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RESEARCH DESIGN 1*25=25 Marks.

FILL IN THE BLANKS: 1. A ____________ is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data for research purpose. 2. The research design is the ___________ structure within which research is conducted. 3. The ____________ which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study. 4. The _____________ which relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be made. 5. The ______________ which concerns with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analysed. 6. The ______________ which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational designs can be carried out. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER: 7. Which research are those studies concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. a. Exploratory, b. Diagnostic, c. Descriptive, d. Experimental. 8. Who is associated with experimental designs? a. C.WilliamEmory, b. Charles E. Osgood, c. R.A. Fisher’s, d. G.B. Giles. 9. “Marketing Research – A Management Information Approach” is done by a. Jagdish N. Sheth, b. Danny N. Bellenger and Barnett, c. Paul E. Green, d. Jum C. Nunnally. 10. Exploratory research studies are also termed as ______ research studies. a. Formulative, b. Bibliographical, c. Flexibility, d. Practical. 11. The Principle of Local Control is another important principle of ______ design. a. Research, b. Diagnostic, c. Exploratory, d. Experimental. 12. Which involves only the principle of replication and the principle of randomization of experimental design ? a. R.B. design, b. L.S. design, c. C.R. design, d. After–only with control design.

TRUE OR FALSE: 13. In the research design, the population is not to be studied. 14. The relationship between the dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable. 15. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. 16. According to the principle of Replication, the experiment should not be repeated more than once. 17. Experimental design refers to the framework or structure of an experiment. 18. & is not a formal Experimental design.

MATCH THE FOLLOWING: 19. Hypotheses 20. Good design 21. ** 22. Extraneous variable(s) 23. Agricultural operation 24. Descriptive studies 25. Latin squares design A. Efficient B. Discrete variable C. ’Insight - stimulating’ D. Experimental design E. Agricultural research F. Confounded relationship G. Sample analysis

1. Research design, 2. Conceptual, 3. Sampling design, 4. Observational Design, 5. Statistical design, 6. Operational design, 7. C, 8. C, 9. B, 10. A, 11. D, 12. C, 13. F, 14. T, 15. T, 16. F, 17. T, 18. F, 19. C, 20. A, 21. B, 22. F, 23. D, 24. G, 25. E. Note: 13-18-- F- false, T- True

Research design: It can be defined as the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to be relevant to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Features: 1) It is plan that specify the sources and type of information relevant to the research problem 2) It is a strategy specifying which approach will be used for gathering and analyzing the data 3) Also includes the time and cost budgets since most studies are done under these 2 constraints Important concepts relating to the research design: Example 1) Research Problem: find out the effectiveness of marriage? Marital problem Dependent variable: Increase (Financial constraint considered) Independent variable: Decrease (Financial constraint not considered) 2) Research problem: Based on Education Dependent: Personal knowledge Commitment Faculty Resources Stationery Independent variable: Friends Food Director Parents Environment Need for Research Design: Benefits of a research design: a) It acts as a bridge between the final objective and the method of study to achieve the objective. b) It anticipates the client requirements in terms of result and helps in proper data analysis.

c) Research design is particularly helpful in researcher identify the type of data that needs to be obtained for conducting the research. d) Research design will act has a guidance for effective research and will be more beneficial e) Unless the research design is developed the research cannot have a clear idea about what she\he needs to do? Experimental and control groups: While conducting the experimental hypothesis testing research, if the group is studied under usual condition. When the group is studied under situational condition is known as experimental group. Treatment refers to the conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subjected. Experiment: the process involving the checking the validity of a hypothesis statement of a research problem is called an experiment. Experimental units: Pre specified plots or blocks, where various treatments are used is called as experimental units. Research hyphothesis: A research hypothesis is one that links an independent variable to a dependant variable. It should generally contain one dependant and one independent variable Experimental design: Three types: a) Principle of replication The experiment should be repeated more than once. By doing this the statistical accuracy of the experiment is increased For example: suppose we have to examine the effect of two varieties of life, for this purpose – we may divide the field into 2 parts and grow one variety in one part and other variety in other parts We can compare the yield of the two parts and draw conclusion on that basis. But if we have to apply the principle of replication to this experiment to this experiment that we first divide the field into several parts grows one variety in half of this part and the other variety in the remaining part. We can then collect the data of yield on two varieties and draw conclusion on comparing the same. b) Principles of randomization a. It indicates that we should design are plant experiment in such a way that the variations caused by extraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of chance. b. For example: one variety of rice, say in the first half of the parts of the field and the other variety is grown in the other half, then it is just possible that the soil fertility may be different in the first half in comparison to the other half.

c. In this situation, we may apply randomization principle against the effect of extraneous factors (soil fertility differences) c) Principles of local control a. The extraneous factor, known factor of variable is made deliberately over as wider range as necessary. And this need to be done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured and hence eliminated from the experimental error. b. For example: we divide the field in to several homogenous parts known as blocks. Then, each such block is divided into parts equal to the number of treatments. c. Then the experiments are conducted on these parts of blocks d. It can eliminate the variability due to extraneous factors from the experimental error. Experimental design: two broad classifications 1) Formal ED a. Formal ED offer relatively more control and use précised statistical procedure for analysis. (4 Types) I) Completely randomized design II) Randomized block design III) Latin square design IV) Factorial design 2) Informal ED Informal ED is used to less sophisticated form of analysis based on differences in magnitude. (3 Types) Type1: Before and after without control design or One group pretest & post test design: In such a design, a single test group or area is selected and dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment. The treatment is then used and the dependent variable is measured again after the treatment has been used. The effect of the treatment would be equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus the level of the phenomenon before the treatment. Test Area: = Level of phenomenon before the treatment (X) ___________ Level of phenomenon after the treatment(Y) = Y – X Dis-advantages: the used extraneous variable are largely un controllable is the main difficulty faced in the treatment of the above process Type 2: After – only with control design or static group design In this design 2 groups are selected and the treatment is introduced in the test area only. The dependent variable is measured in both the areas at the same time; treatment is impact is assessed by subtracting the value of the dependent variable in the control area from its value in the test area. Formula: I) Before and after with control design – 1. Also known as pre- test & post- test control group 2. Two area are selected and dependent variable are measured in both the areas for an identical time period

before the treatment, the treatment is then introduced in the test area and the dependent variable is measured in both for an identical time period after the introduction the treatment, the treatment effect is determined by subtracting the change in the control area from the change in the dependent variable in the test area 3. Formula: Result = (O2 – O1) – (O4 – O3) Benefit: 1) Extraneous variable This design is superior to others because it avoids extraneous variations resulting both from the passage of time and from non-comparability of the test and control areas. Formal: Type 1: The principals of replication and randomization are used. The essential characteristics of design the subjects are randomly assigned to experimental treatments, here one way ANOVA is used to analyze such a design. Even un – equal replications can also work in the design. It provides maximum number of degrees of freedom to error. Two groups simple randomized design: the population is first defined and from the population a sample is selected randomly. So this selected sample at random is assigned to the experimental or the control groups. Random Replication design: it provides controls for the differential effects of the extraneous independent variable and it randomizes any individual differences among those conducting the treatments. Type 2: Randomized block design Drug store Store 1 5 7 General stores 3 4 6 Provisional stores 10 9 8

The distribution of drug to different locations will vary (price – Vary) In randomized design, subjects are divided into groups; known has blocks, such that within each group the subjects are relatively homogenous in respect to some selected variables. The subject given in each block would be equal to one subject in each block would be randomly allocated for each Treatment. The main feature of the randomized block design is that, in this each treatment appears the same no of times in each block. The block can be analyzed by the 2way ANOVA. It can be used, when the researcher fells that there is one major extraneous variable that will experimental research. Limitations: Using this design 2 effects can be defined, he main effect and the interaction

The main effect refers to the average effect of the particular treatment on the dependent variable regardless of extraneous variable. The interaction effect refers to the Latin square design: