current
marketing research.

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• Primary research or primary data is
data which has been collected first
hand. This involves collecting data
specifically for the purpose of the
study on hand from the actual sources
such as consumers, dealers,
industries or other specific entities
involved or other specific entities
involved in the research.
Secondary Data.
• Secondary data resources include
published sources of data, periodicals
and newspaper reports, Internet etc.
• Primary data collected by one person
becomes secondary data for another.
• It is sometimes possible to do a lot of
good iiry research and get useful data.
Yet the study may require primary data
For instance, research report on a
similar topic may yield relevant data.

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But, the research on hand may require
a lot of current data which may not be
readily available from iiry sources.
E.g. (1) Customer satisfaction level
for a specific product / branch may not
be reported any where in iiry sources.

E.g. (2) The effectiveness of a
particular advertisement may the
evident from the sales which follow.
But why people liked the
advertisement may not obvious and
can only be ascertained
through primary research/interviews
with consumer.
E.g. (3) The methodology for the iiry
data already collected may
be unknown and therefore we may be
unable to judge the reliability

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& validity of the data
Limitations/Disadvantages of iiry data
1. Reliability of data
Reliability of iiry data depends on the
purpose for which the data had been
collected and it may not match the
requirements of the present study.
2. Accuracy of data
What degree of accuracy was employed?
Was that achieved? Does it match the
requirement of the current study?
3. Suitability of data
The data suitable for one enquiry may not
necessarily be found suitable in another
enquiry.
Eg. (1) Units of measurement used in iiry
data may be different from the one needed
in the present research project.
Say, size of firm can be expressed in several
ways as in

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No. of employees; Capital & technology
employed ; Gross sales & profit ; Net profit
etc may not match “size” standadard in
present study
E.g.(2) Class boundaries may be different
form the need of the researcher causing
misfit. sufficiency or
4. Adequacy or sufficiency of data
Sample size and depth of analysis of the iiry
data may not suit the researcher’s
requirement in the present study
5. Obsolescence of data
Business/ marketing environment is
dynamic wrt consumer taste, economic
conditions, business trends etc., that the
data may be a misfit in the current
research requirement. Eg A study done on
the need for telegram for communication
may be obsolete in the present context.
6. Relevance of data

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With changing technologies the iiry data
may not be quite relevant in the current
research context. Eg. A study on manual
typewriters & subsequent versions of
electric & electronic typewriters wrt
consumer behavior may not be relevant in
the study on CB w.r.t personal computers.
7. Proprietary & confidentiality barriers
may prevent access & free use of such data
desired by researcher.
> The above mentioned limitations should
not prompt the
researcher to blindly discard the use of
iiry data, especially if they are
readily available from authentic sources
and are also suitable or
adequate for the present study
> In that case, it will not be economical to
spend time, energy & money in

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field surveys for collecting primary
information.,
> At times, there may be wealth of usable
inform,. in the already available iiry data
which can be used by an intelligent
researcher but with due precaution.
Advantages of iiry data
1) Low cost of data collection. At times
they may offer insight and
relevant information which may be
sufficient to solve the marketing
problem.
Eg. Size of the market for a particular
product - the quality of the study may
preclude the need for a new primary
study
2) Saves time and helps in prompt
completion of research project.
3) Familiarity with the data may indicate
deficiencies, gaps & pitfalls in the

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previous study which may help refine
primary data collection process, study
design, survey design, data analysis in
the proposed research
4) As the researcher explores the
availability of secondary data relevant to
his project, his understanding of the
problem improves leading to some
changes in his original ideas.
5) iiry data can be used as a basis for
comparison with the primary data just
collected.

Sources of Secondary data
iiry data can be obtained internally i.e.
within the firm, or
externally i.e.,from one or more outside
agencies.
Internal Sources of iiry Data

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are those which are generated within the
firm.
Internal sources of iiry data
• Accounting Records.
• Sales Force Report
• Miscellaneous Reports
• Internal Experts
Accounting Records
Eg. Balance Sheet, P&L statements.,
measure performance & growth
Sales Invoices can give details of customer,
his address, items & quantity discounts
allowed, total sales in the regon / territory
during a period etc.
Sales Force Reports
In a proper format it can provide a wealth of
information, sales force can be encouraged
to provide accurate & comprehensive
information, their comments & remarks on

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the monthly sales, rapport with dealers &
retailers, competitive activity, etc.,
Miscellaneous Reports
Any study done on earlier marketing
problems of the company, special audits
etc.,
Internal experts
Product Managers, Marketing. Res.
Managers, PROs, Advertising Managers
may home specialized knowledge relevant to
marketingl problems.
External Sources of Secondary data
Govt. Publication
1) Registrar General of India – Population
Census Report
2) Central Statistical Organisation (CSO)–
Statistical Abstracts of
India. - Annual Survey of
industries

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- Estimates of National
Product savings & capital
formation

3) Planning commission reports -
Basic statistics relating to
Indian
economy
4) Reserve Bank of India Reports -
Wholesale price index
Non Government. Publication
1) Indian Cotton Mills Federation -
Statistics on cotton textile
industries
2) Stock exchange directories -
financial a/c, key profitability

ratios of listed companies
3) Bureau of Coffee Board -
Coffee production statistics

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4) Coir Board, Rubber Board, Silk Board
etc- Annual reports
5) The Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) -
Stats for iron or steel
I
ndustry
6) FICCI – Fed. Ind. Ch. Com & Industry.
Periodic Bulletins
IACC - Ind. Am. Ch. Comm
& Publications
ACCII – Ass. Ch. Comm. &Industry of
India

QUESTIONNAIRE
• It is a communication method
• It is a tool or instrument to gather
data from respondents in a survey
situation
• Definition

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A questionnaire is a set of questions
designed to generate the data necessary
to accomplish a research projects.
• Questionnaire can be classified into
four main types
i) Structured non disguised /direct
Questionnaire
ii) Structured disguised /indirect
Questionnaire
iii) Non -Structured non disguised
/direct Questionnaire
iv) Non-Structured disguised /indirect
Questionnaire
A structured Questionnaire is a formal
list of questions
• Framed so as to get facts
• The interviewer asks the questions
strictly in accordance with a
pre – arranged order.

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A structured Questionnaire is of two types
a) disguised and b) non – disguised
When the object or purpose of the survey is
revealed it is called
non – disguised type
When the object or purpose of the survey is
undisclosed / not revealed it is called as
disguised type
Structured non – disguised
Questionnaire is one when the listing of
questions is in a pre-arranged order and
where the object of enquiry is revealed to
respondent.
Most marketing research studies use this
type of questionnaire
Advantages of structured non – disguised
questionnaire or
Advantages of a questionnaire
1) It facilities the collection of information
in a systematic and orderly manner as

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the questions have been formulated in
advance
2) Since the questions asked by each
interviewer happens to be identical and
are asked in the same order, the
information is generally not distorted
on account of varying characteristics of
different interviewers.
3) A structures approach calls for a
straightforward and simple approach on
the part of interviewers . As such, even
less qualified interviewers can be
deployed in the survey.
4) Such a questionnaire makes it far
easier to edit, tabulate & interpret the
data.
5) Such a questionnaire can be pretested
so that suitable modifications can be
made in phrasing question or in the
sequence or both.

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LIMITATION
Such a questionnaire is not in a
position to elicit answers from
respondent re. motivation & personal
reasons for his behaviour. This is done
by disguised questionnaires in
qualitative studies.
Eg. In-depth interview

Characteristics of a good questionnaire
1) Has a good heading along with object
of enquiry clearly stated.
2) Carries necessary instructions
3) Well arranged sequence of questions
4) Elicits objective answers capable of
tabulation
5) Has clarity
6) Has limited no. of questions

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7) Has good format-size, appearance,
margin, spacing to look good on good
quality paper with good printing
motivating respondents to answer.
Objectives of a Questionnaire
1. It must translate the information
needed into a set of specific question
that the respondents can & will answer
2. It must motivate & encourage the
respondent to become involved, co-
operate & complete the interview.
3. It must minimize response error -
arising from inaccurate, misrecorded or
misanalysed answers.
Questionnaire Design process - Steps
STEP
1) Specify the information needed
2) Specify the type of interviewing method
3) Determine the content of individual
questions

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4) Design the questions to overcome the
respondents’ inability or unwillingness
to answer
5) Decide on the question structure
6) Determine the questions wording
7) Arrange the questions in proper order
8)) Identify the form & layout
9) Reproduce the questionnaire in limited
nos for pretesting
10) Eliminate bugs by pretesting and bulk
reproduction

1. Specify the information Needed.
(i) Review research questions, hypothesis
and objectives to ensure information to
be obtained addresses the problem.

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(ii) Prepare a dummy table to describe how
the analysis will be structured when the
data have been collected.
(iii) Check if questions match target group
eg. Questions for college student may be
inappropriate for housewives.
iv) Language – What language is the
respondent going to understand &
respond.
(iv) The questionnaire must be so
designed that it can be used in any
language.
Eg. A Questionnaire printed in English
could be administered to the
respondent in the local language he
speaks, by a trained interviewer who
records the answers in the
questionnaire.
2. Type of interviewing method

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In personal interviews, respondents see
the questionnaire & interact face to face
with the interviewer. Thus lengthy, complex
& varied questions can be asked.
In telephone interviews, respondents do
not see the questionnaire. Hence, questions
have to be short & simple.
Mail questionnaires are self administrated,
so questions must be simple & detailed
instructions must be provided.
E-mail Questionnaires also have to be
simple.
3. Individual Question content
Is the question necessary?
Eg. Questions unrelated to the problem.
Are several questions needed instead of
one eg. – Do you think Coca Cola is tasty &
refreshing soft drink? – incorrect double
barreled question
Instead 2 separate questions may be asked

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i) Do you thick Coca Cola is a tasty
drink?
ii) Do you think Coca Cola is a refreshing
drink?

4. Overcoming inability & unwillingness
to answer.
Is the respondent informed or familiar
with the topic ?
Eg – Asking husband about monthly
grocery bill when wife does the purchase.
Can the respondent remember
Eg- What did you have for lunch last week?
Can the respondent be expressive?
Eg- Describe interior of a dept. store you
would like to shop in?
Such a question may not get the desired
response if respondent is not expressive.
5. Choose question structure

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A. Unstructured Questions - Open-ended
questions that respondents answer in their
own words.
Eg- What is your occupation ?
----------------------
Why do you think people shop in
department stores.?-------------------
------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------
B. Structured questions
i) Multiple choice questions
Please tick the brand of Shampoo you
normally use.
a) Clinic, b) Chik, c) Sunsilk d) Head
& shoulder, e) Any other.
Please specify__________________-
ii) Dichotomous Questions – has only two
response alternatives.
Eg – Yes, No ; Agree, Disagree etc.

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Sometimes neutral alternative needs
to be included
Eg- Don’t Know, both or no opinion
Do you intend to buy a new car
within the next six months?
____yes’ _____No, _______ don’t know
iii) Scales
Do you intend to buy a new car within the
next six months?

Definitely Probably Undecided
Probably Definitely
Will not buy will not buy
will buy will buy
1 2 3 4
5

6. Choosing question wording
- avoid ambiguous words

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eg. Do you think distribution of soft
drink is adequate?
Instead: Have you ever faced out of
stock situation of Brand X soft
Drink ? Yes ; No ; This can be
further simplified
- use ordinary words
Simplify – Do you think soft drinks are
readily available when you want to buy
them?
- avoid leading questions
Do you think as a patriotic Indian you
should buy Gilette?
Better- When you buy a razor do you
choose Indian or Imported brands?
7. Determining order of questions
1. Opening questions should be
simple, interesting & check eligibility
of the candidate to answer questions

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Eg- Suppose the respondent is required
to be a graduate, then the opening
question can eliminate non graduates.
2. Difficult questions to be included
later & should be a few in number
3. Logical order – sequence and flow to
make interview smooth
4. Avoid crowding of questions that
confuse respondent
8. Format & layout
- Format, spacing & positioning should
be comfortable to read.
- Questionnaire may be in several parts
if long.
- Preferably it is best to have just one
page
9. Reproduction – in good quality paper
for pre-testing & main
Survey

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10. Pretesting – The testing of a
questionnaire on a small sample of
respondents for the purpose of
improving the questionnaire by
identifying & eliminating problematic
questions
> Misunderstood questions to be
reworded or eliminated.
> Length to be trimmed.
> Information content to be reviewed.

SCALES OF MEASUREMENT USED IN
BUSINESS/MKTNG RESEARCH

Nature and characteristic of Number
System
Nos. have certain basic properties.
First nos. follow a rank order
9 > 3, 12 < 24

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Second The difference or intervals
between pairs of nos can be
compared.
The Interval between 6 & 3 is the
same as the interval between 9 & 6.
The Interval between 36 & 24 is
twice the interval between 12 & 6.
Third We can divide one no by another
and interpret the relative
magnitudes of the two nos by the
resulting ratios.
6/3=2 Thus 6 is twice as large as 3.
12 is one third of 36 because
36x1/3=36/3=12
Fourth We can compute & interpret
numbers because the number
system has Unique Zero Point
The properties of numbers are of special
significance in the context of

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quantifying survey responses esp. when
measuring subjective aspects such an
emotions, attitudes etc on a scale.

Scale -A device constructed with a set of
members that serves as a yardstick or
means of measurement.
Measurement - is the assignment of
numbers to responses based on a set of
guidelines. Eg yes is 1 ; No is 2
Scaling Techniques.
 Marketing research is often concerned
with the behavior of consumers. They
want to assess their attitude to different
variables. Why is this important ?
1) If the attitude of the public towards a
company or its product is
unfavorable, the company cannot
survive too long.

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 So, a company should know public’s
attitude towards it. Also, the company
must ensure that people have a
favorable attitude towards its present
products/services.
 The company must also look into the
future to anticipate the preference of
the public.
 Thus, a study of attitudes becomes very
relevant to marketing researchers.
2) Attitudes also plays a major role in
advertising. A marketing
researcher would like to decide the copy
message the advertisement
should carry, how it should be conveyed,
the effective media that can
take this message to the consumer. Eg.
Complan with height, Junior
Horlicks with growth in intelligence with
an interesting storyline suited

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to TV
3) A manufacture may embark on an
attitude survey to reveal the likes &
dislikes of consumers towards certain
brands that would be helpful in
his product development.
Attitude The sum total of a person’s
inclination and feelings, prejudice or bias,
preconceived notions, ideas, fears, threats
and convictions about any specific topic.
Attitude is, therefore, a subjective and
personal opinion. Attitude influences
behaviour. Purchase decisions are based
upon attitudes. Attitudes can change over
time
Types of Scales / Scaling Techniques
There are basically four types of scales of
measurement or scaling techniques
1. Nominal Scales 2. Ordinal Scales
3. Interval Scales 4. Ratio Scales

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1. Nominal Scales
 Nominal sales are more widely used
than any other scale for research in
social sciences.
 In a nominal scale, numbers serve as
labels to identify persons, objects
events, different categories of responses
etc.
Eg. A. What is your gender 1. Male
( )
2. Female ( )
B. Which of the following influences
your purchasing decision the most.
1.TV ( ) 2.Radio ( ) 3.Print
media ( ) 4.Interntet ( )
C. Do you like ice cream? 1. Yes (
)
2. No ( )
4. Any set of nos can be used as
labels:-

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05 MBA 26 05 Signifies yearof
intake and 26 subject code of BRM
Arranging books in a library – Physics
48, Chemistry 92 etc
Room No 406 in a hotel signifies 4th
Floor 06 – room no.
Limitations
 Nominal scale is the simplest of the four
scales.
 It does not imply any ranking of the
responses.
 Only serves as labels
 The nos. do not have any arithmetic
origin ie., no zero origin. Hence no
mathematical operation is possible
 There is no distance relationship in
the scale employed. Hence, unsuitable
for determining relationships.
 However, Nominal Scales are useful in
research (esp. Exploratory). where

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broad dimensions (frequency) of
variables need to be determined.
ie., How many said YES, how many
said NO
 Statistical Implication: Calculation of
Std.Deviation and Mean is not possible.
Mode is the most appropriate central
tendency to determine the most
frequently checked response in nominal
scale.
2. Ordinal Scale /Order Scaled
Response.
Ordinal scales posses all the unique
characteristic of nominal scales plus
possess the property of rank order. Hence,
more powerful than nominal scales.
Eg. (1) Consider the followin Question
How long do you spend reading new papers
on a typical weekday ?

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A. Less than 5 min. Actual
response 40%
B. 5 min to less than 15 min. ---
do --- 20%
C. 15 min to less than 30 min. ----
do --- 25%
D. 30 min or more. ----
do --- 5%
Rearranging above and ranking them from
lowest to highest response rate, we have
1. D 5%
2. B 20%
3. C 25%
4. A 40%
Eg. (2) Five types of house holds with
monthly income
House hold A B C D E
Income 6 10 5 12 11
(Rs. ‘000)

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If the households are ranked highest to the
lowest we have
1 D Rs 12,000
2 E Rs 11,000
3 B Rs 10,000
4 A Rs 6,000
5 C 5,000
The point to emphasise here is that the
exercise is simply rank ordering lowest to
highest or highest to lowest the given
variable and does not reflect the internal
differences between the categories.
Consider another example where
acceptability of a soft drink is involved.
Scale %
Response
Ranking 2 I strongly like to
+2 10%
Lowest 4 I like it somewhat
+1 25%

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To Highest 3 I am indifferent
0 15%
5 I dislike it somewhat -1
45%
1 I strongly dislike it -2
5%
Please rank the following domestic airlines
from 1 to 5, being most preferred and 5
least preferred in terms of price.
Rank Respondents (nos)
Indian - 3 200
Spice jet - 2 250
Deccan - 1 300
Jet Airways - 4 150

Kingfisher - 5 100
Mode & Median 300
Two measures of central tendency are
meaningful for ordinal-scaled responses:
Mode & Median (category where 50th
percentile response falls)

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Difference between Nominal & Ordinal
Scale - In nominal scale numbers can be
interchanged as it serves the purpose of
only labeling and counting. Numbers in
Ordinal Scale have more meaning and
cannot be interchanged
3. Interval Scales
>This has all the properties of ordinal scale
plus the differences between
scale values can be meaningfully
interpreted.
>This characteristic makes interval scaled
responses more powerful
than nominal or ordinal scaled responses.
>Strictly speaking, variables such as
attitudes, opinions and preferences
cannot be quantified to yield exact
interval scales. However, within the
scale equal intervals are assumed between
categories.

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>So an a particular scale, equal differences
indicate equal differences in
value with regard to that scale only.
Eg- How likely are you to buy a new
automobile within the next six months?
(Please tick the most appropriate category)
1. Will definitely not buy
2. Extremely unlikely to buy
3. Unlikely to buy
4. Likely to buy
5. Extremely likely to buy
6. Will definitely buy
>Values assigned to this set of responses
run from 1 to 6 (these nos. can
also be in reverse) and strictly speaking
from only an ordinal scale.
>But they are considered to be interval
scale under the assumption that
respondents will see the connection
between adjacent responses and

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will treat the differences between
adjacent response categories as being
equal, especially since the categories are
physically separated by equal
distance.

>Unfortunately, verifying whether the
respondents perception of the
differences between adjacent response
categories are equal is very
difficult, if not impossible.
>However, the MR & BRM, such scales are
more often (than not) treated
as having interval properties. Consider
above eg: Response as follows
Resp. No. & %
Category of response
1 10 (5%)
2 10 (5%)
3 70 (35%)

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4 60 (30%)
5 20 (10%)
6 30 (15%)
200 100%
> Interval scales are more powerful than
nominal and ordinal scales.
> They are quicker to complete &
researchers find them more convenient
to apply.
>In a particular interval scale, equal
differences indicate equal
differences in value with regard to that
scale only.
>Numbers forming an interval scale, in
addition to possessing ordinal
scale attributes, permit computation of
the Mean and Standard.
Deviation.

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 In above example, the mode & median
are 3 & 4 respectively. The Mean is 3.8
on a scale of 1 to 6.
(It is assumed that the unit of
measurement is constant
throughout)
>Suppose, we administer the same question
to a different sample of
respondents with lower income levels than
the earlier sample. Say mean
is computed to be 1.9.
Although 3.8 is twice as large as 1.9. we
cannot say that the first
sample is twice as likely to buy a new
automobile than the second
sample.
-This is because, the starting or zero
point is arbitrary. Hence, the two
samples cannot be linked.

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-Compare with a thermometer that has a
common zero point for all the
measurements.
Workings = Calculation of Mean.
(1x10+2x10+3x70+4x60+5x20+6x30) /
200
= (10x20+210+240+100+180) / 200
= 3.8
2nd Sample response category
No & %
(1x120+2x40+3x10+ 1
120 (60%)
4x10+5x10+6x10) – 200 2
40 (20%)
=(120+80+30+40+50+60) 3 10
(5%)
= 1.9 4 10
(5%)
5 10 (5%)
6 10 (5%)

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200
(100%)
Statistical Implication: We can compute
mean, median, mode
Difference between Interval and Ordinal
Scale
Ordinal Scale gives only the ranking of the
alternatives, namely one is greater than the
other. Interval Scales provide information
about the difference between one and the
other
4. Ratio Scales
> Ratio Scales possess the power of the
preceding three scales plus the
concept of absolute zero or origin.
> Thus they have the order,
distance/interval and unique origin.
> Ratio scales are the most superior
amongst all the scales.

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> Quantified responses forming a ratio
scale analytically are the most
versatile.
>The ratio numbers on these scales have
meaningful interpretation.
>Data on certain demographic or
descriptive attributes, if they are
obtained through open ended questions,
will have ratio scale properties.
Consider following questions:
(i) What is your annual income before
taxes?
Rs. ________________
(ii) How far is your workplace from your
home?
_________________km.

Answer to these questions have a natural,
unambiguous starting point, namely zero.

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Since the starting point is not chosen
arbitrarily, as in interval scale, computing
& interpreting ratios make sense. In this
scale it is possible to say how many times
greater or smaller one object is compared to
the other
Eg. – A respondent earning Rs. 40,000 p.m.
is earning twice as much as a respondent
earning Rs. 20,000/- p.m.
>Non metric data - are data with only
nominal or ordinal properties
> Metric Data – are data with interval or
ratio properties
> The interval between nos. have precise
meaning for metric data but
not for non metric data

ATTITUDE SCALES
 Attitude is the predisposition of the
individual to evaluate some object or

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aspect of his world in a favorable or
unfavorable manner.
 Attitude Scales are sets of rating scales
constructed to measure
one or more dimension of an
individual’s attitude toward some
object (issue)
 Attitude scales are constructed using
Likert, Semantic Differential,
Paired Compassion & Thurston Scales
Criteria for a Good / Effective
scale
1. Reliability- A scale or test is said to
be reliable to the extent that repeat
measurements made by it under
constant conditions will give the same
result (assuming no change in attitude).
2. Validity – The scale measures what
it sets out to measure and any

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differences represent the true
differences.
3. Sensitivity-The scale’s ability to
detect subtle / minute differences in the
attitudes being measured.
It should have sufficient numbers range
to facilitate medasurement of fine
variations in attitude. This is achieved
better by a multi item scale.

1.Likert Scale
> It has an ordinal scale format .
> It enables ranking of attitude
> It consists of a series of attitude
related statements
(multi-item scale format)

Respondents are asked to rate these
statements on a 5 point item scale.

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Strongly Disagree Neither
Agree Strongly
Disagree agree
agree
Nor
Disagree
1 2 3
4 5
Maruti 800
is the best car ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
developed
by Maruti Udyog

It is light
but sturdy ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
to take on
bad roads in India

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It has got excellent
fuel efficiency ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )

It meets middle
class aspirations ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )

After sales service
is countrywide & ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
excellent

Cheaper R & M ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )

> The statements are separate ideas yet
linked to a common object
(see

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above example)
> Single – item scale formats have single
statement format.
>The central tendency of single statement
indicates the average attitude
> The central tendencies in multi-item
format gives a consolidated avge
> The central tendencies in multi – item
format gives a consolidated
average. The individual averages &
consolidated average may indicate a
pattern in the relationship – pictorial
profile.
> This is one of the widely used scales in
MR.
2.Semantic Differential Scale
> It is an Ordinal Scale similar to Likert
Scale.
> It consists of a series of items to be rated
– multi item scale.

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> Single item scale may be a stand alone
attitude statement.
> Items are presented as a bipolar adjective
phrases or words at two
extremes of the scale.
> The scale in – between may have 5 – 7
points.
> The respondent marks one category for
each scale that best represents
the attitude.
> A more common application of the
semantic differential scale is to
develop a pictorial profile of the attitude
based on mean ratings.
> The profiles exhibit the relative strengths
& weaknesses as perceived by
customers. This is one of the widely used
scales in marketing research.
Maruthi 800:

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1.Best car
Worst car

2.Sturdy car
Weak car

3Excellent Fuel
Worst Fuel
Efficiency
Efficiency
4
Meets
Doest not
Middle Class
Middle lass
aspiration
aspiration
5.Excellent
Worst

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After sales
After sales
Service
Service.
6.Cheap
Expensive
R&M R &
M
Thurston Scale
> It is an Ordinal Scale
> This applies the logic that attitudes are
best measured when
comparative statements are arranged one
below another in a sequence;
To get neutral statements towards
halfway point ; and
Extreme statements opposite in character
beyond the halfway point.
> The statements are arranged in 11 piles
for the final scale. These

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statements are distilled version of many
statements one would have
studied and finally short listed.
Eg Attitude towards TV commercials can
be studied by using Thurston
scale as follows:
Scale Value
1) All TV commercials should be prohibited
by LAW
2) Watching TV commercial is complete
waste of time
3) Most TV commercials are pretty bad
4) TV commercials are monotonous
5) TV commercial do not interfere with
regular TV watching
6) I have no feelings whatsoever
7) I like TV commercials at times
8) Most TV commercial are fairly
interactive

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9) I like TV to buy products advertised an
TV
10) Most TV commercials help people select
best products
11) TV commercials are fun to watch than
regular programmes

> Respondents are required to agree or
disagree with the statement.
> In a general trend if respondents agree
with statements of scale values 8,9 & 10,
they may disagree with 1, 2, 3, & 4. Neutral
positions will be 5, 6 & 7.

>Median of the item nos is calculated of 8, 9
& 10  favorably disposed
toward TV commercials
>1, 4, 7 & 11 agreement would indicate no
organized attitude toward TV
commercial

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> Not applied in MR frequently owing to
tedious procedure.

Disadvantage 1) Cumbersome to develop
2) Many bias can arise in
shortlisting & making
average statements
3) Degree of agreement or
disagreement is not
indicated.
Paired comparison scale
> This requires respondents to pick two
objects of a set with regard to an
attitude.
> A series of paired judgments between
objects is made by the
respondent on the basis of his
preference.
> Suppose the respondent is asked to show
his preference amongst

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Five brands of tea A, B, C, D, E with
respect to its flavor.
> He has to select one brand out of all
paired combination of the five
brands

A&B B&C C&D D&E
A&C B&D C&E
A&D B&E so, 10
paired comparisons
A&E n(n-1)÷ 2 = 5 (5-1) ÷ 2 = 10
> In each pair, the respondents are asked
to divide 100 points on the
basis of how much they liked one as
compared to the other eg.
between A & B liking, 60 points to A 40
points to B; between A & C
liking 70 points to A 30 points to C etc
>When combinations are large paired
comparison is not preferred. When

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There are 15 brands to be evaluated, we
will have 105 paired
Comparisons which is the major limitation
of this method

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