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Arabic Grammar

APPENDIX B: A BRIEF JOURNEY THROUGH ARABIC GRAMMAR You will cover the basics of the following topics in this Part. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Subject and Predicate………………………… 19 Masculine and Feminine Genders…………… 20 Numbers: Singular, Dual, and Plural……… 22 Adjective and its Noun………………………… 23 The Possessive Case or Genitive………………24 Interrogatives ………………………… ……… 26 Pronouns………………………………………… 26 The Prepositions…………………………………29 Subject, Verb, and Object………………………30 The Tense…………………………………………31 10a. Past Tense ………………………………… 31 10b. Imperfect Tense ………………… ……… 34 10c. Imperative and Negative Imperative…… 37 10d. Derived Forms of the verb ……………… 42

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Arabic Grammar

1. Subject and Predicate       
Allah is creator. Muhammad (peace be upon him, pbuh) is prophet. Tariq is Mujahid (one who struggles) The sentences like these are composed of a subject and a predicate which are called in Arabic. To translate such sentences into Arabic, just put Tanveen ( words (in case they are singular masculine). Tanveen ( double dhammah. Allah is creator. Muhammad (pbuh) is Prophet. Tariq is a Mujahid. 

  and 

) on each of these

) is also known as double pesh or 

  U             
religion one scholar

************************ Vocabulary for Lesson No. 1 ************************ creator prophet one who struggles house 

     

big mg. slave pious truthful  

 

======================= Exercises for Lesson No. 1 ======================= Using the words and their meanings given above, translate the following sentences into English. The translation is also provided to help you check your answers. The house is big. The slave is pious. The Muslim is truthful. 

   \      \     \

Islam is a religion. Allah is one. Javeed is a scholar 

   \  U     

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For example. 5. If the is used to imply generality also.  in front of a common noun in Arabic just as we put  is attached to an Arabic word.20 Arabic Grammar 2. for e. lies the rule. then its   (predicate) will also be feminine. Arabic has two genders. Masculine and Feminine Genders You must have heard the Arabic names. we (Tanveen or double pesh).     (subject) is feminine.. (dhamma or pesh) from the two         \         \       \ (the human 4.e. 20 . 2. For "the" in front of a common noun in English. To make a specific reference. For e..     X    X   for a girl.    \ X    \ Additional rules for making feminine gender of dual and plural nouns are given in the following lesson.  X    X     X                     Notes: 1.. masculine gender and feminine gender.g. Just put For example. There is no common gender in Arabic. the prefix being). we put (in general) as the last letter of the word. There for a boy and at the end of a masculine (singular) word to make it feminine (singular).g. When remove one of example. Occasionally. A common sign of a feminine word is 3. i.

beautiful fg. worshipper  X       mg.21 Arabic Grammar ************************ Vocabulary for Lesson No. small mg. intelligent uncle (father's brother) aunt (father's sister)         X  uncle (mother's brother) aunt (mother's sister) mg. 2 ************************ mg. big mg. The uncle is big. The sister is intelligent.X The father is pious. The son is beautiful. beautiful son daughter father mother sister X   X        ======================= Exercises for Lesson No. The uncle is truthful. 21 . small fg. 2 ======================= Find out the masculine and feminine words in the following sentences and translate them into English. big fg. The mother is pious. worshipper fg. The son is small. X     \     \    \ X   \   \   \ The brother is intelligent. The daughter is small. truthful brother mg. The translation is also provided to help you check your answers. The aunt is big.   \ X    \   \ X   \     \     \ The daughter is beautiful. The aunt is truthful.

). and plural forms of a word. 3 ******************* Try to practice the rules of making dual and plural by reproducing the above table for the following words (both for masculine and feminine case): hypocrite patient scholar pious protector         X  believer helper one who struggles killer one who prostrates         X   disbeliever worshipper one remembers truthful prophet who       22 . (Yes.                                         X       V    Y      Gender mg.). The plural form depends upon the context in which it is used. fg. mg. fg. mg.). when used as object with Kasra ( . when the noun is used with preposition ******************* Vocabulary & Exercises for Lesson No. Solid Plural (   B ) and Broken Plural ( \  B ). as shown below (for the Solid Plural case only): 'Aaraab forms ↓ Plural Dual Singular          with Dhamma ( . fg. dual is a separate and distinct Number in Arabic). There are two types of plurals in Arabic. Dual and Plural   \   There are specific rules in Arabic for making singular.22 Arabic Grammar 3. dual. Numbers: Singular.  when used as subject with Fatha ( .

if the first word is dual or plural. the second should also be feminine. Further.e. we will have: the true Muslim the small book the big mosque And remember. then the second will also have attached to it. the second should also be dual or plural in number. The tanveen could be depending upon the context in which this phrase is used.23 Arabic Grammar     4. as in case of \    \  \   \  \    \        the pious person the trustworthy uncle the beautiful house  \  \  \  \   \    \ (subject and predicate). Adjective and its Noun   Look at the following phrases and their translations: a true Muslim a small book a big mosque             a pious person a trustworthy uncle a beautiful house   X     X           (the noun of the   or and or These phrases are said to be composed of (adjective) and adjective). and 2: If the first word is attached with For e. The rules are similar to those of        (subject and predicate) except that in case of    : . For example: the true Muslim man the true Muslim men \    \  \     \ the true Muslim woman the true Muslim women \     \ \     \ 23 . 1: The order of the words is reversed. the two words should agree in gender and number with respect to each other. i. if the first word is feminine. just reverse the order of the words (Muslim then true  ) and put tanveen ( ) on each of them.. To translate these into Arabic.g. using the same phrases given above.

The uncle is pious. ) and for adjective and its     The house is big. The path is straight. 24 . To convey the meanings of "of.24 Arabic Grammar ==================== Exercises for Lesson No. we will have single kasra ( . if the second word has attached with it.) on the second word. 3.) on the first word and double kasra ( .   \      \     \          \ X    \ the big house the pious slave the truthful Muslim the straight path the pious uncle the pious aunt  \  \     \    \     \        \ 5. The first noun called   \  in the sentence U  \  is called . The Muslim is truthful. 4 ==================== Try to translate the following sentences and phrases. which should always be a proper noun. The Possessive Case or Genitive    Look at the following phrases and their translations: the creation of Allah the nation of Hud the command of the Qur'an Notes:       U  \     \  \  the house of Allah the call of the prophet the creation of Allah U        U  \  1. The slave is pious.) on the second word." we place Dhammah or pesh ( .). As usual. The second noun U is  . then instead of double kasra ( . 2. Notice the difference in Arabic construction for a simple sentence ( noun (       ). The aunt is pious.

The construction of and and  automatically takes care of the " 's " automatically implies specific person or or "of" (Allah's creation OR the creation of Allah) as shown in the above examples. The translation is also provided to help you check your answers.25 Arabic Grammar 4. system messenger doubt human being remembrance the most beneficent   X     \      to obey parents earth ======================= Exercises for Lesson No. *********************** Vocabulary for Lesson No. the words of Allah the establishment of  U prayer the obedience to the book of Allah   \   U parents the earth of Allah the way of the U    messenger the rebellion of the the doubt of the      \   people human being the house of the the remembrance of  `\    \ hereafter the most Beneficent. the food of the the grace of Allah  b\   U  sinner the house of Hamid the day of judgement         25 . In Arabic the construction of 5. 5 *********************** grance rebellion the people house hereafter food sinner X day judgement to establish the prayer    X X  words way. 'the' is always added in English translation of this phrase.  thing. Therefore. 5 ======================= Translate the following into English.

pl. dl. sr. Relative Pronouns Relative Pronoun Demonstrative Pronoun   \   (The one) who (The two) who (Those) who (The one) who (The two) who (Those) who  \   Number sr. Interrogatives  7             Who What Which (masculine) Which (feminine) How When Where Why How much. dl. Pronouns   7a.26 Arabic Grammar 6.  pl. 26 . How many Is? Am? Are? Do?          X       Have? 7. Gender      That Those (two) Those (more than two) That Those (two) Those (more than two)     \    This These (two) These (more than two) This These (two) These (more than two) mg. fg.

fg. dl. sr.. dl.. dl. dl. your your (of two) your my you you two you all I sr. sr. fg.27 Arabic Grammar 7b. pl. pl. sr. person dl. mg. Gender Person                                                         they two they she they two they you you two you all pl. 3rd person pl. mg. mg. pl 2nd person fg. NOTE: Memorize these pronouns thoroughly because they occur quite often in the Qur'an. 1st mg. fg. me our   we sr. Personal and Possessive Pronouns Examples on pronouns his book their house their belief her mother their house their house your book your house your messenger your house your book your house my book gave me rizq our book Possessive Pronouns his their (of two) their her their (of two) their your your (of two) you he Personal Pronouns No. 27 .

for him towards me towards them (females) for us verily you (males) your hearing verily we my house for them my relatives     X                   28 .28 Arabic Grammar ************************ Vocabulary for Lesson No. She is righteous. your tongue my son I helped him from you towards us towards them (males) from you our Lord your Lord our messenger                            You are a scholar. I am a believer. 7 ************************ Companions Shop from son    hearing relatives I helped Sustainer. 7 ======================= He is a Muslim. Lord  X   and for Verily tongue   ======================= Exercises for Lesson No.

The Preposition    Prepositions in from on like about Examples of Prepositions / usage in a house We read from the Qur'an. 2. These words are used as connectors.). in case is attached with it). then a double kasrah ( .29 Arabic Grammar 8. is placed on the last letter of word (or a single kasra. When these words are used with a proper noun. 29 . on a mountain like a man         \     Y     Y   \           \    \  \    U I heard about Prayer in the Masjid with for towards until I enetered with security for people   towards a city until the day-break By Allah by (of oath) Rules of using Prepositions: 1.

the verb comes first. U   Allah revealed the book. The translation is also provided to help you check your answers.) or dhammah ( ) in a tanveen ( .) . ************************* Vocabulary for Lesson No.or . Hameed is the subject. 30 .) is placed on the object. 9 ======================= Translate the following into English. Subject \ . Iqbal wrote a book.) is placed on the subject and double fathah ( . and a book is the object. In the second one. Note: When a word is attached with -    U      \        \   \  then one of two fathah ( . and the Qur'an is the object. as shown in the above sentences. whereas   \ has only one fathah. followed by the subject and the object. wrote is the verb. V has double fathah. Look at the following examples: Hameed read the Qur'an. whereas  has one dhammah since is attached with  . has double dhammah.30 Arabic Grammar 9. A Double Dhammah or tanveen ( .) are dropped. For example. Allah created the people. read is the verb. Iqbal is the subject. Similarly. and Object  \  In general. kasrah ( . 9 ************************* read wrote cheated     made separated water    created collected wealth. Allah made Muhammad V     U    (pbuh) a messenger. Verb  .. The Satan cheacter the man. in an Arabic sentence. means      ======================= Exercises for Lesson No.           \   In the first sentence. We parted the sea.

: Plural (n) 31 . dl. pl sr. fg. The Past Tense Past Tense      Possessive Pronouns Personal Pronouns No. fg. fg.: Feminine gender pl.: Masculine gender. fg. mg. 1st fg.: Singular.31 Arabic Grammar 10. mg. dl. dl.: Dual.. mg. Gender Person he did they two did they all did she did they two did they all did you did you two did you all did you did you two did you all did I did We did        \              sr. sr.. Tense 10a. pl. pl. dl. pl. mg.. 2nd person 3rd person  \  \   \  \  \  \   \ \                   Gender: mg. Number: sr. sr. dl. sr. dl. person pl.

pl. dl. they two demanded mg. you did mg. you wrote            32 . you did fg. they two did mg. Is it not worth repeating it 10 to 15 times so that you can remember it for the rest of your life? It certainly is! Learning and practicing them for the sake of understanding Qur'an is one of the best worship for which you will be abundantly rewarded by Allah. dl. pl. The English translation is provided for you to check your answers. ************************* Vocabulary for Lesson No./fg. they did mg. pl./fg. you two helped   \    \    \    \        mg. you two did mg. they wrote mg. mg. 10a ======================= Try to translate the Arabic words given below. dl./fg.32 Arabic Grammar Try to practice the pronouns and past tense by repeating the conjugation table using the following words. pl. pl. they did mg. they demanded mg. 10a ************************* he did he wrote he read he helped he hit. pl. dl. they opened mg. you demanded mg. dl. you two opened       mg. pl. she did fg. pl. you helped mg. inshaAllah. you went mg. dl. dl. they two wrote mg. gave example he demanded         he went he killed he made he opened he entered he drank        he found he refused he joined he created he sent he provided rizq       ====================== Exercises for Lesson No. you went mg./fg. This will greatly help you in getting yourself familiarized with the verb forms.

or dhammah) on different parts of a sentence. he was sent I was sent we were provided mg. they opened mg. mg. they two went mg.33 Arabic Grammar mg. pl. you created mg. they two hit mg. pl. the sentence may not make any sense at all. pl. pl. dl. dl. you have to write it which means (it) is done. pl. To make passive voice of this. dl./fg. you two went mg. they hit        Active and Passive Voices You already know that as        means (he) did. pl. they were provided Important Note: Always be careful in placing A'araab (fathah. you demanded fg. pl. dl. they provided  \      \  \  mg. he sent I sent we provided mg. 33 . In some cases. they went mg./fg. you wrote mg. pl. you opened mg. he was killed  \     \  \  mg. they demanded mg. you demanded mg. Further examples are given below. you opened                   fg. pl. pl. he wrote mg. pl. they two helped mg. kasrah. dl. The tense may change from active to passive or the object may be changed to subject. they were demanded mg. he killed Mg. A little change in these A'araab may lead to a completely different message. you two wrote         mg. you were created mg. you helped fg.

pl.34 Arabic Grammar 10b. 1st fg. pl. 2nd person 3rd person                 Gender: Number: mg: Masculine gender. they do. mg. sr. pl. they do she does. dl. they do.. you do you do you do you do you do you do I do We do  \   \    \  \   \   \  \  \   \   \    \   \   \ \  \ \                sr. Gender Person  Possessive Pronouns he does they do.. mg. dl. sr. fg. fg. pl sr. fg: Feminine gender pl: Plural (n) 34 . dl. dl. person pl. mg. sr.: Singular. mg. dl. sr. dl. fg. The Present (and Future) Tense Present Tense   Personal Pronouns No.: Dual.

35 Arabic Grammar IMPORTANT NOTE: actually is the Imperfect Tense and refers to an action which or the particle is incomplete at the time to which reference is being made. you recite mg. They hear the words of Allah. The translation is provided for you to check yourself. you make mg. dl. pl. It becomes Future tense by addition of the prefix forms. they don't know I don't disbelieve  \                       \        U      U       I do not worhsip what you worship. pl. They believe in Allah and His messenger. ****************** Vocabulary & Exercises for Lesson No. they two make pl.           \       \          fg. pl. sr. dl. they two drink mg. you know we don't hear And they will not grieve. dl. you two make fg. they recite mg. pl. 10b ****************** Try to translate the Arabic words given below. dl. you two drink fg.  before the mg.                U     35 . they thank mg. We do not worship except Allah. they disbelieve I worship mg. dl. pl. he collects I know I open fg. we worship mg. you collect mg. It refers to the present tense in general. they two drink mg.

first letter will have dhammah / pesh ( . The translation is provided for you to check yourself. they do not cut you are provided.). However. mg) are helped you (mg) are asked        b  ************************* Vocabulary & Exercises **************************** Try to translate the Arabic words given below. you are provided.36 Arabic Grammar Active and Passive Voice: As you have seen earlier.) and the third letter will have fathah ( .e. in case of present tense..  \  \       \   \        they cut they will not asked they they are killed you understand you are helped you are helped  \   b       \   \         36 .  is made passive by writing for verbs in past tense.  \  is made passive by writing it as  \  . i. Concentrate on the following examples: he drinks they (all. they understand they (women) are asked they do not fear (it) is opened. mg) help you (mg) ask        b  he is made / given to drink they (all. The remaining letters will have the same A'araab as in the case of active voice.

Therefore. 10a ************************ to act. pl sr. work to know to open. Gen.Perder son Don't do (it). Don't do (it). expand (he) separated. Negative Imperative   Imperative Poss.37 Arabic Grammar 10c. Prns. Do (it). Don't do (it). \  \   \    \    \   \   \  \  Do (it). Don't do (it). (you two) Do (it). Prns. (you all) Do (it). pl. mg. \ \  \   \  \  \ \ asked drank rode went             sr. divided came near X   \        37 . Imperative and Negative Imperative      You can order only to the person in front of you (2nd person). (you all) Do (it). Don't do (it). fg. dl. (you two) Do (it). No. Don't do (it). dl. the imperative and negative forms for only the 2nd person are provided below. 2nd person  \  ************************ Vocabulary for Lesson No. Pers.

38 . sr. mg. sr. mg. sr. sr. ni. ni. fg. (You two) Do not go near (it). mg. mg. sr. mg. 10c ======================= im.    \       \           im. (you two) don't come near don't ask me and (you all) listen ni. im./fg. Do not go. dl. mg. mg. im. mg. mg. (you) Say open up for me (you all) drink (you all) ride im. mg. Be. pl. Do not fear (it). sr. ni. Do not be divided. Do not make. mg. (you all) Say im. sr. sr. Do not do (it). pl. ni. mg. (you) Go ni. sr. Do not be. Do not say. Try to reproduce this table a couple of times for different verbs such as:                                      . ni.38 Arabic Grammar ======================= Exercises for Lesson No. pl.   \  \     \  \        \   \b          IMPORTANT NOTE All the verb forms of  that were taught in the previous lessons along with personal and possessive pronouns are given in the table on the next page. mg. Open. pl. ni. Know.

Gender Person Pers. fg. sr. mg. dl. sr. 2nd person 3rd person  \  \   \  \  \  \   \ \                   39 . fg. mg. person pl.  No. Prns. pl. dl.  \   \    \  \   \   \  \  \  \   \    \    \   \   \  \  \ \  \  \   \  \  \ \ \   \   \    \   \   \ \  \ \         \              sr. fg. dl. pl. 1st fg. pl sr. dl. mg.39 Arabic Grammar Conjugation table for the verb      Poss. dl. mg. pl. sr. Prns.

mg. 2nd person 3rd person                                  are extensively used in the Qur'an. mg. person pl. fg. pl. Try to reproduce this table a couple of times to get a very good familiarity of all the forms shown above.40 Arabic Grammar Conjugation table for the verb      Poss. dl. sr. Prns. mg. 1st fg. No. mg. Prns. Gender Person                           The verb forms of                             sr. dl. pl. dl. pl. dl. Pers. pl sr. sr. dl. 40 . sr. fg. fg.

No. sr. Prns. dl. pl sr. mg. sr. mg. fg. Try to reproduce this table a couple of times to get a very good familiarity of all the forms shown above. fg. pl. Prns. Pers. dl. mg. dl. dl. 2nd person 3rd person                 are frequently used in the Qur'an. dl. mg. pl. Gender Person           \  \         \  \      \         \    Different forms of       \  \  \  \ \  \ \  \ \            sr. 1st fg. 41 . sr. person pl. fg. pl.41 Arabic Grammar Conjugation table for the verb      Poss.

you can repeat the table given under the title "Conjugation table for the verb  " and feel for yourself the power of Arabic language.42 Arabic Grammar 10d. you will be able to remember and connect the derived forms with their root word easily.  " can be reproduced for \ . You can reproduce the following for each of the derivatives. 42 . Derived Forms of theVerb  Verbal Noun Passive participle Active participle Present (& future) Tense Past Tense S.. No. For each of the verb.    \  \    \       X  X  \  X  \ X  X      \  \  \   \     \        \  \   \     \     \   \  \    \    \       \   \  \     \    \ \  \   1   2   3   4   5   7   8   9  1 0     6  Note: It is suggested that you practice on this table after memorizing the meanings of around a Juz' (parah). After this practice. You will have a much wider understanding of different verbs and their meanings which occur in the Qur'an. The following page gives an example of how the table given under the title "Conjugation table for the verb the derived form number 3. Try to repeat this table for a couple of verbs.

mg. 2nd person 3rd person  \ \  \  \  \  \ \ \  \  \ \  \  \\ \  \                  43 . dl. sr. mg. sr. sr. pl. person pl. mg. dl. pl sr. fg. mg. dl. dl. pl. No.43 Arabic Grammar An Example: Conjugation table for the verb    Poss. fg. Pers. Prns. Prns. \ Gender Person \  \   \  \  \   \ \  \  \   \   \  \   \ \  \ \  \  \  \  \  \  \\              sr. pl. dl. fg. 1st fg.

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