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The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef

!t ould be said"

‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬
#‫ا‬$‫د ي‬%

&‫ب*)& ال(' الرحمن الرحي‬
#hapter $ne" The %pee h" !&

+‫الكل‬

Definition" The 'rammarians defined spee h as the ompounded utteran e (hi h is ompletely meanin'ful in its synta ti al se)uen e* as per the Arabi usa'e a ordin' to some* or so lon' it is intentionally uttered a ordin' to others& The utteran e is the sound that is omprised of some of the alphabet* su h as +, ‫د‬- ‫زي‬ . ,* (hi h is a sound omprised of the letters +/‫زا‬, and +0‫يا‬, and +#‫دا‬,& -en e* the sound of a drum or a bird is ex luded& .ike(ise is ex luded* e/en (here meanin'ful* the si'nals* 'estures* (ritin'* si'n lan'ua'e and marks& #ompounded means omposed of t(o or more (ords* su h as + 1‫د‬ , ‫زي‬

. , ‫زيد‬ , and + & . ,& -en e* the sin'le (ords su h as + , ‫زيد‬, are , 3‫ا‬% ex luded& #ompletely meanin'ful in its synta ti al se)uen e means the meanin' is omplete for both the one (ho utters and the listener su h as ++ . ‫ا‬% , ‫زيد‬, (hi

. 2 + . ‫ا‬%

h informs about the standin' up of +‫يد‬ -‫ز‬ . ,& As per the Arabi usa'e means the non-Arabi spee h is ex luded su h as the spee h of the Turks and the Barbar& -o(e/er* a ordin' to some* it means it must be intentionally uttered* hen e* the spee h of the sleepin' person and the absent minded is ex luded& An example of (hat satisfies the four onditions is +, ‫ زيد‬+ . ‫ا‬%, and +& , 3‫ا‬% , ‫زيد‬,* for both are ompounded utteran es and are ompletely meanin'ful in their synta ti al se)uen e as per the Arabi usa'e for both the one (ho utters and the listener& +Table 0, Table 0
Ex luded the sound of drums* birds* marks* si'ns Ex luded +‫ زيد‬, and (hat is similar +‫زيد‬, ++‫ا‬% The sound omprised of some alphabet #omposed of t(o or more (ords +4‫ ال(ف‬, utteran e +78‫ المر‬, ompounded +56 +‫ الكل‬, %1EE#- !% #$M1R!%ED $2

‫ زيد‬, +‫زيد‬ & , 3‫ا‬% ,

0

& Table 3 %i'nifies a person alled 6ayd at all times +‫ زيد‬. = tense +F . and +#‫ دا‬.& !!!& The 1arts and %i'ns of the Noun* 5erb and 1arti le The parti le (hi h has si'nifi ation +‫لم@نى‬ ?@A. it indi ates a self alled Zayd irrespe ti/e of the past* present or future& The /erb +?@A. is a self-meanin'ful (ord deta hed of a time if the (ord atta hes to a past time item it is a perfe t tense +C‫@? ما‬A. is the parti h as +?6 .ا‬:9‫ا‬ ‫زيد‬ .* the /erb +? the parti le (hi h has si'nifi ation +‫لم@نى‬ 0‫ جا‬B‫حر‬ . meanin'ful noun (ord irrespe ti/e of the time element + +‫*ا‬%‫أ‬ 0‫ جا‬B‫ حر‬. is a self-meanin'ful (ord atta hed to a time element4 The noun +&>‫ا‬. and +0‫ يا‬.The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% Ex luded ++‫ا‬% ‫ان‬ +!‫. @A . A self+&>‫ ا‬. ‫ر‬ . and The spee h onsists of three parts" the noun +& .‫ ا=ر‬. Meanin'ful to one (ho utters and listener 1er Arabi usa'e or intentionally uttered +‫ المفيد‬. it means le +‫الكل‬ ‫ة‬I‫ل‬I. 3 .& +Table 3. it means in)uirin' and +&‫ ل‬. .* the imperati/e that has a meanin' su ne'atin'& -en e the letters of onstru tion of the (ords are ex luded su h as the +H‫ زا‬. +‫يا‬$‫ب‬ ‫ زيد‬.& An example of the t tense +F G ‫ر‬E‫ ي‬. >‫ ا‬.* and if it atta hes to a time that a epts the present or the future then it is an imperfe t tense +D!‫ا‬E‫@? م‬A. Ex luded the non-Arabi spee h su h as the spee h of Turks and Barbar and others Ex luded is the spee h of the sleepin' person and the absent minded !!& 1arts of the %pee h" . * the imperfe .* and if it atta hes to demandin' a matter in the future then it is an imperati/e tense +‫امر‬ perfe t tense is +F . that omprise the (ord +‫ زيد‬. element su h as +‫زيد‬. ompletely meanin'ful +<=5‫ بال‬.

. su h as +56 . A selfmeanin'ful (ord atta hed to the time element A (ord si'nifyin' a meanin' outside itself +?@A . ‫ر‬ . .‫م‬ . +&‫ ل‬. ambi'uous + +‫*ا‬%‫أ‬ -e +56 . is kno(n by +khafd" N‫ف‬:. &>9‫ا‬ ‫ة‬I‫ل‬I.* inexpli it +‫مر‬E‫ م‬. Table 8 7 . . The si'nifi an e of its meanin' is e/ident The si'nifi an e of its meanin' is hidden Re)uires a demonstrati/e pronoun that points to its meanin' +‫ر‬KL‫م‬ G . 3‫ا‬% . are three" expli it +‫ر‬KL‫ م‬. = +F G J‫ر‬E .* by the N‫ف‬O‫ال‬.‫ ي‬. and by +the parti les of khafd" B‫حرو‬ The noun +& G >9‫ا‬. expli it +‫ر‬ . E G .‫م‬ G . /erb The spee h onsists of three parts +0‫جا‬ B‫حر‬ ‫ لم@نى‬. +F . su h as + . .* by +tan(in" ‫ين‬5‫"ن‬. su h as +‫ زيد‬. Arti le (hi h has si'nifi ation -en e* the spee h does not 'o beyond there three parts* ho(e/er it does not ha/e to be omposed of al three* for it may be omposed of t(o nouns su h as +& .The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% 1erfe t imperfe t imperati/e !n)uisiti/e ne'atin' +F .. ‫ زيد‬.‫ا=ر‬ +?6 .* and ambi'uous + .& Table 7 Zayd +‫ زيد‬.& The parts of the noun +&>9‫ ا‬. . ‫م‬ inexpli it + &K. addition of +the arti le of definition" #‫أ‬. The parts of the noun are three This + ‫ا‬M6.

8!. A spe ifi han'e of the end of the (ord denoted by kasrah or its a'ents The attribution of a )uies ent un(ritten +n"‫ ن‬.The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% +P‫يد‬Q‫ ب‬R!‫مر‬. ‫ي‬$‫ ل‬P &‫ري‬8 ? G !F Z !." amon' its meanin's is endin'" +‫ة‬ +‫لى‬ J A5‫ الى الك‬W‫ر‬X.د‬8 . Addition of arti le of definition +B‫ حرو‬#5:‫د‬ N‫ف‬O‫ ال‬. +F! . the arti le of definition The addition of the parti les of khafd +N‫ف‬O‫ ال‬.ا‬.‫ من ال‬R‫ر‬A‫>ا‬. .in'uisti ally* + the tan(in ‫ين‬5‫ التن‬. . su h as +‫ن‬ ." amon' its meanin's is to 'o beyond" +Y J 5$‫ال‬ . The si'ns of the noun +#‫ أ‬#5:‫ د‬. ‫ن‬S & . +?‫ الرج‬. ‫ا‬. addition of the parti les of khafd The parti les of khafd are" +‫ن‬ J A5‫ الى الك‬W‫ر‬X. ‫ زيد‬. + T ‫ زيدا‬U‫رب‬V . The khafd +‫ين‬5‫ "ن‬." amon' its meanin's is time or spa e )ualifier" +‫ز‬5‫ى الك‬A 0‫ الما‬. K*‫ ال‬U G ‫ !مي‬. at the be'innin' su h as + 8 . . is the soundin'4 the soundin' of the bird is alled Tan(in& Te hni ally it is the a t of arti ulatin' a )uies ent +nun" ‫ن‬. The tan(in +‫ين‬5‫ التن‬.S! the infle ted +nun" ‫ن‬. at the end of a noun (ithout (ritin' it* but it is expressed by doublin' the fathah* kasrah or dammah* su h as +P ‫يد‬Q‫ ب‬R G !‫ \ مر‬T ‫ زيدا‬U‫ \ !أي‬. Tan(in +&>9‫ ا‬R‫لما‬S .‫ال‬ ‫ة‬ J A5‫الك‬. J ‫(ى الفر‬S U +‫ى‬A .‫ من ال‬R‫ر‬A‫>ا‬.* the +nun" ‫ن‬." re)uires the /erb of adjuration" +'(‫& بال‬ J %‫ ا‬." amon' its meanin's is resemblan e" +! J ‫ال. G ‫الما‬.& -en e* ex luded are . J . +0‫ ال. +B‫ الكا‬. +‫(ى‬S. that atta hes to the end of the (ord The addition of +#‫أ‬ ." amon' its meanin's is o(nership" +P ‫ ازيد‬# Add to those the parti les of adjuration" +&*$‫ ال‬B‫ حرو‬. ] . P ‫ج‬ +0‫ ال.‫م‬ +‫ن‬S . +' J (‫وال‬2 [1 ‫او‬5‫ ال‬. ‫ زيد‬0‫جا‬. + ‫ من‬R‫ر‬A‫>ا‬ ‫ الى‬W‫ر‬X." amon' its meanin's is statin'" +‫ة‬ ." amon' its meanin's is de reasin'" +'‫ت‬ ." amon' its meanin's is passin' by" +P ‫يد‬Q‫ ب‬R G !‫ مر‬.ا‬. G * +' J (‫"ال‬2 [1 0‫ التا‬." amon' its meanin's is abo/e ness" +Y G . ++‫الل‬.

5$(d‫ح ال‬ .& 8& The tan(in of indefiniteness +‫ين التنكير‬5‫"ن‬. G ‫الرو‬.& The nouns that are not a ? ted upon by tan(in are stron' rooted in the 3& The tan(in of e)ui/alen e +‫اب(ة‬$‫الم‬ ‫ين‬5‫"ن‬." it atta hes to +`a.* the +nun" ‫ن‬." su h as + R G !‫مر‬ not atta h& 3& Nominal and ompounded a ronym +‫جى‬Q‫الم‬ nominati/e ase but not more founded su h as + &‫ي‬6‫ابرا‬. 5‫ الم*(م‬0‫جا‬. in the sound mas uline plural +‫ن‬ .& !t is a repla ement for a statement4 Allah said +P Mb‫وأنت& حين‬ ‫رون‬L‫"ن‬. G S. of onfirmation su h as +‫لن*ف@ن‬." it atta hes to the infle ted nouns& Those nouns that are a ted upon by tan(in are said to be stron' rooted in the nominati/e ase and more founded in it than others su h as + .* so the statement ++ G ‫ الرو‬U ." it atta hes to the sound feminine plural +&‫جم< الم^ن_ ال*ال‬. ‫زيد‬.0‫جا‬ .* and the tan(in in it is e)ui/alent to the +nun" ‫ن‬.* hen e tan(in does not J ‫ا‬S atta h& 7‫ي‬8‫تر‬G ‫ال@(مية وال‬.* and the ori'in of the statement is +U J c(‫` ب‬a ‫وأنت& حين‬ ‫رون‬L‫ "ن‬+ J c(‫ب‬.& 7& The tan(in of repla ement +C5@‫ين ال‬5‫"ن‬.* it is a noun and ompounded from other (ords* hen e tan(in does not atta h& 7& Nominal and on/ersion +#‫ال@(مية وال@دو‬. in the middle su h as +‫منك*ر‬." 9 . .* and those that are not a ted upon by tan(in are definite +‫ة‬A‫م@ر‬. and (hat is indefinite +W‫نكر‬. in +P Mb‫م‬5‫ي‬. and + ‫احمد‬." There are nine ases that finder the tan(in from atta hin'& Ea h ase onsists of t(o ases ex ept for one (here one ause a ts for t(o& 0& Nominal and non-Arabi + ‫مى‬e@ G ‫ال@(مية وال‬.‫ >ي‬0 The auses that prohibit the tan(in + ‫ين‬5‫ان< التن‬5‫م‬. . and + ." su h as +‫مر‬ . is a noun and non-Arabi * therefore tan(in does su h as +g‫\ ب@? ب‬F‫مد يكر‬d‫م‬.& The tan(in +‫ين‬5‫التن‬. ‫ م*(ما‬R0‫جا‬.& J ‫ي‬5. 5$(d‫ح ال‬ (as eliminated and a tan(in (as atta hed in its pla e and it be ame +P Mb‫حين‬.* and the li'ht +nun" ‫ن‬. su h as +' P ‫ي‬5.& The nouns that are a ted upon by tan(in are indefinite + W‫نكر‬. ‫!ج‬. ‫جا‬.‫ >ي‬.& &‫ي‬6‫ابرا‬2 f1& . ‫ي‬6‫بابرا‬. su h as +' . has four ases" 0& The tan(in of foundation" + ‫ين التمكين‬5‫"ن‬." it atta hes to the noninfle ted nouns to distin'uish bet(een (hat is definite +‫ة‬A‫م@ر‬.* it is a noun and it is said to be on/erted from +‫مر‬ .The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% ‫ر‬ . and +P Mb‫حيت‬. *‫انك‬. su h as +R .

are nouns that bear the 'rammati al forms of /erbs +?‫@ي‬A \?@‫@?\ يف‬A‫ا‬.‫ح‬ h as +‫(ى‬ and su h as +‫ م*اجد‬. and +nun" ‫ن‬. added to it& Nominal and the feminine ase +_‫ني‬i‫ ال@(مية والت‬.(. e . . su h as +F . ‫باحمد‬. then it is infle ted* or after +#‫ أ‬.& The (ord +‫ر‬ . or the ma)sur for endin' in a lon' /o(el alif* ‫ى‬K‫ة منت‬c‫ي‬V. Gi‫ب‬. and +0 .& These latter t(o forms are alled the form refle tin' ultimate plurality +D5‫م‬e‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ." su .& !f the (ord is annexed su h as +&‫(ك‬ J EAi‫ب‬ R!‫مر‬ .." su h as +R!‫مر‬ ‫ الف و‬W‫ال@(مية و زياد‬. su h as +F ." su and has alif and nun added to it* hen e tan(in does not atta h to it& <& Adje ti/e and on/ersion +#‫=@ية و ال@د‬5‫ال‬. that ha/e the mamdud form of endin' in a lon' alif +‫ا‬$‫ م‬+5$" ‫(ة‬S.‫ أ‬. des ribes a meanin' ti/e G ‫ر‬ . is an adje . = +the imperfe t" D!‫ا‬E‫الم‬.& The /erb is of three tenses only" +the perfe t" ‫الما=ى‬." su h as +‫مان‬hS2 1‫ن‬ . ‫م‬j‫بفا‬. ‫ابي‬X‫ م‬.& : . are . .‫ا=ر‬. and the +imperati/e" ‫ر‬ G ‫م‬9‫ا‬. ‫ أ‬. ‫ حمرا‬. that ha/e the form of +?S‫مفا‬ . or +?‫ي‬S‫ مفا‬.& Adje ti/e and addition of alif and nun +‫و‬ ‫ن‬5‫ن‬." su h as +R!‫مر‬ ‫ الف‬W‫فية و زياد‬V5‫ال‬ h as +‫ن‬ . su h as +F G J‫ر‬E .& The (ord +‫>كران‬. or after +#‫ أ‬. ‫ ب*كرا‬R!‫مر‬. : G . and +k . the . and +‫ر‬e6. ‫يد‬Q‫ وي]كر وي‬. :‫أ‬ . .* hen e tan(in does not atta h& ontained in others and it is said to be on/erted from +/‫ر‬ . ‫ر‬ ." su h as +R!‫مر‬ ‫ة‬d(j2 1 ‫مة‬j‫ا‬A2 f1 ‫ر‬ .& The element of prohibition of tan(in is appli able if the (ord does not fall as an annexation +‫ة‬A‫ ا=ا‬. .The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% 8& Nominal and addition of alif and nun +‫ن‬5‫ن‬ 9& nouns in the feminine ase* hen e tan(in does not atta h to them& :& Nominal and /erb form +?@‫ال@(مية ووزن الف‬.* hen e tan(in does not atta h to them& .& All these +‫يد‬Q‫احمد\ ي]كر\ ي‬. j‫ة و‬ . is a noun and it has an +alif" ‫الف‬. ‫ما‬h@‫ ب‬R G !‫مر‬. the plural of +/‫ر‬:‫ أ‬. G =& $ne ause a tin' for t(o + ‫(تين‬S follo(ed by a ham6ah +0 feminine ase of +‫ر‬: . su h as + ? J EA9‫وا‬ . : .6‫ة و‬d . . ‫ي‬.

‫ ا=ر‬. & The )uies ent + G 5$‫ ي‬B R . 5> .& Table : +‫د‬%.* or to denote the in ident has just happened su h as +G W‫ل‬X‫ ال‬U J ‫ام‬% ‫د‬%.‫ ي‬. imperati/e ++‫*ا‬%‫ا‬ . is used (ith the imperati/e tense to denote the in ident (ill happen later in the future su h as +. ‫ا‬% ‫د‬%. is used (ith the imperfe t tense to denote the in ident (ill happen shortly after su h as +..4 also it is used (ith the imperfe t tense to denote little in o urren e su h as +G ‫د‬5e‫د ي‬% G ‫ي‬d.& +‫ال*ين‬. The parts of the /erb are three& ‫ة‬I‫ل‬I ?@‫الف‬ +F . ‫ند‬6 U . = +F G J‫ر‬E . ‫ زيد‬+ G 5$‫>ي‬.* or to denote fre)uent in o urren e su h as +G ‫د‬5e‫د ي‬% ? & G ‫الكري‬. Denotes an in ident that is and o/er (ith& Denotes an in ident takin' pla e no( and in the future& Denotes an in ident demanded in the future& +C P ‫ ما‬. of the feminine 'ender& done and o/er (ith su h as +. )uies ent +R . .The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% Table 9 +F . ‫ا‬% . ‫ر‬ . ‫ زيد‬+ . ‫زيد‬ The /erb is kno(n by +B5>2 \1 ‫ال*ين‬2 \1 ‫د‬% . imperfe t +‫ امر‬. is used (ith the perfe t tense to denote an in ident assumin'ly . and the + .‫م‬ . perfe t +D!‫ا‬E‫ م‬. .‫ال‬.& +B5> . . of the feminine 'ender is used (ith the perfe t tense to denote the feminine 'ender su h as +.

)ad +R‫لما‬S ?@‫الف‬.* and a part spe ifi to the nouns su h as +P ‫يد‬Q‫ب‬ /erbs su h as +.‫د ال‬5e‫ي‬ l2. as Al--ariri indi ated in +‫ة‬d(G‫م‬ R!‫مر‬ . l2 1‫د‬ . sin +B5>. ‫ زيد‬F . )uies ent +R. ‫? زيد‬6 . -------------------shortly after& + . $ urren e done by feminine 'ender +U . ‫ زيد‬+ . >ith imperfe t it denotes +0. less fre)uent to happen +‫د‬% 1?‫ي‬O. ‫ زي‬+‫ا‬%.The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% >ith perfe t it denotes +0. ‫ا‬% ?6 . $ urren e later in the future + -------------------?sed (ith the imperfe ts tense ?sed (ith the imperfe t tense +‫ال*ين‬. more fre)uent o urren e + ‫د‬% &‫د الكري‬5e‫ي‬. has happened shortly before& + The si'ns of the /erb U‫ام‬% ‫د‬% W‫ل‬X‫ال‬. ‫ زيد‬+5$‫>ي‬.‫ام‬% ?sed (ith the perfe t tense +0‫"ا‬ . 3‫ا‬% . #5:‫د‬ _‫ني‬i‫الت‬ ‫نة‬8‫ال*ا‬. assuredly done and o/er +‫د‬% ?sed (ith the perfe t and imperfe t tenses +‫د‬%. ‫ند‬6.& Moreo/er* neither the si'ns of the noun nor the si'ns of the /erb apply to the parti le& -en e the si'n of the parti le is a no si'n" +‫دمية‬S. sa(fa +5$‫ ي‬B5> .‫ر‬E‫ ل& ي‬. ‫زيد‬. The parti le is also of three parts* one part is ommon to the nouns and the /erbs su h as +. and +& .* and a part spe ifi to the < .

The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan Translated by Riad Na hef !t ould be said" ‫شرح الجرومية‬ ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬ ‫ناشف‬ ‫"رجمة !يا‬ #‫ا‬$‫د ي‬% ‫(ى‬S n$A ‫لمة‬S '‫ ل‬U*‫ ما لي‬B‫ر‬d‫ و ال‬1F‫را‬Sm‫ا‬ Z S ‫لى "كن‬5% ‫لمة‬ = .