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GIS REVIEW + ANSWERS LECTURE 7 What is a buffer?

A buffer is a zone of a specified distance around one or more features of interest in a layer. What types of buffer can we create in GIS? Points, lines, area What are the applications of buffer? Identify protection zones, create neutral zones, plan sampling procedures, define area of interest What is a riparian zone and why are they important for the environment? Areas that surround water bodies, they help to prevent erosion What is overlay in GIS Superimposing one or more layer of data to another What are the 4 most common types of overlay? AND-intersect OR-union NOT-erase XOR-difference What is the most common error in overlay? And how are they distinguished? Silvers, they are small long and thin LECTURE 8 Define network A system of interconnected linear features What are the 3 network analysis applications? Prediction of network loading, route optimization, resource allocation

What are the 4 network analysis components? A set of resources, one or more locations where resources are located, an objective, a set of constraints LECTURE 9 What is topography? And why is it important? Distribution of elevation across a land surface. It strongly influences landscape, and human activity DEM are raster based and TIN are vector based What is interpolation? The process of estimating or predicting all the missing values What are the disadvantages of DEM? Use of the same density of elevation points, may not be sufficiently fine to capture the detail, use more cells than what is actually needed What are the advantages of TIN? Represents terrain more accurately, less storage space, more detailed Disadvantages of TIN Significantly more processing required LECTURE 10 What is data quality? How good the data is What is precision? the recorded level of detail (how many decimals) What is accuracy? The extent towards a measured value reaches its true value (how correct) What is bias? Constantly one sided

Inherent error Existing error Operational error Introduced error What is positional accuracy? The deviation in the geographic location of an object on a map from its true ground position What is RMS, and what is it used for? Root mean square, used to measure displacement between the true and estimated locations of control points and to determine accuracy in geometric transformation What are sources of error in GIS? Source data, data input, data storage, data analysis and manipulation, data output and application LECTURE 11 What is the difference between spatial and attribute data? Spatial (raster and vector) relate to the geometry of spatial features Attribute data describes the characteristics of spatial data features What is a database management system? A software package that can provide facilities to manipulate and maintain the data in the database What are the 5 most common attribute data models? Tabular, hierarchical, network, relational, object orientated What are the 2 traditional ways to verify attribute data? Print it! (manually) Computer programs What Is an attribute data query? Retrieving a data subset from a set of attribute data

What is a spatial data query? Retrieving data subset from a layer by working directly on features