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1RESOLUTION NO.

__________
2
3 TITLE: HAWAI‘I OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT
4
5 REQUESTING AN ACT OF THE LEGISLATURE TO PROMOTE THE USE OF THE
6 HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE FOR OFFICIAL PURPOSES IN THE STATE; TO PROVIDE
7 FOR THE USE OF BOTH OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE STATE IN LEGISLATIVE
8 PROCEEDINGS, IN ACTS OF THE LEGISLATURE, IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF
9 JUSTICE, IN COMMUNICATING WITH OR PROVIDING SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC
10 AND IN CARRYING OUT THE WORK OF PUBLIC BODIES; TO SET OUT THE
11 DUTIES OF SUCH BODIES WITH RESPECT TO THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF
12 THE STATE; AND FOR THOSE PURPOSES, TO PROVIDE FOR THE
13 ESTABLISHMENT OF AN OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER OF OFFICIAL
14 LANGUAGES AND TO DEFINE ITS FUNCTIONS; TO PROVIDE FOR THE
15 PUBLICATION BY THE COMMISSIONER OF CERTAIN INFORMATION RELEVANT
16 TO THE PURPOSES OF THIS ACT; AND TO PROVIDE FOR RELATED MATTERS.
17
18
19 WHEREAS, along with Hawai‘i, the list of officially multilingual countries and U.S.
20jurisdictions now numbers no fewer than 44, including Abkhazia, American Samoa, Aotearoa
21(New Zealand), Belgium, Bolivia, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, China (Hong Kong &
22Macau), Czech Republic, Djibouti, Ecuador, Finland, Guam, both cities of Hialeah & Miami
23(Florida) and San Francisco (California), India, Israel, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan,
24Kenya, Kyrgyszstan, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway,
25Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovenia, Somalia,
26Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom
27(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_multilingual_countries_and_regions and
28http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sami_languages , see Appendix 1, p. 4); and
29
30 WHEREAS, several other governments provide bilingual services by right for
31indigenous minorities, including Australia, England (Wales) and Mexico
32(http://www.anu.edu.au/linguistics/nash/aust/policy.html , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_Language_Act_1993 , and
33http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/257.pdf , see Appendix 2, p. 20); and
34
35 WHEREAS, the U.S. Public Law 103-150 (1993 Apology Bill) resolved by the
36Senate and House of Representatives “recognizes and commends efforts of reconciliation
37initiated by the State of Hawai‘i….(and) supports reconciliation efforts between the United
38States and the Native Hawaiian people” (http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Public_Law_103-150 , see
39Appendix 3, p. 34); and
40
41 . WHEREAS, the state of Hawai‘i generally treats Hawaiian language education as if
42it were enrichment, foreign language education, and because of this perspective, Hawaiian
43speaking children are yet seen as having no right to education in Hawaiian; and fluency in
44Hawaiian is not a minimum qualification for employment in Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i, and
45testing of students in Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i through Hawaiian has not been provided in
46spite of federal government recognition that national standardized tests as used in Hawai‘i

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1are biased against minority children even when such children are educated through English in
2that such tests do not have a distinct minority culture focus; as a result, there is presently no
3guarantee that Hawaiian speaking children may choose Hawaiian medium education and
4receive transportation to their schools
5(http://www.ahapunanaleo.org/eng/resources/resources_nestmovement.html , see Appendix 4, p. 39); and
6
7 WHEREAS, some Hawaiian children are leaving Hawaiian immersion programs for
8fear of being inadequately prepared for getting accepted into the colleges and universities of
9their choice; and
10
11 WHEREAS, 40 years after the adoption of their Official Languages Act, Canada has
12grown from a country where English predominates to a country proud of its two official
13languages, and support for bilingualism among Canadians is at an all time high
14(http://www.officiallanguages.gc.ca/html/anniversary_anniversaire_e.php and
15http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/reports-rapports/cp-rc/2006-
162007/ann/images/LinguisticDuality-eng.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/reports-rapports/cp-rc/2006-
172007/ann/ann12-eng.asp&usg=__Z1ajcvMVcio-
18MaN6f6CVC3e761I=&h=514&w=500&sz=17&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=-
19bCCBcslFhenhM:&tbnh=131&tbnw=127&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dproportion%2Bof%2BCanadians%2Bsupporting%2Blin
20guistic%2Bduality%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26channel%3Ds%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-
21US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 , see Appendix 5, p. 43); and
22
23 WHEREAS, the Hawai‘i Official Language Act 1) establishes the equality of status
24and equal rights and privileges as to the use of official languages in all institutions of the
25legislature and government of the state, 2) establishes full and equal access to the legislature
26and legislative proceedings, to the laws of the state and to courts established by government
27in both official languages, 3) guarantees the right of any member of the public to
28communicate with, and to receive available services from, any institution of the legislature or
29government in either official language, 4) guarantees officers and employees of government
30institutions and public bodies equal opportunities to use the official language of their choice
31while working together in pursuing the goals of those institutions and public bodies, 5)
32guarantees English-speaking residents of Hawai‘i and Hawaiian-speaking residents of
33Hawai‘i, without regard to their ethnic origin or first language learned, equal opportunities to
34obtain employment in the institutions of government, 6) establishes the State Legislature is
35committed to achieving, with due regard to the principle of selection of personnel according
36to merit, full participation of English-speaking and Hawaiian-speaking residents of Hawai‘i
37in its institutions, 7) establishes the State Legislature is committed to enhancing the vitality
38and supporting the development of English and Hawaiian linguistic minority communities as
39part of the two official language communities of the State, and to fostering full recognition
40and use of Hawaiian and English in the Hawaiian Islands, 8) estalishes the State Legislature
41is committed to cooperating with County and Municipal governments and their institutions
42and public bodies to support the development of Hawaiian and English linguistic minority
43communities, to provide services in both Hawaiian and English languages, to respect the
44constitutional guarantees of minority language educational rights and to enhance
45opportunities for all to learn both Hawaiian and English languages, 9) establishes the State
46Legislature is committed to enhancing the bilingual character of the State Capital District and
47to encouraging the business community, labor orgnaizations and voluntary organizations in
48the State to foster the recognition and use of Hawaiian and English languages, and 10)

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1establishes the State Legislature recognizes the importance of preserving and enhancing the
2use of languages other than Hawaiian and English while strengthing the status and use of the
3official languages (http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/ShowFullDoc/cs/O-3.01//20090812/en and
4http://www.achtanna.ie/en.act.2003.0032.1.html adapted, see Appendix 6, p. 47); and
5
6 WHEREAS, Article 15 of the Hawai‘i State Constitution declares Hawaiian to be an
7official language “except that Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only
8as provided by law” (http://hawaii.gov/lrb/con/conart15.html , see Appendix 7, p. 128); and
9
10 WHEREAS, nearly 2,000 residents of Hawai‘i (including 3 public office holders and
11candidates at State, Municipal and Office of Hawaiian Affairs judicatories) have joined
12Hawai‘i Bilingual, whose positions are 1) Hawai‘i citizens shal by right receive public
13services in the official language of their choice, as in Canada, 2) All public service
14communications shall be published in Hawaiian, in addition to English, and 3) the Hawai‘i
15State Board of Education and the University of Hawai‘i shall adopt universal Hawaiian
16language proficiency graduation standards (http://apps.facebook.com/causes/124832/13574130?m=387a50ea
17and http://www.maoliworld.com/group/h2ohawaiibilingual , see Appendix 8, p. 130);
18
19 NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED by the Association of Hawaiian Civic
20Clubs in Convention at Makena, Maui this 7th day of November 2009, that the State
21Legislature immediately adopt a Hawai‘i Official Languages Act similar to those adopted in
22Canada and Ireland.
23
24 BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the Hawai‘i State Legislature 1) ensure respect
25for English and Hawaiian as the official languages of the State and ensure equality of status
26and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions, in particular
27with respect to their use in the Legislative proceedings, in legislative and other instruments,
28in the administration of justice, in communicating with or providing services to the public
29and in carrying out the work of State, County and municipal institutions, 2) support the
30development of Hawaiian and English linguistic minority communities and generally
31advance the equality of status and use of the Hawaiian and English languages within the
32Hawaiian Islands, 3) set out the powers, duties and functions of governmental institutions
33and publc bodies with respect to the official languages of the State, including the
34establishment of an Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (and to define its
35functions), as well as 4) provide for the publication by the Commissioner of Official
36Languages of certain information relevant to the purposes of this Act and related matters.
37
38 BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that a certified copy of this resolution be transmitted
39to the Governor of Hawai‘i, State Senate President, State Speaker of the House, State Senate
40Committee on Hawaiian Affairs, State House Committee on Hawaiian Affairs, Office of
41Hawaiian Affairs Chair of the Board of Trustees, Mayor of Honolulu and all County Mayors,
42and the Chairs of the Boards of Trustees of the Ali‘i Trusts.
43
44INTRODUCED BY: Hawaiian Civic Club of Waimanalo
45REFERRED TO: ________________________
46ACTION: ______________________________

3 3
1Appendix 1 (A & B)
2
3A. List of multilingual countries and regions
4From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
5http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_multilingual_countries_and_regions

6Jump to: navigation, search
7Main article: Multilingualism

8
9
10Countries that are officially or unofficially multilingual Multiple official languages Single
11official language, functionally multilingual No official language, functionally multilingual

12This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at
13the personal level.

14There is a distinction between social and personal bilingualism. Many countries, such as
15Belgium, which are officially multilingual, may have many monolinguals in their population.
16Officially monolingual countries, on the other hand, such as France, can have sizable
17multilingual populations.

18 Africa
19Central Africa

20 • Cameroon : English & French (official) + Cameroonian Pidgin, Basaa, Bikya, Bung,
21 Fula, Kanuri, Ngumba, Yeni, Bamum
22 • Central African Republic : French (official) + Sango
23 • Chad : Arabic & French (official) + more than 100 tribal languages
24 • Democratic Republic of the Congo : French (official), + Lingala, Kongo, Swahili &
25 Tshiluba (national languages) + 238 other languages
26 • Equatorial Guinea : Spanish + French + Portuguese
27 • Republic of the Congo : French (official) + Lingala & Kituba national languages +
28 other dialects, including Kikongo and Kituba (Kikongo creole)

4 4
1East Africa

2 • Burundi : French & Kirundi (official) + Swahili
3 • Kenya : English & Swahili (official) + other indigenous languages
4 • Rwanda : English, French & Kinyarwanda (official languages)
5 • Seychelles : English, French & Seychellois Creole (official languages)
6 • Tanzania : Swahili (national) + English, Gujarati & Portuguese
7 • Uganda : English (official) + Arabic, Luganda, Swahili + other Bantu languages &
8 other Nilo-Saharan languages

9Horn of Africa

10 • Djibouti : Arabic & French (official) + Somali & Afar
11 • Eritrea : no official language with two dominant language families: Semitic (Arabic,
12 Tigrinya, Tigre and Dahlik) and Cushitic (Afar, Beja, Blin & Saho) + Kunama &
13 Nara + English, Amharic & Italian
14 • Ethiopia: Amharic (official)
15 • Somalia : Somali & Arabic (official)

16North Africa

17 • Algeria: Arabic (official) + Tamazight languages (a national language) + French
18 • Egypt: Arabic (official) + Egyptian Arabic, English & French
19 • Libya: Arabic (official) + Tamazight, Tamahaq + Italian & English
20 • Mauritania: Arabic (de facto) + Hassaniya & French
21 • Morocco: Arabic + French, Amazigh & Moroccan Arabic
22 o Western Sahara: Hassaniya, Moroccan Arabic, Spanish
23 o Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic: Arabic + Spanish
24 • Sudan: Arabic & English + indigenous languages
25 • Tunisia: Modern Standard Arabic (official) + Tunisian Arabic, French & several
26 Tamazight languages

27Southern Africa

28 • Botswana : English (official) + Setswana (national)
29 • Comores : Arabic, Comorian, French
30 • Lesotho : English + Sesotho
31 • Madagascar : French + Malagasy
32 • Malawi : Chichewa (national) + English (official)
33 • Mauritius : English (official) + French (administrative), Mauritian Creole (lingua
34 franca), Hindi, Hakka, Bojpoori, Tamil, Urdu, Marathi,
35 • Namibia : English (official) + Ovambo (half of the population), Afrikaans & German
36 (former official languages), Portuguese (Angolan immigrants, both of African &
37 European-descent)

5 5
1 • South Africa : Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, Swati,
2 Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu.
3 • Swaziland : English + Siswati
4 • Zimbabwe : English (official), Shona, Ndebele

5West Africa

6 • Benin: French (official) + many indigenous languages including Fon & Songhay
7 • Burkina Faso: French (official) + indigenous Sudanic languages
8 • Cape Verde: Portuguese + Cape Verdean Creole
9 • Côte d'Ivoire: French (official) + 60 indigenous dialects
10 • Gambia: English (official) + Mandinka, Wolof, Fula & others
11 • Ghana: English (official) + Akan, Dagaare/Wale, Dagbane, Dangme, Ewe, Ga, Gonja,
12 Kasem & Nzema + 70 others
13 • Guinea: French (official) + Arabic, Fula & Susu
14 • Guinea-Bissau: Portuguese (official) + Kriol + indigenous languages
15 • Liberia: English (official) + 20 ethnic group languages
16 • Togo : French (official) + Ewe, Mina & le Kabiyé

17Americas

18 • Bolivia is officially multilingual, supporting Spanish and 36 native languages[1].
19 • Canada is officially bilingual under the Official Languages Act and the Constitution
20 of Canada that require the federal government to deliver services in both official
21 languages. As well, minority language rights are guaranteed where numbers warrant.
22 59.3% of the population speak English as their first language while 22.9% are native
23 speakers of French. The remaining population belong to some of Canada's many
24 immigrant populations or to the indigenous population. See Bilingualism in Canada

25 • The Canadian province of New Brunswick, with a large Acadian population
26 (35% French-speaking), is the only province in Canada with two official
27 languages.
28 • The Canadian province of Quebec, (7.9% English-speaking) Note: Although
29 there is a relatively sizable English-speaking population in Quebec, French is
30 the only official language. At the same time, most government services are
31 available in English and French.
32 • There are also significant French language minorities in the provinces of
33 Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Prince Edward Island. Though these
34 provinces are not officially bilingual they do provide a number of services in
35 French.
36 • Nunavut is a Canadian territory with a population that is 85% Inuit. Its official
37 languages are the Inuit dialects of Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun as well as English
38 and French.

6 6
1 • In many of Canada's First Nations' communities in the more isolated regions,
2 aboriginal languages are retained. English and French are accepted in the
3 community at the community elders' discretion.
4 • In the 2006 Canadian census, information and questions are available in sixty-
5 two languages, including eighteen First Nation languages.

6 • Ecuador defines Spanish as its official language, but Spanish, Quechua and Shuar - as
7 official languages of intercultural relations in the Article 2 of the 2008 Constitution[2].

8 • In Guatemala, the official language is Spanish, however, there are 23 distinct Mayan
9 languages. Not all Guatemalans speak Spanish, while some may do so only as a
10 second or third language.

11 • In Mexico, the government recognizes 62 indigenous languages, including Nahuatl
12 spoken by more than 1.5 million people and Aquacatec spoken by 27 people, along
13 with Spanish. There is no official language at the federal level, although Spanish is
14 the de facto state language.

15 • In the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, where Dutch is the official language, but most
16 inhabitants of Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire are multilingual and speak Papiamento,
17 Dutch and sometimes English and Spanish. Most inhabitants are fluent in all four.

18 • Paraguay, 48% of its population is bilingual in Guaraní and Spanish, of whom 37%
19 speak only Guaraní and 8% only Spanish but the latter increases with the use of
20 Jopará.

21 • Peru's official languages are Spanish and, in the zones where they are predominant,
22 Quechua, Aymara, and other aboriginal languages.

23 • In the USA, at the federal level, there is no official language, although there have
24 been efforts to make English the official language.

25 • The US state of Louisiana is unofficially bilingual (de facto) in English and
26 French.
27 • The US state of Hawaii is officially bilingual in English and Hawaiian.
28 • Three US territories are also bilingual: American Samoa (Samoan and
29 English), Guam (English and Chamorro), and Puerto Rico (Spanish and
30 English). One US territory is trilingual: Northern Marianas Islands (English,
31 Chamorro, and Carolinian)
32 • In Florida, at the municipal level, Hialeah recognizes both English and
33 Spanish while Miami recognizes English, French Creole, and Spanish as
34 official government languages.

35Asia

7 7
1 • In Iraq, Arabic is the official language of the state, Kurdish is the official language of
2 the north where 4 million native speakers live. Other languages also exist among
3 Christian communities north of and around Baghdad, such as Aramaic.

4 • In Lebanon, Arabic is the official language, French, Armenian and English are
5 spoken alongside Arabic. Many Lebanese are fluent in all four.

6 • In China, Putonghua is the official language and is spoken in all regions. It is used for
7 official and formal purposes, by the media and in education as the language of
8 instruction. However in every locality and region, local dialects of spoken variants of
9 Chinese are spoken in daily life. These dialects range from being quite similar to
10 Putonghua, such as Tianjin dialect, to varieties that are mutually unintelligible with
11 Putonghua such as Shanghai dialect (Wu) or Guangzhou dialect (Cantonese). In the
12 autonomous regions, minority languages are used (such as Tibetan in Tibet or
13 Mongolian in Inner Mongolia).

14 • In Hong Kong, both English and Chinese are official languages. While
15 Cantonese is the dominant Chinese language, Putonghua is gradually having
16 more speakers in recent years. Although these three languages are taught in
17 schools and are mandatory subjects, most people only speak Cantonese;
18 relatively few people are fully bilingual in Cantonese and English or
19 Putonghua.

20 • In Macau, both Chinese and Portuguese are official languages. While
21 Cantonese is the dominant Chinese language, Putonghua is also spoken.
22 Chinese is taught in all schools, while Portuguese is mainly taught in
23 government schools. In addition, English is also taught in many schools.

24 • India. There are 23 official languages in India (Including Hindi and English). The
25 largest, Hindi, is spoken natively by 50% of the population and is largely understood
26 by educated Indians. English is also widely used, although mainly in urban parts of
27 the country. An Indian with a high-school education would generally be trilingual -
28 speaking his or her own native language, in addition to Hindi and English, with
29 varying fluency, both the languages being compulsorily (in select states) taught in
30 most schools and colleges. French is one of the official languages in the territory of
31 Puducherry. For more information, see Languages of India, List of national languages
32 of India.

33 • Pakistan. There are two official languages (English and Urdu) and many regional
34 languages and dialects (the latter are often unintelligible from other dialects of the
35 "same language"). As in India, most Pakistanis are trilingual, being perfectly fluent in
36 both English and Urdu as well as their own regional language. At the same time due
37 to a higher level of integration and interaction between the various communities than
38 in India, many Pakistanis have at least some understanding of one or more other
39 regional language, for example many Punjabis and Pakhtuns are able to understand
40 each others languages due to interaction, the same is true of Balochis and Sindhis.

8 8
1 • In the South-western Iranian province of Khuzestan, most people speak native
2 Khuzestani Persian, Khuzestani Arabic & Standard Persian, sometimes in addition to
3 their own community languages such as Lur, Qashqa'i, Domari, Armenian or
4 Mandaic where applicable .

5 • Many people in Indonesia are bilingual at an early age. They speak a local native
6 language with their families whereas the official Indonesian language is used to
7 communicate with people from other regions and is taught in schools as a compulsory
8 subject. Indonesia has over two hundred native languages.

9 • In Israel, Hebrew and Arabic both have official status. The Jewish population largely
10 speaks Hebrew, though many Jewish immigrants to Israel (especially from Europe)
11 have a different mother tongue, such as Arabic, Amharic, Yiddish, Ladino, Russian,
12 Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, English, or French. The Arab population of Israel
13 speaks Arabic, which is also the language of instruction in Arab Israeli schools.
14 Functionally, almost all Arabs in Israel also speak Hebrew. English is widely spoken
15 and understood as a second language by both Jews and Arabs. Officially, road signs
16 must be in Hebrew, Arabic, and a romanized Hebrew transliteration.

17 • Many Koreans living in Japan speak both Korean and Japanese.

18 • Everyone in Malaysia is at least bilingual while Malaysians of Chinese and Indian
19 descent mostly trilingual or even multilingual. Malay, the official language of the
20 country, is a compulsory subject learnt in all public schools, and English is the
21 language of instruction for Science and Maths. Tamil and several Chinese dialects are
22 spoken by respective communities. The indigenous peoples of Sabah and Sarawak
23 speak their ancestral languages (Dayak etc). Multilingualism is common in Malaysia,
24 most notably among the Chinese and Indian communities.

25 • Philippines: Filipino and English are official languages in the constitution. Some
26 people in native Tagalog areas are bilingual, while in non-Tagalog speaking areas it is
27 common to be multilingual in the native and/or regional language/s, Filipino and
28 English.

29 • Singapore: English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay and Tamil are all official languages. As
30 English links the different races, a group with diverse races communicate using
31 English. In addition to English, individuals speak their ethnic language, a dialect
32 (especially for Chinese elders), and usually have some proficiency with a third
33 language from one of the four, or commonly Japanese, French or German.

34 • Sri Lanka. Sinhala and Tamil are official languages.

35 • Taiwan: Mandarin Chinese is the "official" language, but Taiwanese is commonly
36 used in most people (especially adults and elders). In the Hakka community, some
37 people are trilingual in Hakka, Mandarin and Taiwanese. Some 10 Aboriginal
38 languages are also spoken in the mountain and eastern portion of the island.

9 9
1 • Tajikistan: Tajik and Russian are widely spoken.

2 • Kazakhstan: Kazakh and Russian both have official status—Kazakh as the "state"
3 language and Russian as the "official" language of commerce.

4 • Kyrgyzstan: Kyrgyz and Russian both have official status.

5 • In Uzbekistan, Uzbek, Tajik, and Russian are all widely spoken.

6Europe

7 see also European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

8 • Belgium has three official languages: Dutch (59%) in the North, French (31%) in the
9 South and a small minority speaks German. Its bilingual capital, Brussels (10%), is
10 mainly French. In Flanders, 59% and 53% of the Flemings know French or English
11 respectively, in Wallonia only 19% and 17% know Dutch or English. In each region,
12 Belgium's third official language, German, is notably less known than Dutch, French
13 or English..[3] Wallonia recognises all of its vernacular dialect groups as regional
14 languages, Flanders doesn't.
15 • In the Czech Republic, several municipalities of Zaolzie area have official
16 bilingualism (Czech and Polish). Bilingual signs are permitted if a minority
17 constitutes at least a 10% of the population of the municipality.
18 • Estonia has one official language, Estonian, but also sizaeable Russian-speaking
19 community (30% in 2000). Russian can be used in communication with local
20 government where it's native to most population (Article 52 of the Constitution).
21 Most Estonians can speak Russian.[4]
22 • Finland has two official languages, Finnish and Swedish. Swedish is spoken by a
23 minority, about 5.5% native speakers concentrated along the coast and on the Åland
24 Islands.
25 • Gibraltar is a British overseas territory whose sole official language is English.
26 However, most of the population is also fluent in Spanish due to it sharing its only
27 land border with Spain. Gibraltarians also use Llanito as their local vernacular.
28 • Ireland, where three languages have some form of official status. Irish (one of the
29 Goidelic languages) is the first official language while English is the second.
30 Approximately 1.7 million Irish citizens are either fluent or semi-fluent in Irish[citation
31 needed]
, making it the most commonly spoken Goidelic language and the second most
32 spoken Celtic language after Welsh[citation needed]. However English is far more
33 commonly used as around 3% speak Irish as their first language, about half of them
34 living in Gaeltacht regions where Irish is the everyday language.
35 • Italy. The official language overall is Italian, while bilingualism is applied in some
36 territories. In the province of Bolzano-Bozen German is co-official. In the Aosta
37 Valley region French is co-official, as is Slovene in some municipalities of the
38 provinces of Trieste and Gorizia. Ladin municipalities of Bolzano-Bozen are
39 trilingual (Italian, Ladin, and German). Italian law n. 482/1999 enforce bilingualism

10 10
1 also in Sardinia (with Sardu), Friuli (with Friulian), Western Alps in Piedmont (with
2 Occitan) and other linguistic minorities.
3 • Latvia has one official language, Latvian, but also a sizeable Russian-speaking
4 minority (37% in 2000. Russian is spoken by most population.

5[5]

6 • Luxembourg is a rare example of a truly trilingual society, in that it not only has three
7 official languages, Luxembourgish, French and German, but has a trilingual education
8 system. For the first four years, Luxembourgish is the medium of instruction, before
9 giving way to German, which in turn gives way to French. (In addition, children learn
10 English and another European language, usually Spanish or Italian.) Similarly in the
11 country's parliament, debates are conducted in Luxembourgish, draft legislation is
12 drafted in German, while the statute laws are in French.
13 • Malta has two official languages, Maltese and English. Italian is also spoken by a
14 large percentage of the population.
15 • Netherlands has two official languages, Dutch which is the primary language and
16 Frisian which is recognized as a minority language and spoken by between 300.000-
17 700.000 people, mostly in de province of Friesland (Fryslân), where it is the official
18 first language, though a large majority of the population uses Dutch instead.
19 • Poland — 20 Bilingual communes in Poland (mostly Polish-German)
20 • Portugal - although Portuguese is practically universal, the Mirandese language, a
21 related Leonese language is spoken in Miranda do Douro, in northeastern Portugal, is
22 officially recognized (see: Languages of Portugal)
23 • In Romania, the official language is Romanian but significant minority languages are
24 recognized on the local level. The biggest ethnic minority is the Hungarian
25 community of 1.4 million (6.6%).
26 • ex-Soviet republics and Warsaw Pact countries: many people fluently speak Russian,
27 especially in Slavic countries within the area of the former USSR (typically in
28 Belarus and Ukraine), along with Moldova, which has a Slavic minority. However,
29 few Polish, Slovak or Czech people speak Russian, despite huge expenditures in the
30 past.
31 o Republics of Russia. The language of titular nation is also official in those
32 republics (though usage of a titular language is often not widespread).
33  Chuvash, Bashkir and Mari residents of Tatarstan also speak three
34 languages: own, Russian and Tatar.
35  Among the Maris, widespread trilingualism has been reported (Mari-
36 Russian-Tatar; Mari-Chuvash-Russian; Mari-Udmurt-Russian; even
37 four languages used intermittently: Mari-Tatar-Udmurt-Russian in
38 Mari-Turek areas)[6]
39  In the 1980s, almost all the Karelians were bilingual, speaking both
40 Karelian and Russian (being Karelian-Finnish bilingual in Finland).
41 Trilingualism Karelian-Finnish-Russian also occurred in the Karelian
42 ASSR.[7]

11 11
1 o Abkhazia. According to Georgian law, Georgian and Abkhazian are official
2 languages; according to Abkhazian law — Abkhazian and Russian. Elder
3 generation of Abkhaz spoke Georgian, Russian and Abkhaz language
4 • Slovakia has a Hungarian minority of 520,000 (9.7%).
5 • Slovenia. In the costal area (Koper, Izola and Piran) Italian is also an official
6 language, in addition to Slovene. In the eastern part of Prekmurje, Hungarian is used
7 as an official language next to Slovene. In the bilingual areas, all children are taught
8 both languages.
9 • Spain, where many regions have more than one official language: Euskadi and
10 Navarra (Basque-Spanish), Galicia (Galician-Spanish), Valencia, Balearic Islands
11 (Catalan-Spanish) and Catalonia (Aranese-Catalan-Spanish), but especially in
12 Catalonia, where Spanish and Catalan both enjoy great social esteem and are both
13 used in almost every social situation). Asturian is recognised by Asturias and Leonese
14 is recognised by Castile and León. - see:Languages of Spain.
15 • Sweden. Tornedalen and Haparanda in North Bothnia, Finnish-speaking.
16 • Switzerland has four national languages; German, French, Italian and Romansh[8].
17 The cantons Valais, Fribourg and Bern are bilingual (French and German), while
18 canton Graubünden is trilingual (German, Romansh and Italian).
19 • In most countries of the Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Serbian,
20 Croatian, and Bosnian are understood by all three groups (see Serbo-Croatian)
21 • In Carpathian Ruthenia, Ukraine, Slovaks living near Uzhgorod speak Ukrainian and
22 Hungarian in addition to their mother tongue, Slovakian. In villages near Mukachevo
23 Germans (Swabian dialect speakers) also speak Hungarian and Ukrainian.
24 • the United Kingdom
25 o Ulster Scots, a variety of Scots, is spoken by some in northern regions, but
26 again English is far more commonly used and Ulster Scots is less actively
27 used in media. Irish and Ulster Scots now both have official status in Northern
28 Ireland as part of the 1998 Belfast Agreement.
29 o Scotland. 58,652 Gaelic speakers, mostly concentrated in the Highlands and
30 the Hebrides, the traditional heartland of Gaelic culture. Also Scots with
31 approximately 2 to 3 million speakers - a Germanic language closely related
32 to English.
33 o Wales with 611,000 Welsh speakers, including the majority of the population
34 in parts of north and west Wales.[9]

35Oceania

36 • In New Zealand, a small percentage of the population has some reasonable degree of
37 bilingualism with English and Māori, mostly among the Māori themselves; few are
38 fully fluent in Māori. New Zealand Sign Language is also an official language.
39 English is the main language with over 99% of the population speaking it fluently.

40Multilingual Cities

12 12
1In many cities around the globe, a majority of the population frequently speaks two or more
2languages. There are also large cities with high numbers of immigrants such as London, New
3York and Toronto, where dozens of languages can be heard, but the majority of the
4population are monolingual.

5There are many more cities of multi-lingual speakers where multilingualism a part of
6everyday life.

7The following list is an example:

8 • Accra, Ghana - English, Akan, Ga
9 • Ahmedabad, India - English, Hindi, Gujarati
10 • Alghero, Italy - Italian, Sardinian, Catalan
11 • Andorra, Andorra - Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese, French
12 • Bangalore, India - English, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu
13 • Barcelona, Spain - Spanish, Catalan
14 • Beirut, Lebanon - Arabic, French, English, Armenian
15 • Biel, Switzerland - French, German
16 • Bolzano, Italy - German, Italian
17 • Brussels, Belgium - Dutch, French
18 • Cape Town, South Africa - English, Xhosa, Afrikaans
19 • Cebu, Philippines - Cebuano, English, Tagalog
20 • Chennai, India - English, Tamil
21 • Tricity of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula, India - English, Hindi, Punjabi
22 • Darjeeling, India - Nepali, English, Hindi, Bengali
23 • Delhi, India - English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi
24 • Dublin, Ireland - English, Irish
25 • Dubai, United Arab Emirates - English, Arabic, Malayalam, Hindi
26 • Durban, South Africa - English, Zulu
27 • Gibraltar - English, Spanish, Llanito
28 • Gorizia, Italy - Italian, Friulian, Slovene
29 • Fribourg, Switzerland - French, German
30 • Helsinki - Finnish, Swedish
31 • Hong Kong, China - Chinese, English
32 • Hyderabad, India - English, Hindi, Telugu, Urdu
33 • Jerusalem - Hebrew,Arabic, English, , Yiddish
34 • Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo - French, Lingala
35 • Kolkatta, India - English, Hindi, Bengali
36 • Koper, Slovenia - Slovene, Italian, Croatian
37 • Kuala Lumpur - English, Malay, Cantonese, Mandarin, Tamil
38 o Lome, Togo - Ewe, French
39 • Luxembourg City, Luxembourg - French, German, Luxembourgish, English
40 • Macau, China - Chinese, Portuguese
41 • Manila, Philippines - English, Tagalog
42 • Mangalore, India - Kannada, Hindi, Tulu

13 13
1 • Miami, Florida - English, French Creole, Spanish
2 • Montreal, Canada - French, English
3 • Mumbai, India - English, Hindi, Marathi
4 • Nicosia, Cyprus - Greek, Turkish
5 • Oranjestad, Aruba - Dutch, English
6 • Ottawa, Canada - English, French
7 • Patna, India - English, Hindi, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Magahi
8 • Pula, Croatia - Croatian, Italian
9 • Pune, India - English, Hindi, Marathi
10 • San Juan, Puerto Rico - English, Spanish
11 • San Francisco, USA - Chinese, English, Spanish
12 • Singapore - English, Chinese, Malay, Tamil
13 • Tel Aviv, Israel - Mainly Hebrew, (in parts of Jaffa) Arabic , (Immigrant
14 Communities) Russian, English, Aramaic
15 • Trieste, Italy - Italian, Slovene
16 • Trivandrum, India - Malayalam, English, Hindi
17 • Valencia, Spain - Valencian, Spanish
18 • Vigo, Spain - Galician, Spanish
19 • Willemstad, Curacao - Papiamento, Dutch
20 • Zamboanga, Philippines - Chavacano, Tagalog, English, Tausug, Visayan languages

21Footnotes

22 1. ^ Bolivian Constitution, Article 5-I: Son idiomas oficiales del Estado el castellano y
23 todos los idiomas de las naciones y pueblos indígena originario campesinos, que son
24 el aymara, araona, baure, bésiro, canichana, cavineño, cayubaba, chácobo, chimán,
25 ese ejja, guaraní, guarasu’we, guarayu, itonama, leco, machajuyai-kallawaya,
26 machineri, maropa, mojeño-trinitario, mojeño-ignaciano, moré, mosetén, movima,
27 pacawara, puquina, quechua, sirionó, tacana, tapiete, toromona, uru-chipaya,
28 weenhayek, yaminawa, yuki, yuracaré y zamuco.
29 2. ^ [1]
30 3. ^ Van Parijs, Philippe, Professor of economic and social ethics at the UCLouvain,
31 Visiting Professor at Harvard University and the KULeuven. "Belgium's new
32 linguistic challenges" (pdf 0.7 MB). KVS Express (supplement to newspaper De
33 Morgen) March–April 2007: Article from original source (pdf 4.9 MB) pages 34–36
34 republished by the Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy —
35 Directorate-general Statistics Belgium.
36 http://www.statbel.fgov.be/studies/ac699_en.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. — The
37 linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimations of the population
38 speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail.
39 4. ^ [2]
40 5. ^ [3]
41 6. ^ Paul Ariste Keelekontaktid. Tallinn: 1981 (Estonian)
42 7. ^ Paul Ariste Keelekontaktid. Tallinn: 1981 (Estonian)

14 14
1 8. ^ Swiss Constitution/Part 1, article 4, states: The national languages are German,
2 French, Italian, and Romansh.
3 9. ^ Map of percentage able to speak Welsh, 2001

4
5
6B. Sami languages
7From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

8http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sami_languages

9Jump to: navigation, search

Sami
Spoken in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Russia
Region Sápmi (Lapland)

11Sami or Saami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people
12in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern
13Europe. Sami is frequently (and erroneously) believed to be a single language. Several names
14are used for the Sami languages: Saami, Sámi, Samic, Saamic, as well as the exonyms
15Lappish and Lappic. The last two are, along with the term Lapp, considered derogatory by
16many.[1]

17 Classification

15 15
1The Sami languages form a branch of the Uralic language family. According to the
2traditional view, Sami is within the Uralic family most closely related to the Baltic-Finnic
3languages (Sammallahti 1998). However, this view has recently been doubted by some
4scholars, who argue that the traditional view of a common Finno-Sami protolanguage is not
5as strongly supported as has been earlier assumed[2], and that the similarities may stem from
6an areal influence on Sami from Baltic-Finnic.

7In terms of internal relationships, the Sami languages are divided into two groups: western
8and eastern. The groups may be further divided into various subgroups and ultimately
9individual languages. (Sammallahti 1998: 6-38.) Parts of the Sami language area form a
10dialect continuum in which the neighbouring languages may be to a fair degree mutually
11intelligible, but two more widely separated groups will not understand each other's speech.
12There are, however, sharp and absolute language boundaries, in particular between Northern
13Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami, the speakers of which are not able to understand each other
14without learning or long practice.

15

16Geographic distribution

17
18
19Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3.
20Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9.
21Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official
22language.

16 16
1The Sami languages are spoken in Sápmi in Northern Europe, in a region stretching over the
2four countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, reaching from the southern part of
3central Scandinavia in the southwest to the tip of the Kola Peninsula in the east.

4During the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age now extinct Sami languages were also
5spoken in the central and southern parts of Finland and Karelia and in a wider area on the
6Scandinavian peninsula. Historical documents as well as Finnish and Karelian oral tradition
7contain many mentions of the earlier Sami inhabitation in these areas (Itkonen 1947). Also
8loanwords as well as place-names of Sami origin in the southern dialects of Finnish and
9Karelian dialects testify of earlier Sami presence in the area (Koponen 1996; Saarikivi 2004;
10Aikio 2007). These Sami languages, however, became later extinct under the wave of the
11Finno-Karelian agricultural expansion.

12History

13The Proto-Sami language is believed to have formed in the vicinity of the Gulf of Finland
14between 1000 B.C. to 700 A.D. derived from a common Proto-Sami-Finnic language (M.
15Korhonen 1981[3]). However reconstruction of any basic proto-languages in the Uralic family
16have reached a level close to or identical to Proto-Uralic (Salminen 1999[4]). The language is
17believed to have expanded west and north into Fennoscandia during the Iron Age reaching
18central-Scandinavia during the Proto-Scandinavian phase (Bergsland 1996.[5]). The language
19assimilated several layers of unknown Paleo-European languages from the early hunter
20gatherers, first during the Proto-Sami phase and second in the subsequent expansion of the
21language in the west and the north of Fennoscandia that is part of modern Sami today. (Aikio
222004[6], Aikio 2006[7]).

23Written languages and sociolinguistic situation
24At present there are nine living Sami languages. The largest six of the languages have
25independent literary languages; the three others have no written standard, and there are only
26few, mainly elderly speakers left. The ISO 639-2 code for all Sami languages without its
27proper code is "smi". The six written languages are:

28 • Northern Sami (Norway, Sweden, Finland): With an estimated 15,000 speakers, this
29 accounts for probably more than 75% of all Sami speakers in 2002.[citation needed] ISO
30 639-1/ISO 639-2: se/sme
31 • Lule Sami (Norway, Sweden): The second largest group with an estimated 1,500
32 speakers.[citation needed] ISO 639-2: smj
33 • Southern Sami (Norway, Sweden): 500 speakers (estimated).[citation needed] ISO 639-2:
34 sma
35 • Inari Sami (Enare Sami) (Inari, Finland): 500 speakers (estimated).[citation needed] SIL
36 code: LPI, ISO 639-2: smn
37 • Skolt Sami (Näätämö and the Nellim-Keväjärvi districts, Inari municipality, Finland,
38 also spoken in Russia, previously in Norway): 400 speakers (estimated).[citation needed]
39 SIL code: LPK, ISO 639-2: sms

17 17
1 • Kildin Sami (Kola Peninsula, Russia): 650 speakers (estimated).[citation needed] SIL code:
2 LPD

3The other Sami languages are moribund and have very few speakers left. Ten speakers of Ter
4Sami were known to be alive in 2004,[8] and Pite Sami and Ume Sami likely have under 20
5speakers left.[citation needed] The last speaker of Akkala Sami is known to have died in December
62003,[9] and the eleventh attested variety Kemi Sami became extinct in the 19th century.

7Official status
8Adopted in April 1988, Article 110a of the Norwegian Constitution states: "It is the
9responsibility of the authorities of the State to create conditions enabling the Sami people to
10preserve and develop its language, culture and way of life." The Sami Language Act went
11into effect in the 1990s. Sami is an official language of the municipalities of Kautokeino,
12Karasjok, Gáivuotna (Kåfjord), Nesseby, Porsanger, Tana, Tysfjord, and Snåsa.

13
14
15A bilingual street sign in Enontekiö in both Finnish (top) and Northern Sámi

16In Finland, the Sami language act of 1991 granted Sami people the right to use the Sami
17languages for all government services. The Sami language act of 2003 made Sami an official
18language in Enontekiö, Inari, Sodankylä and Utsjoki municipalities.

19On April 1, 2002 Sami became one of five recognized minority languages in Sweden. It can
20be used in dealing with public authorities in the municipalities of Arjeplog, Gällivare,
21Jokkmokk and Kiruna.

22See also: Sami parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden

23External links
24 • Kimberli Mäkäräinen "Sámi-related odds and ends," including 5000+ word
25 vocabulary list
26 • Risten Sámi dictionary and terminology database.
27 • Sámedikki giellastivra - Sami language department of the Norwegian Sami
28 parliament (in Norwegian and Northern Sami)
29 • Finland - Sámi Language Act

18 18
1 • Sami Language Resources All about Sami Languages with glossaries, scholarly
2 articles, resources
3 • Álgu database, an etymological database of the Sami languages (in Finnish and North
4 Sámi)
5 • Sami anthems, Sami anthems in various Sami languages

6
7 Northern Sami edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

8References

9 1. ^ Karlsson, Fred (2008). An Essential Finnish Grammar. Abingdon-on-Thames,
10 Oxfordshire: Routledge. pp. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-43914-5.
11 2. ^ T. Salminen: Problems in the taxonomy of the Uralic languages in the light of
12 modern comparative studies. — Лингвистический беспредел: сборник статей к
13 70-летию А. И. Кузнецовой. Москва: Издательство Московского университета,
14 2002. 44–55. AND [1]
15 3. ^ Korhonen, Mikko 1981: Johdatus lapin kielen historiaan. Suomalaisen
16 kirjallisuuden seuran toimituksia ; 370. Helsinki, 1981
17 4. ^ : Problems in the taxonomy of the Uralic languages in the light of modern
18 comparative studies. — Лингвистический беспредел: сборник статей к 70-летию
19 А. И. Кузнецовой. Москва: Издательство Московского университета, 2002. 44–
20 55.
21 5. ^ Knut Bergsland: Bidrag til sydsamenes historie, Senter for Samiske Studier
22 Universitet i Tromsø 1996
23 6. ^ Aikio, A. (2004). An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami. Irma
24 Hyvärinen / Petri Kallio / Jarmo Korhonen (eds.), Etymologie, Entlehnungen und
25 Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag, pp. 5–34.
26 Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 63. Helsinki.
27 7. ^ Aikio, A. (2006). On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory. Journal de la
28 Société Finno-Ougrienne 91: 9–55..
29 8. ^ Tiuraniemi Olli: "Anatoli Zaharov on maapallon ainoa turjansaamea puhuva mies",
30 Kide 6 / 2004.
31 9. ^ Microsoft Word - Nordisk samekonvensjon hele dokumentet 14112005.doc

32 • Fernandez, J. 1997. Parlons lapon. - Paris.
33 • Itkonen, T. I. 1947. Lapparnas förekomst i Finland. - Ymer: 43–57. Stockholm.
34 • Koponen, Eino 1996. Lappische Lehnwörter im Finnischen und Karelischen. - Lars
35 Gunnar Larsson (ed.), Lapponica et Uralica. 100 Jahre finnisch-ugrischer Unterricht
36 an der Universität Uppsala. Studia Uralica Uppsaliensia 26: 83-98.
37 • Saarikivi, Janne 2004. Über das saamische Substratnamengut in Nordrußland und
38 Finnland. - Finnisch-ugrische Forschungen 58: 162–234. Helsinki: Société Finno-
39 Ougrienne.

19 19
1Sammallahti, Pekka (1998). The Saami Languages: an introduction. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji
2OS. ISBN 82-7374-398-5.
3
4Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sami_languages"
5Categories: Sami languages | Languages of Sweden | Languages of Finland | Languages of
6Russia | Languages of Norway
7Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced
8statements from September 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007
9
10
11
12
13
14 Appendix 2 (A, B, & C)
15
16Other states providing bilingual public services by
17right for indigenous populations:
18A. Language policies for Australian languages

19http://www.anu.edu.au/linguistics/nash/aust/policy.html

20 categories (by text colour): advocacy and commentary | government reports and reviews
21 (Green Papers) | government policy (White Papers)
22
2324
sections: state/territory | national | international | other countries

25state / territory

26 NSW

27The first state Aboriginal Languages Policy (NSW DAA)
28http://www.daa.nsw.gov.au/data/files//languagespolicyFINAL.pdf,
29dated 24 May 2004

30Aboriginal Languages Project, following the release of the Aboriginal Languages K-10
31Syllabus in 2003
32linked from http://ab-ed.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au

33NSW Aboriginal Languages Research and Resource Centre (The Languages Centre), part of
34the NSW Department of Aboriginal Affairs, founded 2003
35http://www.alrrc.nsw.gov.au/

20 20
1Senator Aden Ridgeway interview, 2003?
2http://www.fatsil.org/VOTL/Articles/18-1.htm

3Kevin Lowe. 2001. The Need for Community Consultation to assist in the Development of
4Aboriginal Language Programs in schools: A Draft Discussion Paper. The full version of the
5extract that appeared in Voice of the Land 20 (November 2001),9,11.
6http://www.fatsil.org/papers/research/lowe-1.htm

7 Tasmania

8 Western Australia

9Aboriginal Education Operational Plan 2005-2008
10http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/abled/docs/Operational%20Plan.pdf
11
12Curriculum Council, with mission "To set curriculum policy directions for kindergarten to
13year 12 schooling in Western Australia"
14http://www.curriculum.wa.edu.au
15
16Network of Aboriginal language centres : Submisson on the Draft State Sustainability
17Strategy
18http://www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au/docs/submissions_to_dr
19aft/Mirima%20Council.pdf

20 South Australia

21Eira, Christina & Mary-Anne Gale. 2007. Language policy and language programs in South
22Australia. PowerPoint® presentation, to Victorian Indigenous Languages Policy and
23Development Workshop, Melbourne, March 2007
24
25Curriculum Portal - Learning Australian Indigenous languages
26http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/curric/pages/languages/languagescont
27act/
28
29Curriculum, Standards and Accountability (SACSA) Framework - section about languages
30http://www.sacsa.sa.edu.au/link.asp?ID=FRAMEWORK:EYINTROCONTEX
31T:TAG Accessed April 2007. (Draft dated May 2002)

32 Victoria

33In March 2007 the Victorian government announced its first step towards a policy on
34Indigenous languages

35The Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages coordinates Community Language
36Programs throughout Victoria.
37http://www.vaclang.org.au/

21 21
1 Queensland

2Dixon, Sally. 2004. Ecological perspectives on language policy and language planning
3theory: towards a critical understanding of language planning in the Torres Strait Islands.
4Submitted for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Linguistics) (Honours), School of Linguistics,
5Faculty of Arts, The University of NSW. 115pp. * copy at AIATSIS Library
6
7'The Future of Indigenous Languages in Queensland schools', October 2003 (a
8comprehensive overview)
9http://people.aapt.net.au/~cassynancarrow/language/futures.htm
10l

11 Northern Territory

12Simpson, Jane, Jo Caffery, and Patrick McConvell. 2009. Gaps in Australia's Indigenous
13language policy: dismantling bilingual education in the Northern Territory. AIATSIS
14Research Discussion Paper 24, June 2009
15http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/10704/Simpson
16_et_al_2009_DP_24.pdf
17
18NT Curriculum Framework
19http://www.deet.nt.gov.au/education/ntcf/docs/indigenous_lang_cult.pdf

20Learning Lessons: The Implementation Phase. Status Report. Learning Lessons
21Implementation Steering Committee. October 2005
22http://www.deet.nt.gov.au/education/indigenous_education/previ
23ous_publications/docs/learning_lessons-
24the_implementation_phase.pdf

25Indigenous Languages and Culture in NT Schools: Report 2004-05, Executive Summary
26http://www.deet.nt.gov.au/education/indigenous_education/previ
27ous_publications/indigenous_languages_culture_report/ilc_repor
28t_exec_summary.pdf

291999 - Northern Territory Department of Education. Learning Lessons: An Independent
30Inquiry into Aboriginal Education in the Northern Territory. NT Government Printer
31(conducted by Tess Lea and Bob Collins) 1.6MB PDF
32http://www.deet.nt.gov.au/education/indigenous_education/previous_publicat
33ions/docs/learning_lessons_review.pdf

34ATSIC Submission to the ["Collins"] Review into Aboriginal Education in the Northern
35Territory. [1999?]
36http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/41033/20060106/ATSIC/issues/educ
37ation/Docs/Collins_review.pdf

38 Australian Capital Territory

22 22
1The Way Forward. Multicultural Summit - Summary. 10 December 2005. p.11 'Language
2Policy' suggestions.
3http://www.dhcs.act.gov.au/community/mau/pubs/Summit%20Summary
4%20Booklet.pdf

5ACT Languages Policy. Draft paper for discussion. December 1994. Canberra: ACT
6Government (Social Policy Branch, Chief Minister's Department). 28pp. See ß3, pp.17-18.

7 Norfolk Island

8 "While English is the official language of Norfolk Island, recognition has also
9 been given to ‘Norf’k’, a mixture of 18th Century English and Tahitian,
10 brought to the island by the Pitcairners. The Norfolk Island Language
11 (Norf’k) Act 2004 not only recognised Norf’k but affirmed ‘the right of the
12 people to speak and write it freely and without interference or prejudice from
13 government or other persons’. The Act also allows for Norf’k to be taught in
14 school. UNESCO has recognised the language following a submission by the
15 Norfolk Island Government. The significance of the language policy is that it
16 identifies and recognises a unique cultural element, provides identity and
17 emphasizes the island’s ‘special cultural values’."

18Turner, Mark. 2007. Norfolk Island / Australia. Kreddha Autonomy Mapping Project.

19national (newer to older)

20Purdie, Nola. 2009. A way forward for Indigenous languages. ACER Research Developments
21Vol. 21, Article 2. * considers strategies for strengthening the quality of Indigenous
22languages programs in schools
23http://research.acer.edu.au/resdev/vol21/iss21/2

24Purdie, Nola, Tracey Frigo, Clare Ozolins, Geoff Noblett, Nick Thieberger, Janet Sharp.
252008. Indigenous languages programmes in Australian schools : A way forward. Australian
26Council for Educational Research. the former Australian Government Department of
27Education, Science and Training through the Australian Government’s School Languages
28Programme. xvii+228pp.
29http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/publications_r
30esources/profiles/documents/Indigenous_Language_Programme_in_A
31ustralian_schools_pdf.htm
32
33Noel Pearson, Native tongues imperilled, The Australian, March 10, 2007
34http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21352767-
357583,00.html * includes his seven "points about language policy"

36DCITA (Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts) "The
37Maintenance of Indigenous Languages and Records (MILR) program supports policies and
38community initiatives to preserve and maintain Indigenous languages."

23 23
1See 'Strategy and Action Plan 2007–08', Attachment A pp.14-17 in
2'Program information and guidelines 2007–08' available in Word and PDF formats
3http://www.dcita.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/54023/MILR_Guid
4elines_2007-08.pdf
5http://www.dcita.gov.au/__data/assets/word_doc/54022/MILR_Guid
6elines_2007-08.doc

8DCITA MILR publications, including

9 The National Indigenous Languages (NILS) Survey Report (2005) (AIATSIS/FATSIL)
10 http://www.arts.gov.au/indigenous/national_indigenous_lang
11 uages_survey_report_2005 (2.6MB PDF) via
12 http://www.arts.gov.au/indigenous/
13 Economic Costs and Benefits of Australian Indigenous Languages (2004) (Peter
14 Muhlhausler and Richard Damania) http://hdl.handle.net/2440/40591
15 pointing to
16 http://www.arts.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/14730/D
17 iscussion_Paper-
18 Economic_Costs_and_Benefits_of_Australian_Indigenous_Langu
19 ages.pdf

20Plan 2005-2008 based on 2004 report of Ministerial Council on Education, Employment,
21Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA)
22http://www.mceetya.edu.au/verve/_resources/languageeducation_f
23ile.pdf from National Statement and Plan on Languages Education in Australian Schools
24page

25DEST (Department of Education, Science and Training) policies, issues and reviews relating
26to Indigenous education
27http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/indigenous_education/policy_iss
28ues_reviews/policy_issues_reviews_menu.htm
29including National Goals for Indigenous Education (page last modified Tue, 24 Apr 2007 3:58:35
30PM)
31"17. To develop programs to support the maintenance and continued us[e] of Aboriginal
32and Torres Strait Islander Languages."

33Lo Bianco, J. 2004. A site for debate, negotiation and contest of national identity: language
34policy in Australia. 35 pages. Guide for the development of language education policies in
35Europe: From linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
36(French and English)
37http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/LoBiancoEn.pdf

39Dixon, Sally. 2004. Ecological perspectives on language policy and language planning
40theory: towards a critical understanding of language planning in the Torres Strait Islands.
41Submitted for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Linguistics) (Honours), School of Linguistics,

24 24
1Faculty of Arts, The University of NSW * Chapter 1 'Language Policy in Australia: towards a
2critical theory', pp.3-42 * copy at AIATSIS Library

3Lester Irabinna Rigney. 2002. Bread versus freedom - Treaty and stabilising Indigenous
4Languages. Presented to National Treaty Conference.
5http://www.fatsil.org/papers/research/rigney-2.htm

6Review of the Australian Government Languages Other than English Programme (LOTE) -
7Report. Commonwealth of Australia, 2002
8http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/publications_r
9esources/lote_programme_review/recommendations.htm#In_relation
10_to_Indigenous_Languages,_it_is_recommended_that:

11National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy (AEP)
12http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/schools/indigenous/aep.htm (page
13created 2001-12-19, modified 8 Aug 2005)

14Lo Bianco, Joseph, and Rosie Wickert (eds). 2001. Australian policy activism in language
15and literacy. Melbourne: Language Australia. 6.6MB PDF at ERIC #:ED471603
16http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_Sear
17chValue_0=%22Lo+Bianco+Joseph%22&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&_pageLabel=
18RecordDetails&objectId=0900000b8017876a&accno=ED471603&_nfls=false *
19introduction "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert) * Part 1, pp.13-44, "From policy to
20anti-policy: How fear of language rights took policy-making out of community hands"
21(LoBianco): tracks Australian language and literacy policy * "Advocating the sustainability
22of linguistic diversity" (Michael Singh)

23Hammond, Jennifer. 2001. Literacies in school education in Australia: disjunctions between
24policy and research. Language and Education Vol. 15, No. 2&3.
25http://www.multilingual-matters.net/le/015/0162/le0150162.pdf

26FATSIL Indigenous Language Policy Statement and Strategic Plan objectives summarised in
27Voice of the Land 16.1(2001). http://www.fatsil.org/VOTL/Articles/16-
281.htm

29Recognition Rights and Reform - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages
30(AUSTLII)
31Part of Reconciliation and Social Justice Library. Page created Mon, 3 Jul 2000 2:32:51 PM
32http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/ats
33ic/ntsj1/54.html

34State of Indigenous languages in Australia - 2001, by P. McConvell and N. Thieberger. State
35of the Environment Second Technical Paper Series (Natural and Cultural Heritage),
36Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
37http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/techpapers/languages/

38Royal Commission on Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Recommendations 55, 56, 188

25 25
1Janke, Terri. 1998. Our Culture: Our Future: Report on Australian Indigenous Cultural and
2Intellectual Property Rights. Prepared for Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
3Islander Studies and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission. © Michael
4Frankel & Company and Terri Janke. 2.5MB
5http://web.archive.org/web/20030803155859/www.icip.lawnet.com.
6au/culture.pdf

7Commonwealth Literacy Policy: Literacy for All: The Challenge for Australian Schools.
8Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA), 1998.
9Commonwealth Literacy Policies for Australian Schools. Australian Schooling Monograph
10Series No. 1/1998
11http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/publications_r
12esources/profiles/literacy_all_challenge_australian_schools.ht
13m
14ß5.3 Indigenous Students:
15http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/schools/literacy&numeracy/publi
16cations/lit4all.htm#5.3

17Language and Literacy: Australia's Fundamental Resource, prepared by Language Australia.
18Authors: Joseph Lo Bianco, Pauline Bryant, Richard B. Baldauf. National Board of
19Employment, Education and Training, Australian Research Council, Discipline Research
20Strategies. June 1997. ISBN 0642236550

21McKay, Graham R. 1996. The land still speaks: review of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
22Islander language maintenance and development needs and activities. Canberra: Australian
23Govt. Pub. Service. xxvii+290pp. Commissioned Report No. 44. (Australia. National Board
24of Employment, Education and Training). ISBN 064445945X xxvii+290pp.
25http://www.dest.gov.au/nbeet/publications/pdf/96_10.pdf

26Lo Bianco, Joseph. Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies? Presented to 1995 Global
27Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney. (Chief Executive, The National
28Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia Limited)
29http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/confer
30/04/speech18a.htm

31Culture and Heritage: Indigenous Languages by John Henderson and David Nash. State of
32the Environment Technical Paper Series (Natural and Cultural Heritage), Series 1,
33Department of the Environment and Heritage. To January 1995.
34http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/techpapers/series1/indigeno.
35html

26 26
1 Ozolins, Uldis. 1993. The politics of language in Australia. Cambridge University
2Press. * reviewed by Mari Rhydwen, Oceania 64.3(March 1994), 274 * 'The National
3Language Policy issued in Australia'. Pacific Linguistics (1985) Series C-92; pp. 281-9.

4Government response to the recommendations of the House of Representatives Standing
5Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs inquiry into Aboriginal and
6Torres Strait Islander language maintenance report, "A matter of survival", June 1992.

7Language and culture : a matter of survival : report of the inquiry into Aboriginal and Torres
8Strait Islander language maintenance June 1992. Parliament - House of Representatives.
9Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs (HRSCATSIA).
10Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
11http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/par
12liamentary/language/index.html

13Appendix 7: Recommendations from the National Aboriginal Languages Workshop "Our
14Language, Our Future", 12th & 13th December 1991, Adelaide SA.
15http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/par
16liamentary/language/83.html

17White Paper response - PALC. Wangka Maya. 14pp. Text posted to
18peg:aust.languages 2:28 pm Oct 25, 1991. Archived in file '16 Wangka Maya
19response' in ASEDA item 0380.

20 ALLP: Australia's Language: The Australian Language and Literacy Policy, by
21John Dawkins, Minister for Employment Education and Training. Announced 2 September
221991. Canberra: AGPS, 1993. * "The White Paper was released in early September 1991 and
23announced a national policy and a national strategy to promote language and literacy in
24Australia through the Australian Language and Literacy Policy (ALLP)."
25http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/par
26liamentary/language/70.html

27Dept. of Employment, Education and Training. The language of Australia; discussion paper
28on an Australian literacy and language policy for the 1990s. Canberra : Australian
29Government Publishing Service, December 1990, 2 v. in 1 * "The Green Paper on a draft
30Australian Language and Literacy Policy was released in December 1990"
31http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/par
32liamentary/language/70.html

27 27
1Riley-Mundine, Lynette, and Bryn Roberts (Pitman Roberts and Partners). 1990. Review of
2National Aboriginal Languages Program. AACLAME Occasional Paper Number 5.
3Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education, Canberra. Scanned
4as 2.6MB PDF available as ERIC #:ED355757 at
5http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordD
6etails&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED355757&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eri
7c_accno&objectId=0900000b8013bfae * National Aboriginal Languages Project 1988-90,
8became National Aboriginal Languages Program (DEET)

9 NPL: Lo Bianco, Joseph. 1987. National Policy on Languages. Commonwealth
10Department of Education. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN-13
11978-0644061186 * extracted highlights:
12http://www.multiculturalaustralia.edu.au/doc/lobianco_2.pdf * Ministerial
13announcement of policy, 15 December 1987
14http://www.multiculturalaustralia.edu.au/doc/youngholding_1.pdf * comment:
15"Australia's education and training system has also responded to the changing ethnic
16composition of our population. A system of language training was put in place to provide
17migrants with access. Community languages were integrated into school curricula and
18became an important national resource. In 1987 the Federal Government adopted a National
19Policy on Languages, becoming the first English speaking country to have such a policy and
20the first in the world to have a multilingual languages policy" p.29 of CFAC. 1994. 2001: A
21Report from Australia: a report to the Council of Australian Governments by the Centenary
22of Federation Advisory Committee. Canberra: AGPS. [quoted
23http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/confer
24/04/speech18b.htm ]

25 Parliament - Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts ; Malcolm
26Arthur Colston, Chairman. October 1984. Report on a national language policy. Canberra:
27Australian Government Publishing Service. Cat. No. 8505820 * Recommendations
28http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/par
29liamentary/language/82.html

30Fesl, Eve D. 1983. Submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts
31on a National Language Policy. iii+178pp. AIATSIS Library MS 4156.

28 28
1Bell, Jeanie (ed.) 1982. Language planning for Australian Aboriginal languages: papers
2presented at the Workshop to Develop Aboriginal Leadership in Language Planning, Alice
3Springs, 16-20 February, 1981. Alice Springs, NT; Institute for Aboriginal Development.
4

5A useful glossary of acronyms (at 1992):
6http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/parliamentary/l
7anguage/5.html

8Language Australia has closed, the former National Languages and Literacy Institute of
9Australia Ltd. (NLLIA); some of the operations of its Melbourne Office are now run through
10CAE (Centre for Adult Education) in Melbourne.

11Literacy: A Chronology of Selected Research and Commonwealth Policy Initiatives Since
121975. Canberra, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Social Policy Group. 7 December
131999. http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/chron/1999-2000/2000chr02.htm

14Australian Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights (site dormant in recent years)
15

16international (newer to older)

17For general news on language policy worldwide, see LGPOLICY-LIST
18http://listserv.linguistlist.org/archives/lgpolicy-list.html,
19and the Consortium for Language Policy and Planning
20http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/plc/clpp/
21
22United Nations. Human Rights Council. 23 June 2006. Recommendation to the UN General
23Assembly for the adoption of the draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. See
24Article 14 Language, Article 15 Education, and Article 17 Media.
25http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/declaration.html,
26http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/G06/125/71/PDF/G0612571.pdf

27Building stronger communities: Indigenous Australian rights in education and language by
28Lester Irabinna Rigney/FATSIL
29A submission to the Working Group on Indigenous Populations of a UN subcommission on Human
30Rights
31full version of an article that appeared in Voice of the Land 21 (March 2002), 8-9
32http://www.fatsil.org/papers/research/rigney-1.htm

33Romaine, Suzanne. 2002. The Impact of language policy on endangered languages.
34International Journal on Multicultural Societies Vol. 4, No. 2 ISSN 1564-4901 © UNESCO.
35http://www.unesco.org/most/vl4n2romaine.pdf

36Luisa Maffi. 1999. Building the Tools: toward the integrated protection of indigenous
37languages and Knowledge as part of indigenous heritage. Terralingua Discussion Paper #14
38http://www.terralingua.org/DiscPapers/DiscPaper14.htm

29 29
1Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights, adopted by the 1996 World Conference on
2Linguistic rights, communicated to UNESCO
3http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001042/104267e.pdf

4other countries

5New Zealand's Maori Language Act 1987, which refers in places to Welsh Language Act
61967 (U.K.)

7Linguistic Rights - National Constitutions, Management of Social Transformations (MOST)
8Programme Clearing House, UNESCO
9http://www.unesco.org/most/ln2nat.htm

10Regional and minority languages of the European Union
11http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/lang/languages/langmin/
12regmin_en.html
13

14Acknowledgements: incorporating suggestions from (newest to earliest) Jason Lee, Adriano
15Truscott, Melanie Gillbank, Christina Eira <ceira AT vaclang.org.au>, Mary-Anne
16Gale, Rob Amery, Jane Simpson, and David Nathan's Language rights & policy links in his
17World Wide Web Virtual Library; also from some of the sources listed in my links and
18resources on Endangered Languages and language documentation (to 2005)

20Return to Australian languages index page
19

21© 2009 David Nash

22

24
25
26 B. Welsh Language Act 1993
27From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

28http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_Language_Act_1993

29Jump to: navigation, search

30The Welsh Language Act 1993 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which
31put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard
32to the public sector.

33The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 had made English the only language of the law courts
34and other aspects of public administration in Wales. The Welsh Courts Act 1942 had given
35the right to use Welsh in courts providing that the Welsh speaker was under a disadvantage in

30 30
1having to speak English, but this was very narrowly defined by subsequent case law. The
2Welsh Language Act 1967 overturned these decisions and gave rise to the concept of 'equal
3validity' between the Welsh and English languages. As a result, Governmental Departments
4began preparing documents in Welsh, and following a campaign of destroying or vandalising
5unilingual English road signs by members of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (The Welsh
6Language Society), local councils were allowed to provide many bilingual signs in Wales. It
7was however the Welsh Language Act 1993 which established that 'in the course of public
8business and the administration of justice, so far as is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and
9English languages are to be treated on the basis of equality.'

10Basically the Act did three things:

11 • set up the Welsh Language Board, answerable to the Secretary of State for Wales,
12 with the duty of promoting the use of Welsh and ensuring compliance with the other
13 provisions.
14 • gave Welsh speakers the right to speak Welsh in court proceedings
15 • obliged all organisations in the public sector providing services to the public in Wales
16 to treat Welsh and English on an equal basis

17The powers given to the Secretary of State for Wales under this Act were later devolved to
18the National Assembly for Wales. Delegated or Secondary Legislation has been made under
19this Act by the Secretary of State, and subsequently the National Assembly forcing more
20public bodies to prepare what are known as Welsh Language Schemes which show their
21commitment to the 'equality of treatment' principle.

22External links
23 • Official text of the statute as amended and in force today within the United Kingdom,
24 from the UK Statute Law Database
25 • Full text of the Welsh Language Act 1993
26 • Campaign for a New Welsh Language Act

[show]
v•d•e
United Kingdom legislation

This Wales-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

31 31
This legislation article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
29Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_Language_Act_1993"
30Categories: United Kingdom Acts of Parliament 1993 | Welsh language | Welsh laws |
31Language policy | Wales stubs | Statute stubs

32Languages

33 • Cymraeg

34 • This page was last modified on 8 July 2009 at 16:33.

35

36
37C. General Law of Linguistic Rights of Indigenous
38Peoples

39De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

40http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ley_General_de_Derechos_Ling%C3%BC%C3
41%ADsticos_de_los_Pueblos_Ind%C3%ADgenas

42Saltar a navegación , búsqueda Jump to: navigation, search

43La Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas , es un estatuto
44mexicano publicado en el Diario Oficial de la Federación el 13 de marzo de 2003 , durante la
45gestión del entonces presidente Vicente Fox Quesada y que dio lugar a la creación del
46Instituto Nacional de las Lenguas Indígenas .

47Translation: The General Law of Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples, is a statute of
48Mexico published in the Official Gazette on March 13 of 2003, during the administration of
49then President Vicente Fox Quesada, and that led to the creation of the National Institute of
50Indigenous Languages.

51Dicha ley es un elemento jurídico que contempla el reconocimiento de los derechos tanto
52individuales, como colectivos de las personas y pueblos que poseen y practican, alguno de
53los 62 lenguajes indígenas como lengua materna .

54Translation: This law is a law that provides for the recognition of the rights both individual
55and collective of individuals and peoples who have and practice some of the 62 indigenous
56languages as mother tongue.

32 32
1Además especifica nociones como lo que debe comprenderse por lenguas indígenas y
2lenguas nacionales, las condiciones de aplicación del decreto, y los atributos, propósitos y
3funciones del Instituto Nacional de las Lenguas Indígenas.

4Translation: Besides specific ideas as to be understood by indigenous languages and national
5languages of the implementation of the decree, and the attributes, purposes and functions of
6the National Institute of Indigenous Languages.

7Enlaces externo External links
8 • Artículos de la Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas
9 Articles of the General Law of Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples

10Algunos derechos son: Some rights are:

11• Derecho a ser reconocido como miembro de una comunidad lingüística • Right to be
12recognized as a member of a linguistic community

13• Derecho al uso de la lengua en privado y en público • Right to use of language in private
14and in public

15• Derecho a relacionarse y asociarse con otros miembros de la comunidad lingüística de
16origen • Right to associate and interact with other members of the language community of
17origin

18• Derecho a mantener y desarrollar la propia cultura • Right to maintain and develop their
19culture

20• Derecho a la enseñanza de la propia lengua y cultura • Right to education in their own
21language and culture

22• Derecho a disponer de servicios culturales • Right of access to cultural services

23• Derecho a una presencia equitativa de la lengua y la cultura del grupo en los medios de
24comunicación • Right to an equitable presence of their language and culture in the media

25• Derecho a ser atendidos en su lengua en los organismos oficiales y en las relaciones
26socioeconómicas. • Right to be cared for in their own language from government bodies and
27in socioeconomic relations. (Es decir, que en los centros escolares, de trabajo, oficinas de
28gobierno, entre otros, las personas puedan comunicarse y ser atendidas en su lengua materna)
29(That is, in schools, work, government offices, among others, people can communicate and
30be served in their mother tongue)

31Obtenido de "
32http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ley_General_de_Derechos_Ling%C3%BC%C3%ADsticos_de_
33los_Pueblos_Ind%C3%ADgenas " Retrieved from

33 33
1"http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ley_General_de_Derechos_Ling% C3% BC% C3%
2ADsticos_de_los_Pueblos_Ind% C3% ADgenas"
3Categorías : Leyes de México | México en 2003 Categories: Law of Mexico | Mexico in 2003
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 Appendix 3:
12
13 Public Law 103-150
14From Wikisource: http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Public_Law_103-150

15 103RD UNITED STATES CONGRESS
16 1ST SESSION

17 Joint Resolution

18 To acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the January 17, 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of
19 Hawaii, and to offer an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the
2021
overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

22 • Whereas, prior to the arrival of the first Europeans in 1778, the Native Hawaiian
23 people lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, subsistent social system based on
24 communal land tenure with a sophisticated language, culture, and religion;

25 • Whereas, a unified monarchical government of the Hawaiian Islands was established
26 in 1810 under Kamehameha I, the first King of Hawaii;

27 • Whereas, from 1826 until 1893, the United States recognized the independence of the
28 Kingdom of Hawaii, extended full and complete diplomatic recognition to the
29 Hawaiian Government, and entered into treaties and conventions with the Hawaiian
30 monarchs to govern commerce and navigation in 1826, 1842, 1849, 1875, and 1887;

31 • Whereas, the Congregational Church (now known as the United Church of Christ),
32 through its American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, sponsored and
33 sent more than 100 missionaries to the Kingdom of Hawaii between 1820 and 1850;

34 • Whereas, on January 14, 1893, John L. Stevens (hereafter referred to in this
35 Resolution as the "United States Minister"), the United States Minister assigned to the
36 sovereign and independent Kingdom of Hawaii conspired with a small group of non-

34 34
1 Hawaiian residents of the Kingdom of Hawaii, including citizens of the United States,
2 to overthrow the indigenous and lawful Government of Hawaii;

3 • Whereas, in pursuance of the conspiracy to overthrow the Government of Hawaii, the
4 United States Minister and the naval representatives of the United States caused
5 armed naval forces of the United States to invade the sovereign Hawaiian nation on
6 January 16, 1893, and to position themselves near the Hawaiian Government
7 buildings and the Iolani Palace to intimidate Queen Liliuokalani and her Government;

8 • Whereas, on the afternoon of January 17,1893, a Committee of Safety that
9 represented the American and European sugar planters, descendants of missionaries,
10 and financiers deposed the Hawaiian monarchy and proclaimed the establishment of a
11 Provisional Government;

12 • Whereas, the United States Minister thereupon extended diplomatic recognition to the
13 Provisional Government that was formed by the conspirators without the consent of
14 the Native Hawaiian people or the lawful Government of Hawaii and in violation of
15 treaties between the two nations and of international law;

16 • Whereas, soon thereafter, when informed of the risk of bloodshed with resistance,
17 Queen Liliuokalani issued the following statement yielding her authority to the
18 United States Government rather than to the Provisional Government:

19 I Liliuokalani, by the Grace of God and under the Constitution of the Hawaiian
20 Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against
21 myself and the Constitutional Government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain
22 persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this
23 Kingdom.
24 That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America whose Minister
25 Plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to
26 be landed a Honolulu and declared that he would support the Provisional
27 Government.
28 Now to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the loss of life, I do this
29 under protest and impelled by said force yield my authority until such time as the
30 Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the
31 action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the
32 Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.
33 Done at Honolulu this 17th day of January, A.D. 1893.

34 • Whereas, without the active support and intervention by the United States diplomatic
35 and military representatives, the insurrection against the Government of Queen
36 Liliuokalani would have failed for lack of popular support and insufficient arms;

37 • Whereas, on February 1, 1893, the United States Minister raised the American flag
38 and proclaimed Hawaii to be a protectorate of the United States;

35 35
1 • Whereas, the report of a Presidentially established investigation conducted by former
2 Congressman James Blount into the events surrounding the insurrection and
3 overthrow of January 17, 1893, concluded that the United States diplomatic and
4 military representatives had abused their authority and were responsible for the
5 change in government;

6 • Whereas, as a result of this investigation, the United States Minister to Hawaii was
7 recalled from his diplomatic post and the military commander of the United States
8 armed forces stationed in Hawaii was disciplined and forced to resign his
9 commission;

10 • Whereas, in a message to Congress on December 18, 1893, President Grover
11 Cleveland reported fully and accurately on the illegal acts of the conspirators,
12 described such acts as an "act of war, committed with the participation of a diplomatic
13 representative of the United States and without authority of Congress", and
14 acknowledged that by such acts the government of a peaceful and friendly people was
15 overthrown;

16 • Whereas, President Cleveland further concluded that a "substantial wrong has thus
17 been done which a due regard for our national character as well as the rights of the
18 injured people requires we should endeavor to repair" and called for the restoration of
19 the Hawaiian monarchy;

20 • Whereas, the Provisional Government protested President Cleveland's call for the
21 restoration of the monarchy and continued to hold state power and pursue annexation
22 to the United States;

23 • Whereas, the Provisional Government successfully lobbied the Committee on Foreign
24 Relations of the Senate (hereafter referred to in this Resolution as the "Committee")
25 to conduct a new investigation into the events surrounding the overthrow of the
26 monarchy;

27 • Whereas, the Committee and its chairman, Senator John Morgan, conducted hearings
28 in Washington, D.C., from December 27,1893, through February 26, 1894, in which
29 members of the Provisional Government justified and condoned the actions of the
30 United States Minister and recommended annexation of Hawaii;

31 • Whereas, although the Provisional Government was able to obscure the role of the
32 United States in the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, it was unable to
33 rally the support from two-thirds of the Senate needed to ratify a treaty of annexation;

34 • Whereas, on July 4, 1894, the Provisional Government declared itself to be the
35 Republic of Hawaii;

36 36
1 • Whereas, on January 24, 1895, while imprisoned in Iolani Palace, Queen Liliuokalani
2 was forced by representatives of the Republic of Hawaii to officially abdicate her
3 throne;

4 • Whereas, in the 1896 United States Presidential election, William McKinley replaced
5 Grover Cleveland;

6 • Whereas, on July 7, 1898, as a consequence of the Spanish-American War, President
7 McKinley signed the Newlands Joint Resolution that provided for the annexation of
8 Hawaii;

9 • Whereas, through the Newlands Resolution, the self-declared Republic of Hawaii
10 ceded sovereignty over the Hawaiian Islands to the United States;

11 • Whereas, the Republic of Hawaii also ceded 1,800,000 acres [7,280 km²] of crown,
12 government and public lands of the Kingdom of Hawaii, without the consent of or
13 compensation to the Native Hawaiian people of Hawaii or their sovereign
14 government;

15 • Whereas, the Congress, through the Newlands Resolution, ratified the cession,
16 annexed Hawaii as part of the United States, and vested title to the lands in Hawaii in
17 the United States;

18 • Whereas, the Newlands Resolution also specified that treaties existing between
19 Hawaii and foreign nations were to immediately cease and be replaced by United
20 States treaties with such nations;

21 • Whereas, the Newlands Resolution effected the transaction between the Republic of
22 Hawaii and the United States Government;

23 • Whereas, the indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their claims to
24 their inherent sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the United States,
25 either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or referendum;

26 • Whereas, on April 30, 1900, President McKinley signed the Organic Act that
27 provided a government for the territory of Hawaii and defined the political structure
28 and powers of the newly established Territorial Government and its relationship to the
29 United States;

30 • Whereas, on August 21, 1959, Hawaii became the 50th State of the United States;

31 • Whereas, the health and well-being of the Native Hawaiian people is intrinsically tied
32 to their deep feelings and attachment to the land;

37 37
1 • Whereas, the long-range economic and social changes in Hawaii over the nineteenth
2 and early twentieth centuries have been devastating to the population and to the
3 health and well-being of the Hawaiian people;

4 • Whereas, the Native Hawaiian people are determined to preserve, develop and
5 transmit to future generations their ancestral territory, and their cultural identity in
6 accordance with their own spiritual and traditional beliefs, customs, practices,
7 language, and social institutions;

8 • Whereas, in order to promote racial harmony and cultural understanding, the
9 Legislature of the State of Hawaii has determined that the year 1993, should serve
10 Hawaii as a year of special reflection on the rights and dignities of the Native
11 Hawaiians in the Hawaiian and the American societies;

12 • Whereas, the Eighteenth General Synod of the United Church of Christ in recognition
13 of the denomination's historical complicity in the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of
14 Hawaii in 1893 directed the Office of the President of the United Church of Christ to
15 offer a public apology to the Native Hawaiian people and to initiate the process of
16 reconciliation between the United Church of Christ and the Native Hawaiians; and

17 • Whereas, it is proper and timely for the Congress on the occasion of the impending
18 one hundredth anniversary of the event, to acknowledge the historic significance of
19 the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, to express its deep regret to the
20 Native Hawaiian people, and to support the reconciliation efforts of the State of
21 Hawaii and the United Church of Christ with Native Hawaiians;

22Now, therefore, be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
23States of America in Congress assembled,

24Section 1. Acknowledgment and Apology.

25 The Congress
26 (1) on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom
27 of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, acknowledges the historical significance of this event
28 which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian
29 people;
30 (2) recognizes and commends efforts of reconciliation initiated by the State of Hawaii
31 and the United Church of Christ with Native Hawaiians;
32 (3) apologizes to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for
33 the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893 with the participation
34 of agents and citizens of the United States, and the deprivation of the rights of Native
35 Hawaiians to self-determination;
36 (4) expresses its commitment to acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of
37 the Kingdom of Hawaii, in order to provide a proper foundation for reconciliation
38 between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people; and

38 38
1 (5) urges the President of the United States to also acknowledge the ramifications of
2 the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and to support reconciliation efforts
3 between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people.

4Section 2. Definitions.

5 As used in this Joint Resolution, the term "Native Hawaiians" means any individual
6 who is a descendent of the aboriginal people who, prior to 1778, occupied and
7 exercised sovereignty in the area that now constitutes the State of Hawaii.

8Section 3. Disclaimer.

9 Nothing in this Joint Resolution is intended to serve as a settlement of any claims
10 against the United States.
11
12Appendix 4:
13
14‘Aha Punana Leo website, “Nest Movement”
15http://www.ahapunanaleo.org/eng/resources/resources_nestmovement.html

16

17Hawaiian Language Nest Movement

18Hawaiians and others have long fought to save the Hawaiian language from extinction.
19During the territorial period, Hawaiian was used privately in churches and local laws were
20passed to promote the teaching of the Hawaiian language in the public schools and the
21university. Lack of control of the administration of the public schools and University of
22Hawai‘i resulted in these laws being poorly enforced for many years. In the 1950s, a major
23dictionary of 30,000 words was completed by the distinguished team of Hawaiian culture
24authority, Mary Kawena Pukui and linguist, Dr. Samuel Elbert. In the 1970s, a revitalization
25of interest in the Hawaiian culture resulted in the reestablishment of Hawaiian as an official
26language of the state of Hawai‘i and in a push to bring elders called kūpuna into the
27elementary school classrooms. This renewed interest gave rise to the establishment of
28Hawaiian Studies and Hawaiian Language B. A. degrees. Elementary, high school and even
29college programs brought better awareness and prestige to Hawaiian but did not produce
30sufficiently fluent students. Classes where taught through the medium of English and many
31students rapidly forgot the Hawaiian that they learned in class. During the Hawaiian
32Renaissance, a small group of students under the leadership of Larry Kimura, then a young
33teacher of Hawaiian language, began to work closely with Hawaiian elders. They only spoke
34Hawaiian to each other at all times. This lead to an increased fluency rate for this group of
35people. Some of these same students began to speak only Hawaiian to their babies. These
36children became the first new native speakers outside Ni‘ihau in fifty years. Also interacting

39 39
1with these students were a number of Polynesians attending the university in Hawai‘i,
2including Māori influential in developing the Māori language revival in New Zealand.

3In 1982, Tāmati Reedy, one of the Māori students, then head of the New Zealand Office of
4Māori Affairs, returned to Hawai‘i to inform the group led by Larry Kimura about the
5establishment of the Kōhanga Reo, language nest movement in New Zealand. These
6Kōhanga Reo brought preschool-aged children together with fluent speakers of the Māori
7language in settings where only the indigenous language was used. This contact led to the
8establishment of the ‘Aha Pūnana Leo in 1983 with Larry Kimura as the first president.
9When the movement began, there were less than 50 children under the age of 18 fluent in
10Hawaiian and an estimated 2,000 native speakers of Hawaiian, most of who were over the
11age of 70.

12The Pūnana Leo movement began with great difficulties. In spite of the status of Hawaiian as
13an official language of the state of Hawai‘i, legal barriers against use of Hawaiian in public
14and private schools still existed. The Hawaiian entities that might be expected to support the
15movement did not. The first language nest school opened on Kaua‘i in 1984 with a mixed
16enrollment of native speaking Ni‘ihau children and other Hawaiian children. At first, teachers
17could not bring themselves to speak only Hawaiian to the children. Regrettably, the native
18speaking children began to speak English and the other children did not gain Hawaiian
19fluency. That school was temporarily closed down for lack of funding while other schools
20opened in Honolulu and Hilo, where there were more parents able to support the schools
21through tuition as well as the support of Hawaiian speaking babies of Kimura's student
22group. Even with the increased resources of these locations, a system of required in-kind
23service, required parent meetings, and required parent language classes was instituted to
24strengthen the Pūnana Leo schools. These requirements have remained a major foundation of
25the Pūnana Leo program. In addition, a strict policy of no English in Pūnana Leo schools
26resulted in children rapidly learning and regularly using Hawaiian. Excitement grew among
27Hawaiians after seeing for the first time in more than 50 years, children speaking fluently in
28Hawaiian with their grandparents and with each other. The movement began to grow
29explosively and affected enrollments in Hawaiian language courses at the high school and
30college level dramatically.

31The use of Hawaiian language in Pūnana Leo was contrary to Hawai‘i state law as was the
32use of Hawaiian language in the public school serving the tiny population of native speaking
33children on isolated Ni‘ihau Island. For three years the Pūnana Leo families and Ilei
34Beniamina of Ni‘ihau lobbied the state legislature to change the law. Finally in 1987, the
35legislature made provisions for the use of Hawaiian in the Pūnana Leo schools and in public
36schools.

37In spite of the law allowing for Hawaiian as a medium of education in the public schools, the
38state Department of Education did not open schools in Hawaiian for Ni‘ihau children or for
39the children matriculating from the Pūnana Leo schools. In Hilo, Pūnana Leo parents kept
40their kindergarten aged children at the Pūnana Leo and established a boycott school called
41Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i or Hawaiian surrounding environment school. In Honolulu, Pūnana
42Leo children were assigned to a bilingual program taught by a speaker of the Philippine

40 40
1language, Ilocano. In 1987, after assistance from the legislature, a new administration in the
2Department of Education, and Dorothy Lazore of the Mohawk immersion program in
3Canada, the state established two experimental schools that they called Hawaiian language
4immersion schools and which Pūnana Leo families continued to call Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i.
5These initial schools were actually streams of Hawaiian classes within an English medium
6school with a staff and administration that knew no Hawaiian. Many Hawaiian language
7immersion schools continue with this model today.

8Over the next decade Pūnana Leo and Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i parents, with the support of
9‘Aha Pūnana Leo, struggled to develop and expand Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i and Hawaiian
10language education in general to the level that had existed prior to it being banned at the turn
11of the century. We sought full education through Hawaiian from preschool through high
12school. We sought teaching English as a second language beginning in fifth grade and having
13English taught through the medium of Hawaiian if the school so chose. We sought a
14guarantee that any Hawaiian speaking child would be guaranteed the right to education
15through the Hawaiian medium in the same way that any English speaking child had the right
16to be educated in English in Hawai‘i. We sought the hiring of teachers who were certified as
17having fluency in Hawaiian that was equal to the level of English fluency required in the
18English medium classrooms. We sought text books and other teaching materials in Hawaiian.
19We sought the right to bus service to Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i for all children attending in the
20same way that children attending English language schools all have the right to bus
21transportation to their schools. We sought testing in Hawaiian for our children in the same
22way that children in English schools had their children tested through the language of the
23school. Finally we sought to establish total Hawaiian medium schools where the principal,
24librarian, cooks, and entire staff spoke Hawaiian.

25There have been many victories. Pūnana Leo language nests have expanded to eleven sites
26throughout Hawai‘i. In these same communities, parents fought for a new Kula Kaiapuni
27Hawai‘i to be established, often by first holding a boycott school at the local Pūnana Leo. So
28far, Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i have subsequently opened in these communities. State and
29federal funds have been appropriated for curriculum development and teacher training.
30Although much needs to be done in this area, children are being provided with classroom
31materials. The ‘Aha Pūnana Leo is a major source of such curriculum, including
32technological support through a statewide Hawaiian language based computer system and
33printed and non-printed materials in Hawaiian.

34The State Board of Education rewarded the resolve of Pūnana Leo and Kula Kaiapuni
35Hawai‘i families by allowing the establishment of Hawaiian medium education through
36grade 12. We have been successful in having the state approve teaching English as a course
37beginning in grade five and continuing on as a yearly course through high school. The state
38also agreed to establish two schools taught and administered solely through the Hawaiian
39language. The state established one such school on its own called Ke Kula Kaiapuni ‘O
40Ānuenue, but this site has had to continue to battle state policies that treat Hawaiian as
41secondary to English. Ānuenue has an elementary through high school program in Hawaiian.
42Other than Ānuenue and Pūnana Leo k-12 model sites described later below, Kula Kaiapuni

41 41
1Hawai‘i feed into English intermediate and high schools where some courses are taught
2through Hawaiian and others are taught through English.

3Areas that still need attention are a guarantee that Hawaiian speaking children may choose
4Hawaiian medium education and receive transportation to their schools. The state generally
5treats Hawaiian language education as if it were enrichment, foreign language education.
6Because of this perspective, Hawaiian speaking children are seen as having no right to
7education in Hawaiian. Furthermore, fluency in Hawaiian is not a minimum qualification for
8employment in Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i. This policy has resulted in some teachers being hired
9who were less fluent in Hawaiian than incoming Pūnana Leo children. Hawaiian fluency
10among administrative and support staff is supported even less in any totally state run Kula
11Kaiapuni Hawai‘i due to union contracts similar to those that hinder the requirement of
12Hawaiian fluency for teachers. Testing of students in Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i through
13Hawaiian has not been provided in spite of federal government recognition that national
14standardized tests as used in Hawai‘i are biased against minority children even when such
15children are educated through English in that such tests do not have a distinct minority
16culture focus. In spite of the lack of tests in Hawaiian focusing on the unique content and
17approach of Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i, students in these schools appear to be outperforming the
18average for Hawaiian children in Hawai‘i public schools.

19The ‘Aha Pūnana Leo has strived to bring Kula Kaiapuni Hawai‘i to a higher level by
20forming special sites with model laboratory schools where Hawaiian is the administrative and
21operational language as well as the classroom language. This has been done in cooperation
22with the Department of Education and the laboratory school program of Ka Haka ‘Ula O
23Ke‘elikōlani College of Hawaiian Language of the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. These
24schools were initially developed primarily because the Department of Education has not been
25able to actuate plans to develop such sites on its own. Presently, three such schools are in
26operation. One, Ke Kula Ni‘ihau O Kekaha, in Kekaha on the island of Kaua‘i is open to all
27native speakers of the Ni‘ihau dialect of Hawaiian. It strives to develop a total Ni‘ihau dialect
28speaking teaching and support staff. Another, Ke Kula ‘o S. M. Kamakau in Kāne‘ohe on the
29island of O‘ahu, is home to a Pūnana Leo as well as the K-12 program. Ke Kula o Kamakau
30strives to enroll whole families into the program, providing comprehensive multi-age
31grouped programming for children and complimentary programming for adults. The third
32school, Ke Kula ‘O Nāwahīokalani‘ōpu‘u, is also home to a Pūnana Leo and K-1 school. The
33location of Nāwahīokalani‘ōpu‘u on ‘APL controlled property has allowed for the
34development of an extensive program of environmental/agriculture science and student
35involvement with ‘Aha Pūnana Leo curriculum development and outreach programs. A
36consortium agreement with Ka Haka ‘Ula O Ke‘elikōlani College has allowed for early
37enrollment in college courses as well. During their senior year, the first graduating class at
38Nāwahīokalani‘ōpu‘u concurrently enrolled for between nine and eleven college credits each,
39earning college grade point averages ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. They not only succeeded in
40these courses taught through English, but they all also passed the English composition
41placement examination which many Hawaiian students from English medium high schools
42have difficulty passing.

42 42
1The first students educated entirely in Hawaiian graduated in 1999. This group of eleven
2students from Ke Kula ‘O Ānuenue (6) and Ke Kula ‘O Nāwahīokalani‘ōpu‘u (5) were the
3first to graduate from totally Hawaiian medium schools in over one hundred years. In the
42005-2006 school year, there were approximately 2,000 students enrolled in programs taught
5through Hawaiian from preschool through high school. In addition, there has been much
6growth in the teaching of Hawaiian at other levels. Of particular note is the expansion of the
7‘Aha Pūnana Leo's consortium partner at the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo to become Ka
8Haka ‘Ula O Ke‘elikōlani College of Hawaiian Language, the first Native American
9language college in the United States. This college offers an MA in Hawaiian language and
10literature which is the first MA in a specific Native American language and also a teaching
11certificate taught through Hawaiian, another first for a Native American language. The
12successes demonstrated in programs developed by the consortium led to the approval of
13Doctorate Degree Program to the Hawaiian Language College.

14
15
16
17
18Appendix 5 (A & B)
19
20Popularity of Bilingualism in Canada
21

22A. From: http://www.officiallanguages.gc.ca/html/anniversary_anniversaire_e.php
2340th anniversary

24
252008–2009 Annual Report

26On May 26, 2009, the Commissioner of Official Languages released his 2008–2009 annual
27report, in which one chapter is devoted to the 40 years of the Official Languages Act.

28The Official Languages Act is celebrating its 40th anniversary. So much has changed since
291969! Over time, Canada has grown from a country where English predominates to a country

43 43
1proud of its two official languages. Support for bilingualism among Canadians is at an
2all-time high, and dynamic official language communities are thriving across the country.

3The enactment of the Act, combined with several other factors, triggered a series of advances
4in all areas of society. It is therefore an important milestone of our history that we are
5celebrating today.

6I invite you to take advantage of this anniversary to look back on the progress we have made,
7celebrate our achievements and our victories, and reflect on the future of our official
8languages.

9Happy anniversary!

10
11
12B. Canada's Performance Report 2006-07 – Annexes
13
14 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/reports-rapports/cp-rc/2006-2007/ann/ann12-eng.asp
15

16A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion

17Indicators

18Attitudes toward diversity
19Attitudes toward linguistic duality
20Volunteerism
21Political participation

22Attitudes toward diversity

44 44
1
2Current performance and trends

3As an attitude toward diversity, personal tolerance of others increased slightly between 1991
4and 2004. For example, 29.0 per cent of Canadians believe they are more tolerant toward
5ethnic groups, an increase of 6 percentage points; 65.0 per cent feel there has been no
6change, an increase of 3.0 per cent; and 8.0 per cent believe they are less tolerant, a decrease
7of 2.0 per cent.

8Meanwhile, support for affirmative action and employment equity declined between 1985
9and 2004, falling from 44.0 per cent to 28.0 per cent of Canadians agreeing with the idea that
10"Government should require employers to advance non-whites to higher positions."
11(Environics, 2004 Focus Canada–Multiculturalism and Ethnic Tolerance)

12Attitudes toward linguistic duality

45 45
1
2Current performance and trends

3In 2006, 72 per cent of Canadians said they personally favour bilingualism for all of Canada,
4representing a 16-per-cent increase since 2003 (56 per cent).

5This increase is due to greater support from Anglophones. In fact, the gap between
6Anglophones' and Francophones' support for bilingualism for all of Canada has gradually
7diminished over the years. While the support among Anglophones increased by 14per cent
8from 1991 to 2003 (a 12-year period), it grew by a robust 19 per cent from 2003 to 2006.
9Meanwhile, the percentage of Francophones in favour of bilingualism in Canada stayed
10relatively stable between 2003 and 2006, moving from 88 per cent to 90 per cent.

11Moreover, the Canadian public continues to view bilingualism as an advantage, both in
12personal and economic terms. In 2006, 68.7 per cent of Canadians agree that having French
13as well as English spoken in Canada enhances employment and business opportunities for all
14Canadians.

46 46
1Finally, seven out of 10 Canadians think that living in a country with two official languages
2is one of the things that really define what it means to be Canadian. (Decima Research, The
3Evolution of Public Opinion on Official Languages in Canada, 2006)

4Additional Information:

5Public opinion polls indicated that most (82%) of Canadians agree that Canada's
6multicultural make-up is one of the best things about Canada. This represents a 5 point
7increase from when Canadians were asked about this topic in 1993. (Ipsos Reid, Public
8Release Date: June 17, 2007)

9Nearly two-thirds of Canadians aged 12 and over have a strong sense of belonging to their
10local community. Residents of Atlantic Canada reported stronger feelings of community
11belonging, with Newfoundland and Labrador reporting the highest rates in the country. The
12findings also showed associations between community belonging and self-perceived general
13health–two-thirds of those who felt a very strong or somewhat strong sense of community
14belonging also reported excellent or very good general health. (Statistics Canada, The Daily,
15December 21, 2005)

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

47 47
1Appendix 6 (A & B)
2

3A. Canada Official Languages Act
4
5Website: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/ShowFullDoc/cs/O-3.01//20090812/en
6

Official Languages Act ( 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.) )
Act current to June 22nd, 2009
Attention: See coming into force provision and notes, where applicable.
Table Of Contents

Official Languages Act
1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.)

An Act respecting the status and use of the official languages of Canada

NOTE

[1988, c. 38, assented to 28th July, 1988]

Preamble

WHEREAS the Constitution of Canada provides that English and French are the official
languages of Canada and have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use
in all institutions of the Parliament and government of Canada;

AND WHEREAS the Constitution of Canada provides for full and equal access to
Parliament, to the laws of Canada and to courts established by Parliament in both official
languages;

AND WHEREAS the Constitution of Canada also provides for guarantees relating to the
right of any member of the public to communicate with, and to receive available services
from, any institution of the Parliament or government of Canada in either official language;

AND WHEREAS officers and employees of institutions of the Parliament or government
of Canada should have equal opportunities to use the official language of their choice while
working together in pursuing the goals of those institutions;

AND WHEREAS English-speaking Canadians and French-speaking Canadians should,

48 48
without regard to their ethnic origin or first language learned, have equal opportunities to
obtain employment in the institutions of the Parliament or government of Canada;

AND WHEREAS the Government of Canada is committed to achieving, with due regard
to the principle of selection of personnel according to merit, full participation of English-
speaking Canadians and French-speaking Canadians in its institutions;

AND WHEREAS the Government of Canada is committed to enhancing the vitality and
supporting the development of English and French linguistic minority communities, as an
integral part of the two official language communities of Canada, and to fostering full
recognition and use of English and French in Canadian society;

AND WHEREAS the Government of Canada is committed to cooperating with provincial
governments and their institutions to support the development of English and French
linguistic minority communities, to provide services in both English and French, to respect the
constitutional guarantees of minority language educational rights and to enhance opportunities
for all to learn both English and French;

AND WHEREAS the Government of Canada is committed to enhancing the bilingual
character of the National Capital Region and to encouraging the business community, labour
organizations and voluntary organizations in Canada to foster the recognition and use of
English and French;

AND WHEREAS the Government of Canada recognizes the importance of preserving and
enhancing the use of languages other than English and French while strengthening the status
and use of the official languages;

NOW, THEREFORE, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and
House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:

SHORT TITLE

Short title

1. This Act may be cited as the Official Languages Act.

PURPOSE OF ACT

Purpose

49 49
2. The purpose of this Act is to

(a) ensure respect for English and French as the official languages of Canada and ensure
equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all federal institutions, in
particular with respect to their use in parliamentary proceedings, in legislative and other
instruments, in the administration of justice, in communicating with or providing services to
the public and in carrying out the work of federal institutions;

(b) support the development of English and French linguistic minority communities and
generally advance the equality of status and use of the English and French languages within
Canadian society; and

(c) set out the powers, duties and functions of federal institutions with respect to the official
languages of Canada.

INTERPRETATION

Definitions

3. (1) In this Act,

"Commissioner"
« commissaire »

"Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Official Languages for Canada appointed under
section 49;

"Crown corporation"
« sociétés d’État »

"Crown corporation" means

(a) a corporation that is ultimately accountable, through a Minister, to Parliament for the
conduct of its affairs, and

(b) a parent Crown corporation or a wholly-owned subsidiary, within the meaning of section
83 of the Financial Administration Act;

"department"
« ministère »

50 50
"department" means a department as defined in section 2 of the Financial Administration Act;

"federal institution"
« institutions fédérales »

"federal institution" includes any of the following institutions of the Parliament or government
of Canada:

(a) the Senate,

(b) the House of Commons,

(c) the Library of Parliament,

(c.1) the office of the Senate Ethics Officer and the office of the Conflict of Interest and Ethics
Commissioner,

(d) any federal court,

(e) any board, commission or council, or other body or office, established to perform a
governmental function by or pursuant to an Act of Parliament or by or under the authority of
the Governor in Council,

(f) a department of the Government of Canada,

(g) a Crown corporation established by or pursuant to an Act of Parliament, and

(h) any other body that is specified by an Act of Parliament to be an agent of Her Majesty in
right of Canada or to be subject to the direction of the Governor in Council or a minister of the
Crown,

but does not include

(i) any institution of the Council or government of the Northwest Territories or of the
Legislative Assembly or government of Yukon or Nunavut, or

(j) any Indian band, band council or other body established to perform a governmental
function in relation to an Indian band or other group of aboriginal people;

"National Capital Region"
« région de la capitale nationale »

"National Capital Region" means the National Capital Region described in the schedule to the

51 51
National Capital Act.

Definition of “federal court”

(2) In this section and in Parts II and III, "federal court" means any court, tribunal or other
body that carries out adjudicative functions and is established by or pursuant to an Act of
Parliament.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 3; 1993, c. 28, s. 78; 2002, c. 7, s. 224; 2004, c. 7, s. 26; 2006,
c. 9, s. 20.

PART I
PROCEEDINGS OF PARLIAMENT

Official languages of Parliament

4. (1) English and French are the official languages of Parliament, and everyone has the right
to use either of those languages in any debates and other proceedings of Parliament.

Simultaneous interpretation

(2) Facilities shall be made available for the simultaneous interpretation of the debates and
other proceedings of Parliament from one official language into the other.

Official reports

(3) Everything reported in official reports of debates or other proceedings of Parliament shall
be reported in the official language in which it was said and a translation thereof into the other
official language shall be included therewith.

PART II
LEGISLATIVE AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS

Journals and other records

5. The journals and other records of Parliament shall be made and kept, and shall be printed
and published, in both official languages.

Acts of Parliament

6. All Acts of Parliament shall be enacted, printed and published in both official languages.

Legislative instruments

7. (1) Any instrument made in the execution of a legislative power conferred by or under an

52 52
Act of Parliament that

(a) is made by, or with the approval of, the Governor in Council or one or more ministers of
the Crown,

(b) is required by or pursuant to an Act of Parliament to be published in the Canada Gazette,
or

(c) is of a public and general nature

shall be made in both official languages and, if printed and published, shall be printed and
published in both official languages.

Instruments under prerogative or other executive power

(2) All instruments made in the exercise of a prerogative or other executive power that are of a
public and general nature shall be made in both official languages and, if printed and
published, shall be printed and published in both official languages.

Exceptions

(3) Subsection (1) does not apply to

(a) an ordinance of the Northwest Territories or a law made by the Legislature of Yukon or the
Legislature for Nunavut, or any instrument made under any such ordinance or law, or

(b) a by-law, law or other instrument of an Indian band, band council or other body
established to perform a governmental function in relation to an Indian band or other group of
aboriginal people,

by reason only that the ordinance, by-law, law or other instrument is of a public and general
nature.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 7; 1993, c. 28, s. 78; 2002, c. 7, s. 225.

Documents in Parliament

8. Any document made by or under the authority of a federal institution that is tabled in the
Senate or the House of Commons by the Government of Canada shall be tabled in both
official languages.

Rules, etc., governing practice and procedure

9. All rules, orders and regulations governing the practice or procedure in any proceedings

53 53
before a federal court shall be made, printed and published in both official languages.

International treaties

10. (1) The Government of Canada shall take all possible measures to ensure that any treaty or
convention between Canada and one or more other states is authenticated in both official
languages.

Federal-provincial agreements

(2) The Government of Canada has the duty to ensure that the following classes of agreements
between Canada and one or more provinces are made in both official languages and that both
versions are equally authoritative:

(a) agreements that require the authorization of Parliament or the Governor in Council to be
effective;

(b) agreements entered into with one or more provinces where English and French are
declared to be the official languages of any of those provinces or where any of those provinces
requests that the agreement be made in English and French; and

(c) agreements entered into with two or more provinces where the governments of those
provinces do not use the same official language.

Regulations

(3) The Governor in Council may make regulations prescribing the circumstances in which
any class, specified in the regulations, of agreements that are made between Canada and one
or more other states or between Canada and one or more provinces

(a) must be made in both official languages;

(b) must be made available in both official languages at the time of signing or publication; or

(c) must, on request, be translated.

Notices, advertisements and other matters that are published

11. (1) A notice, advertisement or other matter that is required or authorized by or pursuant to
an Act of Parliament to be published by or under the authority of a federal institution
primarily for the information of members of the public shall,

(a) wherever possible, be printed in one of the official languages in at least one publication in
general circulation within each region where the matter applies that appears wholly or mainly
in that language and in the other official language in at least one publication in general

54 54
circulation within each region where the matter applies that appears wholly or mainly in that
other language; and

(b) where there is no publication in general circulation within a region where the matter
applies that appears wholly or mainly in English or no such publication that appears wholly or
mainly in French, be printed in both official languages in at least one publication in general
circulation within that region.

Equal prominence

(2) Where a notice, advertisement or other matter is printed in one or more publications
pursuant to subsection (1), it shall be given equal prominence in each official language.

Instruments directed to the public

12. All instruments directed to or intended for the notice of the public, purporting to be made
or issued by or under the authority of a federal institution, shall be made or issued in both
official languages.

Both versions simultaneous and equally authoritative

13. Any journal, record, Act of Parliament, instrument, document, rule, order, regulation,
treaty, convention, agreement, notice, advertisement or other matter referred to in this Part that
is made, enacted, printed, published or tabled in both official languages shall be made,
enacted, printed, published or tabled simultaneously in both languages, and both language
versions are equally authoritative.

PART III
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

Official languages of federal courts

14. English and French are the official languages of the federal courts, and either of those
languages may be used by any person in, or in any pleading in or process issuing from, any
federal court.

Hearing of witnesses in official language of choice

15. (1) Every federal court has, in any proceedings before it, the duty to ensure that any
person giving evidence before it may be heard in the official language of his choice, and that
in being so heard the person will not be placed at a disadvantage by not being heard in the
other official language.

Duty to provide simultaneous interpretation

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(2) Every federal court has, in any proceedings conducted before it, the duty to ensure that, at
the request of any party to the proceedings, facilities are made available for the simultaneous
interpretation of the proceedings, including the evidence given and taken, from one official
language into the other.

Federal court may provide simultaneous interpretation

(3) A federal court may, in any proceedings conducted before it, cause facilities to be made
available for the simultaneous interpretation of the proceedings, including evidence given and
taken, from one official language into the other where it considers the proceedings to be of
general public interest or importance or where it otherwise considers it desirable to do so for
members of the public in attendance at the proceedings.

Duty to ensure understanding without an interpreter

16. (1) Every federal court, other than the Supreme Court of Canada, has the duty to ensure
that

(a) if English is the language chosen by the parties for proceedings conducted before it in any
particular case, every judge or other officer who hears those proceedings is able to understand
English without the assistance of an interpreter;

(b) if French is the language chosen by the parties for proceedings conducted before it in any
particular case, every judge or other officer who hears those proceedings is able to understand
French without the assistance of an interpreter; and

(c) if both English and French are the languages chosen by the parties for proceedings
conducted before it in any particular case, every judge or other officer who hears those
proceedings is able to understand both languages without the assistance of an interpreter.

Adjudicative functions

(2) For greater certainty, subsection (1) applies to a federal court only in relation to its
adjudicative functions.

Limitation

(3) No federal court, other than the Federal Court of Appeal, the Federal Court or the Tax
Court of Canada, is required to comply with subsection (1) until five years after that
subsection comes into force.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 16; 2002, c. 8, s. 155.

Authority to make implementing rules

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17. (1) The Governor in Council may make any rules governing the procedure in proceedings
before any federal court, other than the Supreme Court of Canada, the Federal Court of
Appeal, the Federal Court or the Tax Court of Canada, including rules respecting the giving of
notice, that the Governor in Council deems necessary to enable that federal court to comply
with sections 15 and 16 in the exercise of any of its powers or duties.

Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal, Federal Court and Tax Court of Canada

(2) Subject to the approval of the Governor in Council, the Supreme Court of Canada, the
Federal Court of Appeal, the Federal Court and the Tax Court of Canada may make any rules
governing the procedure in their own proceedings, including rules respecting the giving of
notice, that they deem necessary to enable themselves to comply with sections 15 and 16 in
the exercise of any of their powers or duties.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 17; 2002, c. 8, s. 156.

Language of civil proceedings where Her Majesty is a party

18. Where Her Majesty in right of Canada or a federal institution is a party to civil
proceedings before a federal court,

(a) Her Majesty or the institution concerned shall use, in any oral or written pleadings in the
proceedings, the official language chosen by the other parties unless it is established by Her
Majesty or the institution that reasonable notice of the language chosen has not been given;
and

(b) if the other parties fail to choose or agree on the official language to be used in those
pleadings, Her Majesty or the institution concerned shall use such official language as is
reasonable, having regard to the circumstances.

Bilingual forms

19. (1) The pre-printed portion of any form that is used in proceedings before a federal court
and is required to be served by any federal institution that is a party to the proceedings on any
other party shall be in both official languages.

Particular details

(2) The particular details that are added to a form referred to in subsection (1) may be set out
in either official language but, where the details are set out in only one official language, it
shall be clearly indicated on the form that a translation of the details into the other official
language may be obtained, and, if a request for a translation is made, a translation shall be
made available forthwith by the party that served the form.

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Decisions, orders and judgments that must be made available simultaneously

20. (1) Any final decision, order or judgment, including any reasons given therefor, issued by
any federal court shall be made available simultaneously in both official languages where

(a) the decision, order or judgment determines a question of law of general public interest or
importance; or

(b) the proceedings leading to its issuance were conducted in whole or in part in both official
languages.

Other decisions, orders and judgments

(2) Where

(a) any final decision, order or judgment issued by a federal court is not required by
subsection (1) to be made available simultaneously in both official languages, or

(b) the decision, order or judgment is required by paragraph (1)(a) to be made available
simultaneously in both official languages but the court is of the opinion that to make the
decision, order or judgment, including any reasons given therefor, available simultaneously in
both official languages would occasion a delay prejudicial to the public interest or resulting in
injustice or hardship to any party to the proceedings leading to its issuance,

the decision, order or judgment, including any reasons given therefor, shall be issued in the
first instance in one of the official languages and thereafter, at the earliest possible time, in the
other official language, each version to be effective from the time the first version is effective.

Oral rendition of decisions not affected

(3) Nothing in subsection (1) or (2) shall be construed as prohibiting the oral rendition or
delivery, in only one of the official languages, of any decision, order or judgment or any
reasons given therefor.

Decisions not invalidated

(4) No decision, order or judgment issued by a federal court is invalid by reason only that it
was not made or issued in both official languages.

PART IV
COMMUNICATIONS WITH AND SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC

Communications and Services

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Rights relating to language of communication

21. Any member of the public in Canada has the right to communicate with and to receive
available services from federal institutions in accordance with this Part.

Where communications and services must be in both official languages

22. Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that any member of the public can
communicate with and obtain available services from its head or central office in either
official language, and has the same duty with respect to any of its other offices or facilities

(a) within the National Capital Region; or

(b) in Canada or elsewhere, where there is significant demand for communications with and
services from that office or facility in that language.

Travelling public

23. (1) For greater certainty, every federal institution that provides services or makes them
available to the travelling public has the duty to ensure that any member of the travelling
public can communicate with and obtain those services in either official language from any
office or facility of the institution in Canada or elsewhere where there is significant demand
for those services in that language.

Services provided pursuant to a contract

(2) Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that such services to the travelling public as
may be prescribed by regulation of the Governor in Council that are provided or made
available by another person or organization pursuant to a contract with the federal institution
for the provision of those services at an office or facility referred to in subsection (1) are
provided or made available, in both official languages, in the manner prescribed by regulation
of the Governor in Council.

Nature of the office

24. (1) Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that any member of the public can
communicate in either official language with, and obtain available services in either official
language from, any of its offices or facilities in Canada or elsewhere

(a) in any circumstances prescribed by regulation of the Governor in Council that relate to any
of the following:

(i) the health, safety or security of members of the public,

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(ii) the location of the office or facility, or

(iii) the national or international mandate of the office; or

(b) in any other circumstances prescribed by regulation of the Governor in Council where, due
to the nature of the office or facility, it is reasonable that communications with and services
from that office or facility be available in both official languages.

Institutions reporting directly to Parliament

(2) Any federal institution that reports directly to Parliament on any of its activities has the
duty to ensure that any member of the public can communicate with and obtain available
services from all of its offices or facilities in Canada or elsewhere in either official language.

Idem

(3) Without restricting the generality of subsection (2), the duty set out in that subsection
applies in respect of

(a) the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages;

(b) the Office of the Chief Electoral Officer;

(b.1) the Office of the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner;

(c) the Office of the Auditor General;

(d) the Office of the Information Commissioner;

(e) the Office of the Privacy Commissioner; and

(f) the Office of the Commissioner of Lobbying.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 24; 2005, c. 46, s. 56.5; 2006, c. 9, ss. 96, 222.

Services Provided on behalf of Federal Institutions
Where services provided on behalf of federal institutions

25. Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that, where services are provided or made
available by another person or organization on its behalf, any member of the public in Canada
or elsewhere can communicate with and obtain those services from that person or organization
in either official language in any case where those services, if provided by the institution,
would be required under this Part to be provided in either official language.

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Regulatory Activities of Federal Institutions
Regulatory activities relating to health, safety and security of public

26. Every federal institution that regulates persons or organizations with respect to any of their
activities that relate to the health, safety or security of members of the public has the duty to
ensure, through its regulation of those persons or organizations, wherever it is reasonable to
do so in the circumstances, that members of the public can communicate with and obtain
available services from those persons or organizations in relation to those activities in both
official languages.

General
Obligations relating to communications and services

27. Wherever in this Part there is a duty in respect of communications and services in both
official languages, the duty applies in respect of oral and written communications and in
respect of any documents or activities that relate to those communications or services.

Active offer

28. Every federal institution that is required under this Part to ensure that any member of the
public can communicate with and obtain available services from an office or facility of that
institution, or of another person or organization on behalf of that institution, in either official
language shall ensure that appropriate measures are taken, including the provision of signs,
notices and other information on services and the initiation of communication with the public,
to make it known to members of the public that those services are available in either official
language at the choice of any member of the public.

Signs identifying offices

29. Where a federal institution identifies any of its offices or facilities with signs, each sign
shall include both official languages or be placed together with a similar sign of equal
prominence in the other official language.

Manner of communicating

30. Subject to Part II, where a federal institution is engaged in communications with members
of the public in both official languages as required in this Part, it shall communicate by using
such media of communication as will reach members of the public in the official language of
their choice in an effective and efficient manner that is consistent with the purposes of this
Act.

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Relationship to Part V

31. In the event of any inconsistency between this Part and Part V, this Part prevails to the
extent of the inconsistency.

Regulations
Regulations

32. (1) The Governor in Council may make regulations

(a) prescribing the circumstances in which there is significant demand for the purpose of
paragraph 22(b) or subsection 23(1);

(b) prescribing circumstances not otherwise provided for under this Part in which federal
institutions have the duty to ensure that any member of the public can communicate with and
obtain available services from offices of the institution in either official language;

(c) prescribing services, and the manner in which those services are to be provided or made
available, for the purpose of subsection 23(2);

(d) prescribing circumstances, in relation to the public or the travelling public, for the purpose
of paragraph 24(1)(a) or (b); and

(e) defining the expression “English or French linguistic minority population” for the purpose
of paragraph (2)(a).

Where circumstances prescribed under paragraph (1)(a) or (b)

(2) In prescribing circumstances under paragraph (1)(a) or (b), the Governor in Council may
have regard to

(a) the number of persons composing the English or French linguistic minority population of
the area served by an office or facility, the particular characteristics of that population and the
proportion of that population to the total population of that area;

(b) the volume of communications or services between an office or facility and members of
the public using each official language; and

(c) any other factors that the Governor in Council considers appropriate.

Regulations

33. The Governor in Council may make any regulations that the Governor in Council deems
necessary to foster actively communications with and services from offices or facilities of

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federal institutions — other than the Senate, House of Commons, Library of Parliament, office
of the Senate Ethics Officer or office of the Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner —
in both official languages, if those communications and services are required under this Part to
be provided in both official languages.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 33; 2004, c. 7, s. 27; 2006, c. 9, s. 21.

PART V
LANGUAGE OF WORK

Rights relating to language of work

34. English and French are the languages of work in all federal institutions, and officers and
employees of all federal institutions have the right to use either official language in
accordance with this Part.

Duties of government

35. (1) Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that

(a) within the National Capital Region and in any part or region of Canada, or in any place
outside Canada, that is prescribed, work environments of the institution are conducive to the
effective use of both official languages and accommodate the use of either official language
by its officers and employees; and

(b) in all parts or regions of Canada not prescribed for the purpose of paragraph (a), the
treatment of both official languages in the work environments of the institution in parts or
regions of Canada where one official language predominates is reasonably comparable to the
treatment of both official languages in the work environments of the institution in parts or
regions of Canada where the other official language predominates.

Regions of Canada prescribed

(2) The regions of Canada set out in Annex B of the part of the Treasury Board and Public
Service Commission Circular No. 1977-46 of September 30, 1977 that is entitled “Official
Languages in the Public Service of Canada: A Statement of Policies” are prescribed for the
purpose of paragraph (1)(a).

Minimum duties in relation to prescribed regions

36. (1) Every federal institution has the duty, within the National Capital Region and in any
part or region of Canada, or in any place outside Canada, that is prescribed for the purpose of
paragraph 35(1)(a), to

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(a) make available in both official languages to officers and employees of the institution

(i) services that are provided to officers and employees, including services that are provided to
them as individuals and services that are centrally provided by the institution to support them
in the performance of their duties, and

(ii) regularly and widely used work instruments produced by or on behalf of that or any other
federal institution;

(b) ensure that regularly and widely used automated systems for the processing and
communication of data acquired or produced by the institution on or after January 1, 1991 can
be used in either official language; and

(c) ensure that,

(i) where it is appropriate or necessary in order to create a work environment that is conducive
to the effective use of both official languages, supervisors are able to communicate in both
official languages with officers and employees of the institution in carrying out their
supervisory responsibility, and

(ii) any management group that is responsible for the general direction of the institution as a
whole has the capacity to function in both official languages.

Additional duties in prescribed regions

(2) Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that, within the National Capital Region
and in any part or region of Canada, or in any place outside Canada, that is prescribed for the
purpose of paragraph 35(1)(a), such measures are taken in addition to those required under
subsection (1) as can reasonably be taken to establish and maintain work environments of the
institution that are conducive to the effective use of both official languages and accommodate
the use of either official language by its officers and employees.

Special duties for institutions directing or providing services to others

37. Every federal institution that has authority to direct, or provides services to, other federal
institutions has the duty to ensure that it exercises its powers and carries out its duties in
relation to those other institutions in a manner that accommodates the use of either official
language by officers and employees of those institutions.

Regulations

38. (1) The Governor in Council may make regulations in respect of federal institutions, other
than the Senate, House of Commons, Library of Parliament, office of the Senate Ethics
Officer or office of the Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner,

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(a) prescribing, in respect of any part or region of Canada or any place outside Canada,

(i) any services or work instruments that are to be made available by those institutions in both
official languages to officers or employees of those institutions,

(ii) any automated systems for the processing and communication of data that must be
available for use in both official languages, and

(iii) any supervisory or management functions that are to be carried out by those institutions in
both official languages;

(b) prescribing any other measures that are to be taken, within the National Capital Region
and in any part or region of Canada, or in any place outside Canada, that is prescribed for the
purpose of paragraph 35(1)(a), to establish and maintain work environments of those
institutions that are conducive to the effective use of both official languages and accommodate
the use of either official language by their officers and employees;

(c) requiring that either or both official languages be used in communications with offices of
those institutions that are located in any part or region of Canada, or any place outside
Canada, specified in the regulations;

(d) prescribing the manner in which any duties of those institutions under this Part or the
regulations made under this Part in relation to the use of both official languages are to be
carried out; and

(e) prescribing obligations of those institutions in relation to the use of the official languages
of Canada by the institutions in respect of offices in parts or regions of Canada not prescribed
for the purpose of paragraph 35(1)(a), having regard to the equality of status of both official
languages.

Idem

(2) The Governor in Council may make regulations

(a) adding to or deleting from the regions of Canada prescribed by subsection 35(2) or
prescribing any other part or region of Canada, or any place outside Canada, for the purpose
of paragraph 35(1)(a), having regard to

(i) the number and proportion of English-speaking and French-speaking officers and
employees who constitute the work force of federal institutions based in the parts, regions or
places prescribed,

(ii) the number and proportion of English-speaking and French-speaking persons resident in
the parts or regions prescribed, and

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(iii) any other factors that the Governor in Council considers appropriate; and

(b) substituting, with respect to any federal institution other than the Senate, House of
Commons, Library of Parliament, office of the Senate Ethics Officer or office of the Conflict
of Interest and Ethics Commissioner, a duty in relation to the use of the official languages of
Canada in place of a duty under section 36 or the regulations made under subsection (1),
having regard to the equality of status of both official languages, if there is a demonstrable
conflict between the duty under section 36 or the regulations and the mandate of the
institution.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 38; 2004, c. 7, s. 28; 2006, c. 9, s. 22.

PART VI
PARTICIPATION OF ENGLISH-SPEAKING AND FRENCH-SPEAKING
CANADIANS

Commitment to equal opportunities and equitable participation

39. (1) The Government of Canada is committed to ensuring that

(a) English-speaking Canadians and French-speaking Canadians, without regard to their
ethnic origin or first language learned, have equal opportunities to obtain employment and
advancement in federal institutions; and

(b) the composition of the work-force of federal institutions tends to reflect the presence of
both the official language communities of Canada, taking into account the characteristics of
individual institutions, including their mandates, the public they serve and their location.

Employment opportunities

(2) In carrying out the commitment of the Government of Canada under subsection (1),
federal institutions shall ensure that employment opportunities are open to both English-
speaking Canadians and French-speaking Canadians, taking due account of the purposes and
provisions of Parts IV and V in relation to the appointment and advancement of officers and
employees by those institutions and the determination of the terms and conditions of their
employment.

Merit principle

(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed as abrogating or derogating from the principle of
selection of personnel according to merit.

Regulations

40. The Governor in Council may make such regulations as the Governor in Council deems

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necessary to carry out the purposes and provisions of this Part.

PART VII
ADVANCEMENT OF ENGLISH AND FRENCH

Government policy

41. (1) The Government of Canada is committed to

(a) enhancing the vitality of the English and French linguistic minority communities in
Canada and supporting and assisting their development; and

(b) fostering the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society.

Duty of federal institutions

(2) Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that positive measures are taken for the
implementation of the commitments under subsection (1). For greater certainty, this
implementation shall be carried out while respecting the jurisdiction and powers of the
provinces.

Regulations

(3) The Governor in Council may make regulations in respect of federal institutions, other
than the Senate, House of Commons, Library of Parliament, office of the Senate Ethics
Officer or office of the Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner, prescribing the manner
in which any duties of those institutions under this Part are to be carried out.

1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 41; 2005, c. 41, s. 1; 2006, c. 9, s. 23.

Coordination

42. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, in consultation with other ministers of the Crown,
shall encourage and promote a coordinated approach to the implementation by federal
institutions of the commitments set out in section 41.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 42; 1995, c. 11, s. 27.

Specific mandate of Minister of Canadian Heritage

43. (1) The Minister of Canadian Heritage shall take such measures as that Minister considers
appropriate to advance the equality of status and use of English and French in Canadian
society and, without restricting the generality of the foregoing, may take measures to

(a) enhance the vitality of the English and French linguistic minority communities in Canada

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and support and assist their development;

(b) encourage and support the learning of English and French in Canada;

(c) foster an acceptance and appreciation of both English and French by members of the
public;

(d) encourage and assist provincial governments to support the development of English and
French linguistic minority communities generally and, in particular, to offer provincial and
municipal services in both English and French and to provide opportunities for members of
English or French linguistic minority communities to be educated in their own language;

(e) encourage and assist provincial governments to provide opportunities for everyone in
Canada to learn both English and French;

(f) encourage and cooperate with the business community, labour organizations, voluntary
organizations and other organizations or institutions to provide services in both English and
French and to foster the recognition and use of those languages;

(g) encourage and assist organizations and institutions to project the bilingual character of
Canada in their activities in Canada or elsewhere; and

(h) with the approval of the Governor in Council, enter into agreements or arrangements that
recognize and advance the bilingual character of Canada with the governments of foreign
states.

Public consultation

(2) The Minister of Canadian Heritage shall take such measures as that Minister considers
appropriate to ensure public consultation in the development of policies and review of
programs relating to the advancement and the equality of status and use of English and French
in Canadian society.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 43; 1995, c. 11, s. 28.

Annual report to Parliament

44. The Minister of Canadian Heritage shall, within such time as is reasonably practicable
after the termination of each financial year, submit an annual report to Parliament on the
matters relating to official languages for which that Minister is responsible.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 44; 1995, c. 11, s. 29.

Consultation and negotiation with the provinces

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45. Any minister of the Crown designated by the Governor in Council may consult and may
negotiate agreements with the provincial governments to ensure, to the greatest practical
extent but subject to Part IV, that the provision of federal, provincial, municipal and education
services in both official languages is coordinated and that regard is had to the needs of the
recipients of those services.

PART VIII
RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF TREASURY BOARD IN RELATION TO THE
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF CANADA

Responsibilities of Treasury Board

46. (1) The Treasury Board has responsibility for the general direction and coordination of the
policies and programs of the Government of Canada relating to the implementation of Parts
IV, V and VI in all federal institutions other than the Senate, House of Commons, Library of
Parliament, office of the Senate Ethics Officer and office of the Conflict of Interest and Ethics
Commissioner.

Powers of Treasury Board

(2) In carrying out its responsibilities under subsection (1), the Treasury Board may

(a) establish policies, or recommend policies to the Governor in Council, to give effect to
Parts IV, V and VI;

(b) recommend regulations to the Governor in Council to give effect to Parts IV, V and VI;

(c) issue directives to give effect to Parts IV, V and VI;

(d) monitor and audit federal institutions in respect of which it has responsibility for their
compliance with policies, directives and regulations of Treasury Board or the Governor in
Council relating to the official languages of Canada;

(e) evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of policies and programs of federal institutions
relating to the official languages of Canada;

(f) provide information to the public and to officers and employees of federal institutions
relating to the policies and programs that give effect to Parts IV, V and VI; and

(g) delegate any of its powers under this section to the deputy heads or other administrative
heads of other federal institutions.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 46; 2004, c. 7, s. 29; 2006, c. 9, s. 24.

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Audit reports to be made available to Commissioner

47. The President of the Public Service Human Resources Management Agency of Canada
shall provide the Commissioner with any audit reports that are prepared pursuant to paragraph
46(2)(d).

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 47; 2005, c. 15, s. 3.

Annual report to Parliament

48. The President of the Treasury Board shall, within such time as is reasonably practicable
after the termination of each financial year, submit an annual report to Parliament on the status
of programs relating to the official languages of Canada in the various federal institutions in
respect of which it has responsibility under section 46.

PART IX
COMMISSIONER OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

Office of the Commissioner
Appointment

49. (1) The Governor in Council shall, by commission under the Great Seal, appoint a
Commissioner of Official Languages for Canada after consultation with the leader of every
recognized party in the Senate and House of Commons and approval of the appointment by
resolution of the Senate and House of Commons.

Tenure

(2) Subject to this section, the Commissioner holds office during good behaviour for a term of
seven years, but may be removed for cause by the Governor in Council at any time on address
of the Senate and House of Commons.

Further terms

(3) The Commissioner, on the expiration of a first or any subsequent term of office, is eligible
to be re-appointed for a further term not exceeding seven years.

Interim appointment

(4) In the event of the absence or incapacity of the Commissioner or if that office is vacant,
the Governor in Council may appoint any qualified person to hold that office in the interim for
a term not exceeding six months, and that person shall, while holding office, be paid the salary
or other remuneration and expenses that may be fixed by the Governor in Council.

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1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 49; 2006, c. 9, s. 111.

Rank, powers and duties generally

50. (1) The Commissioner shall rank as and have all the powers of a deputy head of a
department, shall engage exclusively in the duties of the office of the Commissioner and shall
not hold any other office under Her Majesty or engage in any other employment.

Salary and expenses

(2) The Commissioner shall be paid a salary equal to the salary of a judge of the Federal
Court, other than the Chief Justice of that Court, and is entitled to be paid reasonable travel
and living expenses while absent from his or her ordinary place of residence in the course of
his or her duties.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 50; 2002, c. 8, s. 157.

Staff

51. Such officers and employees as are necessary for the proper conduct of the work of the
office of the Commissioner shall be appointed in the manner authorized by law.

Technical assistance

52. The Commissioner may engage, on a temporary basis, the services of persons having
technical or specialized knowledge of any matter relating to the work of the Commissioner to
advise and assist the Commissioner in the performance of the duties of his office and, with the
approval of the Treasury Board, may fix and pay the remuneration and expenses of those
persons.

Public Service Superannuation Act

53. The Commissioner and the officers and employees of the office of the Commissioner
appointed under section 51 shall be deemed to be persons employed in the public service for
the purposes of the Public Service Superannuation Act.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 53; 2003, c. 22, s. 225(E).

Order exempting Commissioner from directives

54. The Governor in Council, on the recommendation of the Treasury Board, may by order
exempt the Commissioner from any directives of the Treasury Board or the Governor in
Council made under the Financial Administration Act that apply to deputy heads or other
administrative heads in relation to the administration of federal institutions.

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Duties and Functions of Commissioner
Duties and functions

55. The Commissioner shall carry out such duties and functions as are assigned to the
Commissioner by this Act or any other Act of Parliament, and may carry out or engage in such
other related assignments or activities as may be authorized by the Governor in Council.

Duty of Commissioner under Act

56. (1) It is the duty of the Commissioner to take all actions and measures within the authority
of the Commissioner with a view to ensuring recognition of the status of each of the official
languages and compliance with the spirit and intent of this Act in the administration of the
affairs of federal institutions, including any of their activities relating to the advancement of
English and French in Canadian society.

Idem

(2) It is the duty of the Commissioner, for the purpose set out in subsection (1), to conduct and
carry out investigations either on his own initiative or pursuant to any complaint made to the
Commissioner and to report and make recommendations with respect thereto as provided in
this Act.

Review of regulations and directives

57. The Commissioner may initiate a review of

(a) any regulations or directives made under this Act, and

(b) any other regulations or directives that affect or may affect the status or use of the official
languages,

and may refer to and comment on any findings on the review in a report made to Parliament
pursuant to section 66 or 67.

Investigations
Investigation of complaints

58. (1) Subject to this Act, the Commissioner shall investigate any complaint made to the
Commissioner arising from any act or omission to the effect that, in any particular instance or
case,

72 72
(a) the status of an official language was not or is not being recognized,

(b) any provision of any Act of Parliament or regulation relating to the status or use of the
official languages was not or is not being complied with, or

(c) the spirit and intent of this Act was not or is not being complied with

in the administration of the affairs of any federal institution.

Who may make complaint

(2) A complaint may be made to the Commissioner by any person or group of persons,
whether or not they speak, or represent a group speaking, the official language the status or
use of which is at issue.

Discontinuance of investigation

(3) If in the course of investigating any complaint it appears to the Commissioner that, having
regard to all the circumstances of the case, any further investigation is unnecessary, the
Commissioner may refuse to investigate the matter further.

Right of Commissioner to refuse or cease investigation

(4) The Commissioner may refuse to investigate or cease to investigate any complaint if in the
opinion of the Commissioner

(a) the subject-matter of the complaint is trivial;

(b) the complaint is frivolous or vexatious or is not made in good faith; or

(c) the subject-matter of the complaint does not involve a contravention or failure to comply
with the spirit and intent of this Act, or does not for any other reason come within the
authority of the Commissioner under this Act.

Complainant to be notified

(5) Where the Commissioner decides to refuse to investigate or cease to investigate any
complaint, the Commissioner shall inform the complainant of that decision and shall give the
reasons therefor.

Notice of intention to investigate

59. Before carrying out an investigation under this Act, the Commissioner shall inform the
deputy head or other administrative head of any federal institution concerned of his intention

73 73
to carry out the investigation.

Investigation to be conducted in private

60. (1) Every investigation by the Commissioner under this Act shall be conducted in private.

Opportunity to answer allegations and criticisms

(2) It is not necessary for the Commissioner to hold any hearing and no person is entitled as of
right to be heard by the Commissioner, but if at any time during the course of an investigation
it appears to the Commissioner that there may be sufficient grounds to make a report or
recommendation that may adversely affect any individual or any federal institution, the
Commissioner shall, before completing the investigation, take every reasonable measure to
give to that individual or institution a full and ample opportunity to answer any adverse
allegation or criticism, and to be assisted or represented by counsel for that purpose.

Procedure

61. (1) Subject to this Act, the Commissioner may determine the procedure to be followed in
carrying out any investigation under this Act.

Receiving and obtaining of information by officer designated

(2) The Commissioner may direct that information relating to any investigation under this Act
be received or obtained, in whole or in part, by any officer of the office of the Commissioner
appointed under section 51 and that officer shall, subject to such restrictions or limitations as
the Commissioner may specify, have all the powers and duties of the Commissioner under this
Act in relation to the receiving or obtaining of that information.

Powers of Commissioner in carrying out investigations

62. (1) The Commissioner has, in relation to the carrying out of any investigation under this
Act, other than an investigation in relation to Part III, power

(a) to summon and enforce the attendance of witnesses and compel them to give oral or
written evidence on oath, and to produce such documents and things as the Commissioner
deems requisite to the full investigation and consideration of any matter within his authority
under this Act, in the same manner and to the same extent as a superior court of record;

(b) to administer oaths;

(c) to receive and accept such evidence and other information, whether on oath or by affidavit
or otherwise, as in his discretion the Commissioner sees fit, whether or not the evidence or
information is or would be admissible in a court of law; and

74 74
(d) subject to such limitation as may in the interests of defence or security be prescribed by
regulation of the Governor in Council, to enter any premises occupied by any federal
institution and carry out therein such inquiries within his authority under this Act as the
Commissioner sees fit.

Threats, intimidation, discrimination or obstruction to be reported

(2) Where the Commissioner believes on reasonable grounds that

(a) an individual has been threatened, intimidated or made the object of discrimination
because that individual has made a complaint under this Act or has given evidence or assisted
in any way in respect of an investigation under this Act, or proposes to do so, or

(b) the Commissioner, or any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the
Commissioner, has been obstructed in the performance of the Commissioner’s duties or
functions under this Act,

the Commissioner may report that belief and the grounds therefor to the President of the
Treasury Board and the deputy head or other administrative head of any institution concerned.

Conclusion of investigation

63. (1) If, after carrying out an investigation under this Act, the Commissioner is of the
opinion that

(a) the act or omission that was the subject of the investigation should be referred to any
federal institution concerned for consideration and action if necessary,

(b) any Act or regulations thereunder, or any directive of the Governor in Council or the
Treasury Board, should be reconsidered or any practice that leads or is likely to lead to a
contravention of this Act should be altered or discontinued, or

(c) any other action should be taken,

the Commissioner shall report that opinion and the reasons therefor to the President of the
Treasury Board and the deputy head or other administrative head of any institution concerned.

Other policies to be taken into account

(2) In making a report under subsection (1) that relates to any federal institution, the
Commissioner shall have regard to any policies that apply to that institution that are set out in
any Act of Parliament or regulation thereunder or in any directive of the Governor in Council
or the Treasury Board.

75 75
Recommendations

(3) The Commissioner may

(a) in a report under subsection (1) make such recommendations as he thinks fit; and

(b) request the deputy head or other administrative head of the federal institution concerned to
notify the Commissioner within a specified time of the action, if any, that the institution
proposes to take to give effect to those recommendations.

Where investigation carried out pursuant to complaint

64. (1) Where the Commissioner carries out an investigation pursuant to a complaint, the
Commissioner shall inform the complainant and any individual by whom or on behalf of
whom, or the deputy head or other administrative head of any federal institution by which or
on behalf of which, an answer relating to the complaint has been made pursuant to subsection
60(2), in such manner and at such time as the Commissioner thinks proper, of the results of
the investigation.

Where recommendations made

(2) Where recommendations have been made by the Commissioner under subsection 63(3) but
adequate and appropriate action has not, in the opinion of the Commissioner, been taken
thereon within a reasonable time after the recommendations are made, the Commissioner may
inform the complainant of those recommendations and make such comments thereon as he
thinks proper, and shall provide a copy of the recommendations and comments to any
individual, deputy head or administrative head whom the Commissioner is required under
subsection (1) to inform of the results of the investigation.

Report to Governor in Council where appropriate action not taken

65. (1) If, within a reasonable time after a report containing recommendations under
subsection 63(3) is made, adequate and appropriate action has not, in the opinion of the
Commissioner, been taken thereon, the Commissioner, in his discretion and after considering
any reply made by or on behalf of any federal institution concerned, may transmit a copy of
the report and recommendations to the Governor in Council.

Action by Governor in Council

(2) The Governor in Council may take such action as the Governor in Council considers
appropriate in relation to any report transmitted under subsection (1) and the
recommendations therein.

Report to Parliament

76 76
(3) If, within a reasonable time after a copy of a report is transmitted to the Governor in
Council under subsection (1), adequate and appropriate action has not, in the opinion of the
Commissioner, been taken thereon, the Commissioner may make such report thereon to
Parliament as he considers appropriate.

Reply to be attached to report

(4) The Commissioner shall attach to every report made under subsection (3) a copy of any
reply made by or on behalf of any federal institution concerned.

Reports to Parliament
Annual report

66. The Commissioner shall, within such time as is reasonably practicable after the
termination of each year, prepare and submit to Parliament a report relating to the conduct of
his office and the discharge of his duties under this Act during the preceding year including
his recommendations, if any, for proposed changes to this Act that the Commissioner deems
necessary or desirable in order that effect may be given to it according to its spirit and intent.

Special reports

67. (1) The Commissioner may, at any time, make a special report to Parliament referring to
and commenting on any matter within the scope of the powers, duties and functions of the
Commissioner where, in the opinion of the Commissioner, the matter is of such urgency or
importance that a report thereon should not be deferred until the time provided for
transmission of the next annual report of the Commissioner under section 66.

Reply to be attached to report

(2) The Commissioner shall attach to every report made under this section a copy of any reply
made by or on behalf of any federal institution concerned.

Contents of report

68. The Commissioner may disclose in any report made under subsection 65(3) or section 66
or 67 such matters as in his opinion ought to be disclosed in order to establish the grounds for
any conclusions and recommendations contained therein, but in so doing shall take every
reasonable precaution to avoid disclosing any matter the disclosure of which would or might
be prejudicial to the defence or security of Canada or any state allied or associated with
Canada.

Transmission of report

69. (1) Every report to Parliament made by the Commissioner under subsection 65(3) or

77 77
section 66 or 67 shall be made by being transmitted to the Speaker of the Senate and to the
Speaker of the House of Commons for tabling respectively in those Houses.

Reference to parliamentary committee

(2) Every report referred to in subsection (1) shall, after it is transmitted for tabling pursuant
to that subsection, be referred to the committee designated or established by Parliament for the
purpose of section 88.

Delegation
Delegation by Commissioner

70. The Commissioner may authorize any person to exercise or perform, subject to such
restrictions or limitations as the Commissioner may specify, any of the powers, duties or
functions of the Commissioner under this or any other Act of Parliament except

(a) the power to delegate under this section; and

(b) the powers, duties or functions set out in sections 63, 65 to 69 and 78.

General
Security requirements

71. The Commissioner and every person acting on behalf or under the direction of the
Commissioner who receives or obtains information relating to any investigation under this Act
shall, with respect to access to and the use of such information, satisfy any security
requirements applicable to, and take any oath of secrecy required to be taken by, persons who
normally have access to and use of such information.

Confidentiality

72. Subject to this Act, the Commissioner and every person acting on behalf or under the
direction of the Commissioner shall not disclose any information that comes to their
knowledge in the performance of their duties and functions under this Act.

Disclosure authorized

73. The Commissioner may disclose or may authorize any person acting on behalf or under
the direction of the Commissioner to disclose information

(a) that, in the opinion of the Commissioner, is necessary to carry out an investigation under

78 78
this Act; or

(b) in the course of proceedings before the Federal Court under Part X or an appeal therefrom.

No summons

74. The Commissioner or any person acting on behalf or under the direction of the
Commissioner is not a compellable witness, in respect of any matter coming to the knowledge
of the Commissioner or that person as a result of performing any duties or functions under this
Act during an investigation, in any proceedings other than proceedings before the Federal
Court under Part X or an appeal therefrom.

Protection of Commissioner

75. (1) No criminal or civil proceedings lie against the Commissioner, or against any person
acting on behalf or under the direction of the Commissioner, for anything done, reported or
said in good faith in the course of the exercise or performance or purported exercise or
performance of any power, duty or function of the Commissioner under this Act.

Libel or slander

(2) For the purposes of any law relating to libel or slander,

(a) anything said, any information supplied or any document or thing produced in good faith
in the course of an investigation by or on behalf of the Commissioner under this Act is
privileged; and

(b) any report made in good faith by the Commissioner under this Act and any fair and
accurate account of the report made in good faith in a newspaper or any other periodical
publication or in a broadcast is privileged.

PART X
COURT REMEDY

Definition of “Court”

76. In this Part, "Court" means the Federal Court.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 76; 2002, c. 8, s. 183.

Application for remedy

77. (1) Any person who has made a complaint to the Commissioner in respect of a right or
duty under sections 4 to 7, sections 10 to 13 or Part IV, V or VII, or in respect of section 91,

79 79
may apply to the Court for a remedy under this Part.

Limitation period

(2) An application may be made under subsection (1) within sixty days after

(a) the results of an investigation of the complaint by the Commissioner are reported to the
complainant under subsection 64(1),

(b) the complainant is informed of the recommendations of the Commissioner under
subsection 64(2), or

(c) the complainant is informed of the Commissioner’s decision to refuse or cease to
investigate the complaint under subsection 58(5),

or within such further time as the Court may, either before or after the expiration of those sixty
days, fix or allow.

Application six months after complaint

(3) Where a complaint is made to the Commissioner under this Act but the complainant is not
informed of the results of the investigation of the complaint under subsection 64(1), of the
recommendations of the Commissioner under subsection 64(2) or of a decision under
subsection 58(5) within six months after the complaint is made, the complainant may make an
application under subsection (1) at any time thereafter.

Order of Court

(4) Where, in proceedings under subsection (1), the Court concludes that a federal institution
has failed to comply with this Act, the Court may grant such remedy as it considers
appropriate and just in the circumstances.

Other rights of action

(5) Nothing in this section abrogates or derogates from any right of action a person might
have other than the right of action set out in this section.

1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 77; 2005, c. 41, s. 2.

Commissioner may apply or appear

78. (1) The Commissioner may

(a) within the time limits prescribed by paragraph 77(2)(a) or (b), apply to the Court for a
remedy under this Part in relation to a complaint investigated by the Commissioner if the

80 80
Commissioner has the consent of the complainant;

(b) appear before the Court on behalf of any person who has applied under section 77 for a
remedy under this Part; or

(c) with leave of the Court, appear as a party to any proceedings under this Part.

Complainant may appear as party

(2) Where the Commissioner makes an application under paragraph (1)(a), the complainant
may appear as a party to any proceedings resulting from the application.

Capacity to intervene

(3) Nothing in this section abrogates or derogates from the capacity of the Commissioner to
seek leave to intervene in any adjudicative proceedings relating to the status or use of English
or French.

Evidence relating to similar complaint

79. In proceedings under this Part relating to a complaint against a federal institution, the
Court may admit as evidence information relating to any similar complaint under this Act in
respect of the same federal institution.

Hearing in summary manner

80. An application made under section 77 shall be heard and determined in a summary
manner in accordance with any special rules made in respect of such applications pursuant to
section 46 of the Federal Courts Act.

R.S., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.), s. 80; 2002, c. 8, s. 182.

Costs

81. (1) Subject to subsection (2), the costs of and incidental to all proceedings in the Court
under this Act shall be in the discretion of the Court and shall follow the event unless the
Court orders otherwise.

Idem

(2) Where the Court is of the opinion that an application under section 77 has raised an
important new principle in relation to this Act, the Court shall order that costs be awarded to
the applicant even if the applicant has not been successful in the result.

PART XI

81 81
GENERAL

Primacy of Parts I to V

82. (1) In the event of any inconsistency between the following Parts and any other Act of
Parliament or regulation thereunder, the following Parts prevail to the extent of the
inconsistency:

(a) Part I (Proceedings of Parliament);

(b) Part II (Legislative and other Instruments);

(c) Part III (Administration of Justice);

(d) Part IV (Communications with and Services to the Public); and

(e) Part V (Language of Work).

Canadian Human Rights Act excepted

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to the Canadian Human Rights Act or any regulation made
thereunder.

Rights relating to other languages

83. (1) Nothing in this Act abrogates or derogates from any legal or customary right acquired
or enjoyed either before or after the coming into force of this Act with respect to any language
that is not English or French.

Preservation and enhancement of other languages

(2) Nothing in this Act shall be interpreted in a manner that is inconsistent with the
preservation and enhancement of languages other than English or French.

Consultations

84. The President of the Treasury Board, or such other minister of the Crown as may be
designated by the Governor in Council, shall, at a time and in a manner appropriate to the
circumstances, seek the views of members of the English and French linguistic minority
communities and, where appropriate, members of the public generally on proposed
regulations to be made under this Act.

Draft of proposed regulation to be tabled

85. (1) The President of the Treasury Board, or such other minister of the Crown as may be
designated by the Governor in Council, shall, where the Governor in Council proposes to
make any regulation under this Act, lay a draft of the proposed regulation before the House of

82 82
Last updated: 2009-08-11
2
3

4

5B. Ireland Official Languages Act
6Website: http://www.achtanna.ie/en.act.2003.0032.1.html
7

8 Number 32 of 2003
10[GA]
9

11 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT 2003
12

13 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
14 PART 1

15 Preliminary and General

Section
1. Short title and commencement.
2. Interpretation.
3. Expenses.
4. Regulations.

16 PART 2

17 Organs of State
5. Annual report to Houses of Oireachtas.
6. Use of official languages in Houses of Oireachtas.
7. Acts of the Oireachtas.
8. Administration of justice.

18 PART 3

83 83
1 Public Bodies
9. Duty of public bodies to use official languages on official stationery, etc.
10. Duty of public bodies to publish certain documents in both official languages
simultaneously.
11. Use of official languages by public bodies.
12. Publication of guidelines by Minister.
13. Preparation of draft scheme by public body.
14. Confirmation by Minister of draft schemes.
15. Periodic review of schemes.
16. Amendment of schemes.
17. Failure to prepare a draft scheme.
18. Duty to carry out schemes.
19. Prohibition on imposition of charges by public bodies.

2 PART 4

3 An Coimisinéir Teanga
20. Establishment of Oifig Choimisinéir na dTeangacha Oifigiúla.
21. Functions of Commissioner.
22. Powers of Commissioner.
23. Conduct of investigations.
24. Exclusions.
25. Disclosure of information.
26. Report of findings.
27. Schemes of compensation.
28. Appeals to the High Court.
29. Publication of commentaries by Commissioner on practical application, etc. of Act.
30. Reports of Commissioner.

4 PART 5

5 Placenames
31. Definitions.
32. Placenames orders.

84 84
33. Construction of words in legal documents.
34. Amendment of Ordance Survey Ireland Act 2001.
35. Repeal.

6 PART 6

7 Miscellaneous
36. Role of Ombudsman.

8 FIRST SCHEDULE

9 Public Bodies
10 SECOND SCHEDULE

11 An Coimisinéir Teanga
12

Acts Referred to

British-Irish Agreement Act 1999 1999, No. 1
Civil Service Commissioners Act 1956 1956, No. 45
Civil Service Regulation Act 1956 1956, No. 46
Civil Service Regulation Acts 1956 to 1996
Data Protection Act 1988 1988, No. 25
European Assembly Elections Act 1977 1977, No. 30
European Parliament Elections Act 1993 1993, No. 30
Harbours Act 1946 1946, No. 9
Harbours Act 1996 1996, No. 11
Local Government Act 2001 2001, No. 37
Marriages (Ireland) Act 1844 6 & 7 Vict., c. 81
Ministers and Secretaries Act 1924 1924, No. 16
Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1956 1956, No. 21
Ombudsman Act 1980 1980, No. 26
Ordnance Survey Ireland Act 2001 2001, No. 43
Place-Names (Irish Forms) Act 1973 1973, No. 24
Public Service Management Act 1997 1997, No. 27
Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Acts 1921 to 2002

85 85
1
2

3 Number 32 of 2003
4

5 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT 2003
6

7AN ACT TO PROMOTE THE USE OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE FOR OFFICIAL
8 PURPOSES IN THE STATE; TO PROVIDE FOR THE USE OF BOTH OFFICIAL
9 LANGUAGES OF THE STATE IN PARLIAMENTARY PROCEEDINGS, IN ACTS OF
10 THE OIREACHTAS, IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, IN
11 COMMUNICATING WITH OR PROVIDING SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC AND IN
12 CARRYING OUT THE WORK OF PUBLIC BODIES; TO SET OUT THE DUTIES OF
13 SUCH BODIES WITH RESPECT TO THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE STATE;
14 AND FOR THOSE PURPOSES, TO PROVIDE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF
15 OIFIG CHOIMISINÉIR NA dTEANGACHA OIFIGIÚLA AND TO DEFINE ITS
16 FUNCTIONS; TO PROVIDE FOR THE PUBLICATION BY THE COMMISSIONER
17 OF CERTAIN INFORMATION RELEVANT TO THE PURPOSES OF THIS ACT; AND
18 TO PROVIDE FOR RELATED MATTERS. [14th July, 2003]

19 BE IT ENACTED BY THE OIREACHTAS AS FOLLOWS:

20 PART 1

21 Preliminary and General

22[GA]

23Short title and commencement.

24 1. —(1) This Act may be cited as the Official Languages Act 2003.
25[GA]

26 (2) This Act shall come into operation on such day or days not later than 3 years after the
27passing of this Act as, by order or orders made by the Minister under this section, may be
28fixed therefor either generally or with reference to any particular purpose or provision, and
29different days may be so fixed for different purposes and different provisions.
30[GA]

31Interpretation.

32 2. —(1) In this Act, save where the context otherwise requires—
33[GA]

86 86
1“Commissioner” means, as the context may require, Oifig Choimisinéir na dTeangacha
2Oifigiúla established by section 20 or the holder, for the time being, of that office;
3[GA]

4“court” includes a tribunal established under the Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Acts 1921
5to 2002;
6[GA]

7“draft scheme” means a draft scheme to be prepared by a public body under this Act;
8[GA]

9“enactment” means a statute or an instrument made under a power conferred by a statute;
10[GA]

11“functions” includes powers and duties and references to the performance of functions
12include, with respect to powers and duties, references to the exercise of the powers and the
13carrying out of the duties;
14[GA]

15“Gaeltacht area” means an area for the time being determined to be a Gaeltacht area by order
16made under section 2 of the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1956;
17[GA]

18“head” means the head of a public body;
19[GA]

20“head of a public body” means—
21[GA]

22 (a) in relation to a Department of State, the Minister of the Government having charge
23 of it,
24[GA]

25 (b) in relation to the Office of the Attorney General, the Attorney General,
26[GA]

27 (c) in relation to the Office of the Civil Service Commissioners, the Civil Service
28 Commissioners,
29[GA]

30 (d) in relation to the Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General, the Comptroller and
31 Auditor General,

87 87
1[GA]

2 (e) in relation to the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, the Director of Public
3 Prosecutions,
4[GA]

5 (f) in relation to the Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas, the Chairman of Dáil
6 Éireann,
7[GA]

8 (g) in relation to the Office of the Information Commissioner, the Information
9 Commissioner,
10[GA]

11 (h) in relation to the Office of the Local Appointments Commissioners, the Local
12 Appointments Commissioners,
13[GA]

14 (i) in relation to the Office of the Ombudsman, the Ombudsman,
15[GA]

16 (j) in relation to any other public body, the person who holds, or performs the functions
17 of, the office of chief executive officer (by whatever name called) of the body;
18[GA]

19“local authority” has the meaning assigned to it by subsection (1) of section 2 of the Local
20Government Act 2001;
21[GA]

22“the Minister” means the Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs;
23[GA]

24“the official languages” means the Irish language (being the national language and the first
25official language) and the English language (being a second official language) as specified in
26Article 8 of the Constitution;
27[GA]

28“prescribed” means prescribed by the Minister by regulations under section 4 ;
29[GA]

30“proceedings” means civil or criminal proceedings before any court;
31[GA]

88 88
1“public body” shall be construed in accordance with the First Schedule;
2[GA]

3“record” includes any memorandum, book, plan, map, drawing, diagram, pictorial or graphic
4work or other document, any photograph, film or recording (whether of sound or images or
5both), any form in which data (within the meaning of the Data Protection Act 1988) are held,
6any other form (including machine-readable form) or thing in which information is held or
7stored manually, mechanically or electronically and anything that is a part or a copy, in any
8form, of any of the foregoing or is a combination of two or more of the foregoing;
9[GA]

10“a scheme” means a scheme confirmed by the Minister under section 14 ;
11[GA]

12“service” means a service offered or provided (whether directly or indirectly) to the general
13public or a class of the general public by a public body.
14[GA]

15 (2) (a) In this Act a reference to a section or schedule is a reference to a section of or
16 Schedule to this Act unless it is indicated that reference to some other enactment
17 is intended.
18[GA]

19 (b) In this Act a reference to a subsection or paragraph or subparagraph is a reference
20 to the subsection or paragraph or subparagraph of the provision in which the
21 reference occurs unless it is indicated that reference to some other provision is
22 intended.
23[GA]

24Expenses.

25 3. —The expenses incurred by the Minister and any other Minister of the Government in
26the administration of this Act shall, to such extent as may be sanctioned by the Minister for
27Finance, be paid out of moneys provided by the Oireachtas.
28[GA]

29Regulations.

30 4. —(1) The Minister may, with the consent of the Minister for Finance—
31[GA]

32 (a) by regulations provide, subject to the provisions of this Act, for any matter referred
33 to in this Act as prescribed or to be prescribed,

89 89
1[GA]

2 (b) in addition to any other power conferred on him or her to make regulations, make
3 regulations generally for the purposes of, and for the purpose of giving full effect
4 to, this Act,
5[GA]

6 (c) if, during the first 3 years of application of this Act to a public body specified in
7 subparagraph (3), (4) or (5) of paragraph 1 of the First Schedule, any difficulty
8 arises in bringing this Act into operation in so far as it applies to that body, by
9 regulations do anything which appears to be necessary or expedient for bringing
10 this Act into operation in so far as it applies to that body and regulations under
11 this paragraph may, in so far only as may appear necessary for carrying the
12 regulations into effect, modify a provision of this Act if the modification is in
13 conformity with the purposes, principles and spirit of this Act, and
14[GA]

15 (d) if in any other respect any difficulty arises during the period of 3 years from the
16 commencement of this Act in bringing this Act into operation, by regulations do
17 anything which appears to be necessary or expedient for bringing this Act into
18 operation and regulations under this paragraph may, in so far only as may appear
19 necessary for carrying the regulations into effect, modify a provision of this Act if
20 the modification is in conformity with the purposes, principles and spirit of this
21 Act.
22[GA]

23 (2) Regulations under this Act may contain such incidental, supplementary and
24consequential provisions as appear to the Minister to be necessary or expedient for the
25purposes of the regulations.
26[GA]

27 (3) Where the Minister proposes to make regulations under paragraph (c) or (d) of
28subsection (1) or for the purposes of paragraph 1 (5), or under paragraph 3, of the First
29Schedule, he or she shall cause a draft of the regulations to be laid before each House of the
30Oireachtas and the regulations shall not be made until a resolution approving of the draft has
31been passed by each such House.
32[GA]

33 (4) Where the Minister proposes to make regulations under subsection (1)(c), he or she
34shall, before doing so, consult with such other (if any) Minister of the Government as the
35Minister considers appropriate having regard to the functions of that other Minister of the
36Government in relation to the proposed regulations.
37[GA]

90 90
1 (5) Regulations prescribing a body, organisation or group (“the body”) for the purposes of
2paragraph 1(5) of the First Schedule may provide that this Act shall apply to the body only
3as respects specified functions of the body, and this Act shall apply and have effect in
4accordance with any such provision.
5[GA]

6 (6) Every regulation under this Act (other than a regulation referred to in subsection (3))
7shall be laid before each House of the Oireachtas as soon as may be after it is made and, if a
8resolution annulling the regulation is passed by either such House within the next 21 days on
9which that House has sat after the regulation is laid before it, the regulation shall be annulled
10accordingly but without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done thereunder.

11 PART 2

12 Organs of State

13[GA]

14Annual report to Houses of Oireachtas.

15 5. —In each year, beginning with the year following the year in which this Act is
16commenced, the Minister shall make a report to each House of the Oireachtas on the
17operation in the preceding year of this Act.
18[GA]

19Use of official languages in Houses of Oireachtas.

20 6. —(1) A member of either House of the Oireachtas has the right to use either of the
21official languages in any debates or other proceedings in that House or of a committee of
22either House, a joint committee of both Houses or sub-committee of such a committee or
23joint committee.
24[GA]

25 (2) A person appearing before either House of the Oireachtas or before such a committee,
26joint committee or sub-committee as aforesaid has the right to use either of the official
27languages.
28[GA]

29 (3) Every official report of the debates and other proceedings of the Houses of the
30Oireachtas shall be published in each of the official languages, except that contributions
31(whether oral or in writing) in either of the official languages by persons may be published
32therein solely in that language.
33[GA]

34Acts of the Oireachtas.

91 91
1 7. —As soon as may be after the enactment of any Act of the Oireachtas, the text thereof
2shall be printed and published in each of the official languages simultaneously.
3[GA]

4Administration of justice.

5 8. —(1) A person may use either of the official languages in, or in any pleading in or
6document issuing from, any court.
7[GA]

8 (2) Every court has, in any proceedings before it, the duty to ensure that any person
9appearing in or giving evidence before it may be heard in the official language of his or her
10choice, and that in being so heard the person will not be placed at a disadvantage by not
11being heard in the other official language.
12[GA]

13 (3) For the purposes of ensuring that no person is placed at a disadvantage as aforesaid, the
14court may cause such facilities to be made available, as it considers appropriate, for the
15simultaneous or consecutive interpretation of proceedings from one official language into the
16other.
17[GA]

18 (4) Where the State or a public body is a party to civil proceedings before a court—
19[GA]

20 (a) the State or the public body shall use in the proceedings, the official language chosen
21 by the other party, and
22[GA]

23 (b) if two or more persons (other than the State or a public body) are party to the
24 proceedings and they fail to choose or agree on the official language to be used in
25 the proceedings, the State or, as appropriate, the public body shall use in the
26 proceedings such official language as appears to it to be reasonable, having regard
27 to the circumstances.
28[GA]

29 (5) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a person shall not be compelled to
30give evidence in a particular official language in any proceedings.
31[GA]

32 (6) In choosing to use a particular official language in any proceedings before a court, a
33person shall not be put by the court or a public body to any inconvenience or expense over

92 92
1and above that which would have been incurred had he or she chosen to use the other official
2language.

3 PART 3

4 Public Bodies

5[GA]

6Duty of public bodies to use official languages on official stationery, etc.

7 9. —(1) The Minister may by regulations provide that oral announcements (whether live or
8recorded) made by a public body, the headings of stationery used by a public body and the
9contents and the lay-out of any signage or advertisements placed by it shall, to such extent as
10may be specified, be in the Irish language or in the English and Irish languages and different
11provisions may be made in relation to different classes of body, oral announcements,
12stationery, signage or advertisements.
13[GA]

14 (2) Where a person communicates in writing or by electronic mail in an official language
15with a public body, the public body shall reply in the same language.
16[GA]

17 (3) Where a public body communicates in writing or by electronic mail with the general
18public or a class of the general public for the purpose of furnishing information to the public
19or the class, the body shall ensure that the communication is in the Irish language or in the
20English and Irish languages.
21[GA]

22Duty of public bodies to publish certain documents in both official languages simultaneously.

23 10. —Notwithstanding any other enactment, the following documents made by or under
24the authority of a public body (other than a body, organisation or group standing prescribed
25pursuant to regulations for the purposes of clause (b) of paragraph 1(5) of the First
26Schedule) shall be published by that body in each of the official languages simultaneously:
27[GA]

28 (a) any document setting out public policy proposals;
29[GA]

30 (b) any annual report;
31[GA]

32 (c) any audited account or financial statement;

93 93
1[GA]

2 (d) any statement of strategy required to be prepared under section 5 of the Public
3 Service Management Act 1997; and
4[GA]

5 (e) any document of a description or class standing prescribed for the time being, with
6 the consent of the Minister for Finance and such other (if any) Minister of the
7 Government as the Minister considers appropriate having regard to the functions
8 of that other Minister of the Government, and being a document of a description
9 or class that is, in the opinion of the Minister, of major public importance.
10[GA]

11Use of official languages by public bodies.

12 11. —(1) For the purpose of promoting the use of the Irish language for official purposes
13in the State, the Minister may, by notice in writing to the head of a public body, require the
14public body to prepare and present to him or her for confirmation within such time (not being
15more than 6 months from the date of issue of the notice) as is specified in the notice a draft
16scheme specifying—
17[GA]

18 (a) the services which the public body proposes to provide—
19[GA]

20 (i) exclusively through the medium of the Irish language,
21[GA]

22 (ii) exclusively through the medium of the English language, and
23[GA]

24 (iii) through the medium of both the Irish and English languages,
25[GA]

26 and
27[GA]

28 (b) the measures the body proposes to adopt to ensure that any services that are not
29 provided by the body through the medium of the Irish language will be so
30 provided.
31[GA]

94 94
1 (2) (a) A draft scheme referred to in subsection (1) shall specify the means of
2 communication that are to be provided exclusively in the Irish language,
3 exclusively in the English language and in both the Irish and English languages.
4[GA]

5 (b) In this section “means of communication” means the means of communication
6 between the body concerned and the public generally or groups or individual
7 members of the public in relation to the services concerned, the provision of the
8 services and information relating to the services or such provision.
9[GA]

10 (3) The Minister may, with the consent of the Minister for Finance, in relation to those of
11its services delivered exclusively through the medium of the English language, direct a public
12body to draw up a plan for the delivery of those services in addition through the medium of
13the Irish language together with an estimate of the period of time required to implement the
14plan.
15[GA]

16 (4) A notice under subsection (1) shall be accompanied by a copy of the current guidelines
17issued by the Minister under section 12 .
18[GA]

19 (5) Different notices may be given to a head of a public body under this section in respect
20of different services.
21[GA]

22Publication of guidelines by Minister.

23 12. —(1) The Minister shall issue to public bodies guidelines in relation to the preparation
24by public bodies of draft schemes.
25[GA]

26 (2) As soon as practicable after the commencement of this section the Minister shall
27prepare a draft of any guidelines that he or she proposes to issue under subsection (1) and
28shall send copies of the draft to—
29[GA]

30 (a) every other Minister of the Government, and
31[GA]

32 (b) such other persons (including any other head) as he or she considers appropriate.
33[GA]

95 95
1 (3) The Minister shall, after considering any representations made to him or her about the
2draft guidelines, confirm the draft guidelines either without amendment or with such
3amendments as he or she considers appropriate.
4[GA]

5 (4) The Minister shall, as soon as practicable, lay before each House of the Oireachtas a
6copy of any guidelines issued under subsection (1).
7[GA]

8 (5) The Minister shall, at such intervals as he or she considers appropriate, revise any
9guidelines issued under subsection (1) and the provisions of this section shall apply to the
10issuing of such revised guidelines as they apply to the guidelines first issued.
11[GA]

12Preparation of draft scheme by public body.

13 13. —(1) On receipt of a notice under section 11 , a public body shall—
14[GA]

15 (a) publish notice of its intention to prepare a draft scheme and invite representations
16 from any interested parties, and
17[GA]

18 (b) within the time specified in the notice, prepare and present for confirmation to the
19 Minister a draft scheme.
20[GA]

21 (2) In preparing a draft scheme the public body shall—
22[GA]

23 (a) have regard to any guidelines issued under section 12 and in force,
24[GA]

25 (b) have regard to any representations made by any interested party under subsection
26 (1),
27[GA]

28 (c) ensure that an adequate number of its staff are competent in the Irish language so as
29 to be able to provide its service through Irish as well as English,
30[GA]

96 96
1 (d) ensure that the particular Irish language requirements associated with the provision
2 of services in Gaeltacht areas are met,
3[GA]

4 (e) ensure that the Irish language becomes the working language in its offices in the
5 Gaeltacht not later than such date as may be determined by it with the consent of
6 the Minister.
7[GA]

8 (3) A draft scheme shall contain only such matters as are required to be specified under
9subsections (1) and (2) of section 11 .
10[GA]

11Confirmation by Minister of draft schemes.

12 14. —(1) Upon presentation of a draft scheme to the Minister by a public body, the
13Minister may, after consultation with such other persons including such other (if any)
14Minister of the Government as the Minister considers ought to be consulted, and with the
15consent of the head of the public body concerned, confirm the draft scheme either without
16amendment or with such amendments as he or she considers appropriate.
17[GA]

18 (2) The Minister shall, after confirmation of any draft scheme under this section, forward a
19copy of the scheme to the Commissioner.
20[GA]

21 (3) A scheme shall remain in force for a period of 3 years from the date on which it is
22confirmed by the Minister or until a new scheme has been confirmed by the Minister
23pursuant to section 15 , whichever is the later.
24[GA]

25Periodic review of schemes.

26 15. —(1) The Minister may, at any time, and shall, no later than 6 months before the
27expiration of the scheme, by notice in writing to the head of a public body require that body
28to review, within such period as may be specified in the notice, any scheme in force in
29relation to it.
30[GA]

31 (2) Upon receipt of a notice under subsection (1), a public body shall conduct a review of
32the said scheme and shall, within the time specified in the notice, prepare and present, for
33confirmation by the Minister, a new draft scheme.
34[GA]

97 97
1 (3) Sections 11, 13 and 14 shall, with any necessary modifications, apply where a notice is
2given under subsection (1) as they apply where a notice is given under section 11 .
3[GA]

4Amendment of schemes.

5 16. —(1) Where the Minister is satisfied that, owing to any change—
6[GA]

7 (a) in the functions of a public body, or
8[GA]

9 (b) in the circumstance in which such functions are performed,
10[GA]

11it may be appropriate to amend any scheme in force in relation to it, he or she may, on his or
12her own initiative or on request by the public body concerned, by notice in writing to the
13public body propose amendments to the scheme.
14[GA]

15 (2) The Minister may, after consultation with such other persons, including such other (if
16any) Minister of the Government as the Minister considers ought to be consulted, and with
17the consent of the head of the public body concerned, amend a scheme in the manner
18proposed in any notice under subsection (1) or in such other manner as he or she considers
19appropriate in the circumstances, and the scheme shall have effect thereafter subject to any
20such amendments.
21[GA]

22 (3) The Minister shall forward to the Commissioner a copy of any scheme amended under
23this section.
24[GA]

25Failure to prepare a draft scheme.

26 17. —Where—
27[GA]

28 (a) a public body fails or refuses to prepare a draft scheme in accordance with a notice
29 issued under section 11 or 15,
30[GA]

98 98
1 (b) after presentation by a public body of a draft scheme to the Minister for
2 confirmation, the public body and the Minister are unable to agree the terms of
3 the scheme, or
4[GA]

5 (c) after receipt by a public body of a notice of proposed amendments to a scheme, the
6 public body and the Minister are unable to agree on any amendments,
7[GA]

8the Minister shall report this failure, refusal or inability to each House of the Oireachtas.
9[GA]

10Duty to carry out schemes.

11 18. —(1) Where the Minister confirms a scheme under this Act, the public body shall
12proceed to carry out the scheme.
13[GA]

14 (2) Nothing in a scheme shall be construed as prohibiting a public body from
15implementing further measures to promote the status of an official language within its
16organisation.
17[GA]

18Prohibition on imposition of charges by public bodies.

19 19. —A public body shall not impose any charge on any person by virtue of any
20requirement imposed on that body by this Act.

21 PART 4

22 An Coimisinéir Teanga

23[GA]

24Establishment of Oifig Choimisinéir na dTeangacha Oifigiúla.

25 20. —(1) There is established an office to be known as Oifig Choimisinéir na dTeangacha
26Oifigiúla and the holder of the office shall be known as An Coimisinéir Teanga and is
27referred to in this Act as the Commissioner.
28[GA]

29 (2) The Commissioner shall be independent in the performance of his or her functions.
30[GA]

99 99
1 (3) The appointment of a person to be the Commissioner shall be made by the President on
2the advice of the Government following a resolution passed by Dáil Éireann and by Seanad
3Éireann recommending the appointment of the person.
4[GA]

5 (4) The provisions of the Second Schedule shall have effect in relation to the
6Commissioner.
7[GA]

8Functions of Commissioner.

9 21. —The functions of the Commissioner shall be, in addition to any functions conferred
10on him or her by any other provision of this Act—
11[GA]

12 (a) to monitor compliance by public bodies with the provisions of this Act,
13[GA]

14 (b) to take all necessary measures within his or her authority to ensure compliance by
15 public bodies with the provisions of this Act,
16[GA]

17 (c) to carry out investigations, whether on his or her own initiative, on request by the
18 Minister or pursuant to a complaint made to him or her by any person, into any
19 failure by a public body to comply with the provisions of this Act that he or she
20 or, as appropriate, the Minister, considers may have occurred,
21[GA]

22 (d) to provide, as he or she considers appropriate, advice or other assistance to the
23 public regarding their rights under this Act,
24[GA]

25 (e) to provide, as he or she considers appropriate, advice or other assistance to public
26 bodies regarding their obligations under this Act, and
27[GA]

28 (f) to carry out an investigation, whether on his or her own initiative, on request by the
29 Minister or pursuant to a complaint made to him or her by any person, to ascertain
30 whether any provision of any other enactment relating to the status or use of an
31 official language was not or is not being complied with.
32[GA]

33Powers of Commissioner.

100 100
1 22. —(1) (a) For the purpose of his or her functions under this Act the Commissioner may
2 require any person who, in the opinion of the Commissioner, is in
3 possession of information, or has a record or thing in his or her power or
4 control, that is relevant to the purposes aforesaid to furnish to the
5 Commissioner any such information, record or thing and, where
6 appropriate, may require the person to attend before him or her for that
7 purpose, and the person shall comply with the requirement.
8[GA]

9 (b) Paragraph (a) of this subsection does not apply to information or so much of
10 a record as relates to decisions and proceedings of the Government or of
11 any committee of the Government and for the purposes of this paragraph, a
12 certificate given by the Secretary-General to the Government and certifying
13 that any information or record or part of a record so relates shall be
14 conclusive.
15[GA]

16 (2) Subject to subsection (3), no enactment or rule of law prohibiting or restricting the
17disclosure or communication of information shall preclude a person from furnishing to the
18Commissioner any such information or record, as aforesaid.
19[GA]

20 (3) Subject to the provisions of this Act, a person to whom a requirement is addressed
21under this section shall be entitled to the same immunities and privileges as if he or she were
22a witness before the High Court.
23[GA]

24 (4) A person who fails or refuses to comply with a requirement under this section or who
25hinders or obstructs the Commissioner in the performance of his or her functions under this
26section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not
27exceeding €2,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or both.
28[GA]

29 (5) Where an offence under subsection (4) has been committed by a body corporate and is
30proved to have been committed with the consent or connivance of, or to have been facilitated
31by any neglect on the part of any director, manager, secretary or other similar officer of such
32body or of any person who was purporting to act in any such capacity, that officer or person,
33as well as such body, shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against
34and punished as if he or she were guilty of the first-mentioned offence.
35[GA]

36 (6) Proceedings for an offence under this section may be brought and prosecuted by the
37Commissioner.

101 101
1[GA]

2 (7) The Commissioner may, if he or she thinks fit, pay to any person who, for the purposes
3aforesaid, attends before the Commissioner or furnishes information or a record or other
4thing to him or her—
5[GA]

6 (a) sums in respect of travelling and subsistence expenses properly incurred by the
7 person, and
8[GA]

9 (b) allowances by way of compensation for loss of his or her time,
10[GA]

11of such amount as may be determined by the Minister.
12[GA]

13 (8) A statement or admission made by a person for the purposes aforesaid shall not be
14admissible as evidence against that person in any criminal proceedings.
15[GA]

16 (9) Nothing in this section shall confer any right to production of, or access to, any record
17or thing subject to legal privilege.
18[GA]

19Conduct of investigations.

20 23. —(1) An investigation by the Commissioner under this Act shall be conducted
21otherwise than in public.
22[GA]

23 (2) Where the Commissioner proposes to carry out an investigation under this Act he or
24she shall—
25[GA]

26 (a) notify—
27[GA]

28 (i) the public body concerned,
29[GA]

102 102
1 (ii) in a case where a complaint has been made to the Commissioner, the person
2 who made the complaint, and
3[GA]

4 (iii) the Minister,
5[GA]

6 in writing of that fact, and
7[GA]

8 (b) afford—
9[GA]

10 (i) the public body concerned, and
11[GA]

12 (ii) any other person who appears or, in a case where a complaint has been made
13 to the Commissioner, is alleged to have been responsible for the matter
14 complained of,
15[GA]

16 an opportunity to comment on the matter and, if a complaint in relation to the
17 matter has been made to the Commissioner, on any allegations contained in the
18 complaint.
19[GA]

20 (3) The Commissioner may—
21[GA]

22 (a) refuse to investigate a complaint under this Act, or
23[GA]

24 (b) discontinue an investigation under this Act into such a complaint,
25[GA]

26 if he or she becomes of opinion that—
27[GA]

28 (i) the complaint is trivial or vexatious,
29[GA]

103 103
1 (ii) the person making the complaint has not taken reasonable steps to seek
2 redress in respect of the subject matter of the complaint or, if he or she has,
3 has not been refused redress,
4[GA]

5 (iii) the complaint relates solely to a matter within the power of the Ombudsman
6 to investigate pursuant to section 4(2)(a) of the Ombudsman Act 1980, or
7[GA]

8 (iv) the matter complained of does not involve any contravention of the provisions
9 of this Act or of any other enactment relating to the status or use of an official
10 language.
11[GA]

12 (4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the procedure for conducting an investigation
13shall be such as the Commissioner considers appropriate in all the circumstances of the case.
14[GA]

15 (5) The Commissioner may determine whether any person may be represented, by counsel,
16solicitor or otherwise, in an investigation by him or her under this Act.
17[GA]

18Exclusions.

19 24. —The Commissioner shall not investigate any complaint made by or on behalf of a
20person if the complaint is one in relation to which the person affected by the matter
21complained of has initiated, in any court, civil legal proceedings and the proceedings have
22not been dismissed for failure to disclose a cause of action or a complaint justiciable by that
23court, whether the proceedings have been otherwise concluded or have not been concluded:
24[GA]

25Provided that the Commissioner may investigate the matter notwithstanding that it is one to
26which this section relates if it appears to the Commissioner that special circumstances make
27it proper to do so.
28[GA]

29Disclosure of information.

30 25. —Information or a record or thing obtained by the Commissioner or his or her officers
31in the course of the exercise by him or her of his or her functions under this Act shall not be
32disclosed except for the purposes of such exercise and of any statement, report or notification
33to be made under this Act and the Commissioner or his or her officers shall not be called
34upon to give evidence in any proceedings of matters coming to his or her or their knowledge
35in the course of such exercise.

104 104
1[GA]

2Report of findings.

3 26. —(1) In any case where a complaint is made to the Commissioner and the
4Commissioner decides not to carry out an investigation under this Act or decides to
5discontinue such an investigation, he or she shall send to the person who made the complaint
6and to the public body concerned a statement in writing of his or her reasons for the decision
7and shall send to such other person as he or she considers appropriate such statement in
8writing in relation to the matter as he or she considers appropriate.
9[GA]

10 (2) In any case where the Commissioner conducts an investigation under this Act, he or
11she shall prepare and submit to—
12[GA]

13 (a) the public body concerned,
14[GA]

15 (b) the Minister, and
16[GA]

17 (c) in a case where a complaint is made to the Commissioner, the complainant,
18[GA]

19a report in writing of the findings of the investigation and may include in the report any
20recommendations he or she considers appropriate having regard to the investigation.
21[GA]

22 (3) Without prejudice to subsection (2), the Commissioner may issue an interim report if
23he or she considers it appropriate so to do.
24[GA]

25 (4) The Commissioner may request a public body to submit to him or her within a
26specified time any comments it may have regarding any findings or recommendations
27contained in a report under this section.
28[GA]

29 (5) If, within a reasonable time after a report containing recommendations is submitted to a
30public body under subsection (2), any recommendations contained in the report have not, in
31the opinion of the Commissioner, been implemented by that body, the Commissioner may,
32after considering any responses made to him or her by the public body in respect of those
33recommendations, make a report thereon to each House of the Oireachtas.

105 105
1[GA]

2 (6) The Commissioner shall attach to every report under subsection (5) a copy of every
3response (if any) made by or on behalf of a public body to the said recommendations.
4[GA]

5Schemes of compensation.

6 27. —(1) The Minister may, with the consent of the Minister for Finance, make a scheme
7of compensation providing for the payment by a public body to such persons of such sums as
8may be specified in the scheme, in respect of any failure, specified in a report by the
9Commissioner under section 26 , by the body (other than a public body, standing prescribed
10for the purposes of paragraph 1(5) of the First Schedule) to comply with the provisions of
11this Act.
12[GA]

13 (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (f) of section 21 , a scheme under subsection (1) may not
14provide for the payment out of moneys in respect of any failure by a public body to comply
15with any other enactment relating to the status or use of an official language.
16[GA]

17 (3) A scheme under subsection (1) may be revoked or varied by a subsequent scheme made
18thereunder.
19[GA]

20Appeals to the High Court.

21 28. —(1) A party to an investigation under this Act or any other person affected by the
22findings and recommendations of the Commissioner following such an investigation may
23appeal to the High Court on a point of law from the decision.
24[GA]

25 (2) An appeal under subsection (1) shall be initiated not later than 4 weeks after notice of
26the relevant findings and recommendations was given to the person bringing the appeal.
27[GA]

28 (3) (a) Where an appeal under this section by a person, other than a head, is dismissed by
29 the High Court, that Court may, if it considers that the point of law concerned was
30 of exceptional public importance, order that some or all of the costs of the person
31 in relation to the appeal be paid by the public body concerned.
32[GA]

106 106
1 (b) The High Court may order that some or all of the costs of a person, other than a
2 head, in relation to a reference under this section be paid by the public body
3 concerned.
4[GA]

5 (4) A decision of the High Court following an appeal under subsection (1), shall, where
6appropriate, specify the period within which effect shall be given to the decision.
7[GA]

8Publication of commentaries by Commissioner on practical application, etc. of Act.

9 29. —The Commissioner may prepare and publish commentaries on the practical
10application and operation of the provisions, or any particular provisions, of this Act,
11including commentaries based on the experience of holders of the office of Commissioner in
12relation to investigations and findings following investigations, of such holders under this
13Act.
14[GA]

15Reports of Commissioner.

16 30. —(1) The Commissioner shall, not later than 6 months after the end of each year,
17prepare and furnish to the Minister a report, in each of the official languages, on his or her
18activities in that year.
19[GA]

20 (2) The Minister shall, not later than 2 months after the receipt of the report, cause a copy
21thereof to be laid before each House of the Oireachtas.
22[GA]

23 (3) The Commissioner may, if he or she considers it appropriate to do so in the public
24interest or in the interests of any person, prepare and publish a report in each of the official
25languages in relation to any investigation carried out or other function performed by him or
26her under this Act or any matter relating to or arising in the course of such an investigation or
27performance.
28[GA]

29 (4) In this section “report” does not include a report under section 26 .

30 PART 5

31 Placenames

32[GA]

107 107
1Definitions.

2 31. —In this Part, save where the context otherwise requires—
3[GA]

4“the Commission” means the body known as An Coimisiún Logainmneacha and established
5by warrant of the Minister for Finance dated the 24th day of October 1946;
6[GA]

7“placename” includes the name of any province, county, city, town, village, barony, parish or
8townland, or of any territorial feature (whether natural or artificial), district, region or place,
9as shown in the maps of Ordnance Survey Ireland;
10[GA]

11“placenames order” has the meaning assigned to it by section 32 .
12[GA]

13Placenames orders.

14 32. —(1) Subject to subsection (2), the Minister, having received and considered advice
15from the Commission, may by order (in this Part referred to as a “placenames order”)—
16[GA]

17 (a) declare the Irish language version of a placename specified in the order to be such
18 word or words as he or she specifies in the order,
19[GA]

20 (b) amend or revoke a placenames order.
21[GA]

22 (2) The Minister shall not make a declaration under subsection (1) in relation to a place in
23a Gaeltacht area in respect of which a declaration under Part 18 of the Local Government Act
242001 is in force.
25[GA]

26 (3) Every placenames order shall be laid before each House of the Oireachtas as soon as
27may be after it is made and, if a resolution annulling the order is passed by either such House
28within the next subsequent 21 days on which that House has sat after the order is laid before
29it, the order shall be annulled accordingly but without prejudice to the validity of anything
30previously done thereunder.
31[GA]

32Construction of words in legal documents.

108 108
1 33. —(1) A word or words, declared by the Minister in a placenames order to be the Irish
2language version of a placename specified in the order, shall be construed in a legal
3document as referring to the same place and as having the same force and effect as the
4English language version of the placename so specified unless the contrary intention appears.
5[GA]

6 (2) Where the Minister makes a declaration under section 32 in respect of a placename in a
7Gaeltacht area, the English language version of the placename shall no longer have any force
8and effect as on and from the operative date but without prejudice to anything done before or
9after that date including the use of that version other than its use—
10[GA]

11 (a) in any Act of the Oireachtas passed after the operative date or any statutory
12 instrument made after that date under any Act,
13[GA]

14 (b) in such maps prepared and published by or with the permission of Ordnance Survey
15 Ireland as may be prescribed, or
16[GA]

17 (c) on a road or street sign erected by or on behalf of a local authority.
18[GA]

19 (3) In this section—
20[GA]

21“legal document” means—
22[GA]

23 (a) any Act of the Oireachtas passed after the operative date, any statutory instrument
24 made after that date under any Act or the official translation of any Act or
25 instrument;
26[GA]

27 (b) any instrument having or intended to have legal effect or consequences and executed
28 on or after the operative date;
29[GA]

30 (c) any document used in or for the purposes of legal proceedings, and made, issued or
31 served on or after the operative date,
32[GA]

109 109
1“the operative date” means the date on which the relevant place-names order comes into
2operation.
3[GA]

4Amendment of Ordnance Survey Ireland Act 2001.

5 34. —The Ordnance Survey Ireland Act 2001 is amended by the substitution of the
6following for paragraph (h) of section 4(2):
7[GA]

8 “(h) to depict placenames and ancient features in the national mapping and related
9 records and databases in the Irish language or in the English and Irish
10 languages.”.
11[GA]

12Repeal.

13 35. —The Place-Names (Irish Forms) Act 1973 is repealed.

14 PART 6

15 Miscellaneous

16[GA]

17Role of Ombudsman.

18 36. —Nothing in this Act shall prohibit the investigation by the Ombudsman, pursuant to
19subsection (2) of section 4 of the Ombudsman Act 1980, of any action taken by or on behalf
20of a Department of State or other person specified in Part 1 of the First Schedule to that Act.

21 FIRST SCHEDULE

22 Public Bodies

23Section 2.

241. Each of the following shall be a public body for the purposes of this Act:

25 (1) Department of Agriculture and Food

26 Department of Arts, Sport and Tourism

27 Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources

28 Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs

110 110
1 Department of Defence

2 Department of Education and Science

3 Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment

4 Department of Finance

5 Department of Foreign Affairs

6 Department of Health and Children

7 Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform

8 Department of Public Enterprise

9 Department of Social and Family Affairs

10 Department of the Environment and Local Government

11 Department of the Taoiseach

12 Department of Transport

13 Office of the Director of Consumer Affairs

14 Central Statistics Office

15 Chief State Solicitor's Office

16 Office of the Civil Service and Local Appointments Commissioners

17 Office of the Attorney General

18 Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General

19 Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions

20 Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas

21 Office of the President

22 Office of the Revenue Commissioners

23 (2) Agencies, Boards, State Companies (commercial and non-commercial)

111 111
1 a regional assembly

2 the Eastern Regional Health Authority and an area health board

3 a regional authority

4 a university or other third level institution

5 a vocational education committee

6 Advisory Committee on Cultural Relations

7 Aer Lingus Group plc

8 Aer Rianta cpt

9 An Bord Altranais

10 An Bord Bia

11 An Bord Glas

12 An Bord Pleanála

13 An Bord Uchtála

14 An Chomhairle Leabharlanna

15 An Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gael-scolaíochta

16 An Coimisiún Logainmneacha

17 An Foras Áiseanna Saothair (FÁS)

18 An Implementation Body established under the British-Irish

19 Agreement Act 1999

20 An Post

21 An tÚdarás um Ard-Oideachas

22 APSO (Agency for Personal Service Overseas)

23 Area Development Management Limited

112 112
1 Area Partnership Boards

2 Arramara Teoranta

3 Bioresearch Ireland

4 Bord Fáilte Éireann

5 Bord Gáis Éireann

6 Bord Iascaigh Mhara

7 Bord na gCon

8 Bord na Leabhar Gaeilge

9 Bord na Móna

10 Bord na Radharcmhastóirí

11 Bord Scannán na hÉireann

12 Broadcasting Commission of Ireland

13 Broadcasting Complaints Commission

14 Bus Átha Cliath

15 Bus Éireann

16 C.E.R.T. Limited

17 Central and Regional Fisheries Boards

18 Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland

19 Chester Beatty Library

20 Coillte Teoranta

21 Coiste an Asgard

22 Comhairle

23 Comhairle na Nimheanna

113 113
1 Comhairle na nOspidéal

2 Comhar — The National Sustainable Development

3 Partnership

4 Commission for Aviation Regulation

5 Commission for Communications Regulation

6 Commission for Energy Regulation

7 Córas Iompair Éireann

8 County Enterprise Boards

9 Crafts Council of Ireland

10 Crisis Pregnancy Agency

11 Data Protection Commissioner

12 Defence Forces Canteen Board

13 Dental Council

14 District Registrars of Marriages appointed under the terms of section 57 of the
15 Marriages (Ireland) Act 1844

16 Drug Treatment Centre Board

17 Dublin Dental Hospital Board

18 Dublin Docklands Development Authority

19 Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

20 Dublin Transportation Office

21 Economic and Social Research Institute

22 Electricity Supply Board

23 Energy Advisory Board

24 Enterprise Ireland

114 114
1 Fire Services Council

2 Food Safety Authority of Ireland

3 Forfás

4 Further Education and Training Awards Council

5 General Medical Services Payment Board

6 General Register Office

7 Government Information Services

8 Harbour Authorities within the meaning of the Harbours Act 1946

9 Harbour Companies referred to in section 7 of the Harbours Act 1996

10 Health and Safety Authority

11 Health Research Board

12 Health Service Employers Agency

13 Higher Education and Training Awards Council

14 Horse Racing Ireland

15 Hospital Bodies Administrative Bureau

16 Hospitals Trust Board

17 Housing Finance Agency plc

18 I.D.A. Ireland

19 Iarnród Éireann

20 Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann

21 Institute of Public Administration

22 International Development Ireland Limited

23 Irish Aid Advisory Committee

115 115
1 Irish Aviation Authority

2 Irish Blood Transfusion Service

3 Irish Council for Science, Technology and Innovation

4 Irish Fertiliser Industries Limited

5 Irish Financial Services Appeals Tribunal

6 Irish Financial Services Regulatory Authority

7 Irish Museum of Modern Art

8 Irish National Petroleum Corporation Limited

9 Irish National Stud Company Limited

10 Irish Productivity Centre

11 Irish Red Cross Society

12 Irish Telecommunications Investments plc

13 LEADER Groups

14 Leopardstown Park Hospital Board

15 Levy Appeals Tribunal

16 Local Employment Service Boards

17 Local Government Computer Services Board

18 Local Government Management Services Board

19 Marine Institute

20 Medical Bureau of Road Safety

21 Mental Health Commission

22 National Authority for Occupational Safety and Health

23 National Building Agency Limited

116 116
1 National Cancer Registry Board

2 National Centre for Partnership and Performance

3 National Committee for Development Education

4 National Concert Hall

5 National Council on Ageing and Older People

6 National Council for Professional Development of Nursing and Midwifery

7 National Council for Special Education

8 National Disability Authority

9 National Economic and Social Council

10 National Economic and Social Forum

11 National Gallery of Ireland

12 National Library of Ireland

13 National Microelectronics Applications Centre Ltd.

14 National Milk Agency

15 National Museum of Ireland

16 National Qualifications Authority of Ireland

17 National Rehabilitation Board

18 National Roads Authority

19 National Safety Council

20 National Social Work Qualification Board

21 National Standards Authority of Ireland

22 National Statistics Board

23 National Technology Park Plassey Ltd.

117 117
1 National Theatre Society Limited (Abbey Theatre)

2 National Treasury Management Agency

3 Nítrigin Éireann Teoranta

4 Office for Health Management

5 Office of the Director of Corporate Enforcement

6 Office of the Director of Equality Investigations

7 Office of the Paymaster General

8 Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner

9 Office of Tobacco Control

10 Ordnance Survey Ireland

11 Patents Office

12 Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland

13 Postgraduate Medical and Dental Board

14 Public Voluntary Hospitals

15 Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

16 Radio Telefís Éireann

17 Raidió na Gaeltachta

18 Refugee Agency

19 Refugee Appeals Tribunal

20 Registrars of Births, Deaths and Roman Catholic Marriages

21 Registration Council for Secondary Teachers

22 Registry of Deeds

23 Rights Commissioners

118 118
1 Shannon Free Airport Development Company Limited (SFADCo)

2 Standards in Public Office Commission

3 State Laboratory

4 Sustainable Energy Ireland

5 Teagasc

6 TEASTAS

7 Teilifís na Gaeilge

8 Temple Bar Properties Limited

9 Temple Bar Renewal Limited

10 the Aquaculture Licences Appeals Board

11 the Army Pensions Board

12 the Arts Council (An Chomhairle Ealaíon)

13 the Censorship of Films Appeals Board

14 the Censorship of Publications Appeals Board

15 the Censorship of Publications Board

16 the Combat Poverty Agency

17 the Commissioners of Charitable Donations and Bequests for Ireland

18 the Commissioners of Public Works

19 the Companies Registration Office

20 the Competition Authority

21 the Courts Service

22 the Criminal Injuries Compensation Tribunal

23 the Defence Forces

119 119
1 the Employment Appeals Tribunal

2 the Environmental Protection Agency

3 the Equality Authority

4 the Garda Síochána

5 the Garda Síochána Complaints Appeals Board

6 the Garda Síochána Complaints Board

7 the Health Insurance Authority

8 the Heritage Council

9 the Human Rights Commission

10 the Information Society Commission

11 the Ireland-United States Commission for Educational Exchange

12 the Irish Manuscripts Commission

13 the Irish Medicines Board

14 the Irish Prison Service

15 the Irish Sports Council

16 the Irish Water Safety Association

17 the Labour Court

18 the Labour Relations Commission

19 the Land Registry

20 the Law Reform Commission

21 the Legal Aid Board

22 the Medical Council

23 the Mining Board

120 120
1 the National Archives

2 the National Archives Advisory Council

3 the National Centre for Guidance in Education

4 the National Competitiveness Council

5 the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment

6 the National Council for Forest Research and Development (COFORD)

7 the National Council for Vocational Awards

8 the National Lottery

9 the Office of the Appeal Commissioners for the purposes of the Tax Acts

10 the Office of the Chief Medical Officer for the Civil Service

11 the Office of the Information Commissioner

12 the Office of the Official Censor of Films

13 the Office of the Ombudsman

14 the Office of the Registrar of Friendly Societies

15 the Pensions Board

16 the Probation and Welfare Service

17 the Referendum Commission

18 the Rent Tribunal

19 the Social Welfare Tribunal

20 the State Examinations Commission

21 the Valuation Office

22 the Valuation Tribunal

23 Údarás na Gaeltachta

121 121
1 Veterinary Council

2 Voluntary Health Insurance Board

3 Western Development Commission

4 Women's Health Council

5 (3) a local authority,

6 (4) a health board,

7 (5) any body, organisation or group standing prescribed for the time being, with the
8consent of such other (if any) Minister of the Government as the Minister considers
9appropriate having regard to the functions of that other Minister of the Government, and
10being—

11 (a) a body, organisation or group that receives moneys directly from a Minister of the
12 Government, a Department of State, the Central Fund or a public body specified
13 in subparagraph (2), (3) or (4) of this paragraph in circumstances where the
14 amount or aggregate of the amounts so received constitutes 50 per cent or more of
15 the current expenditure of that body, organisation or group in a financial year,

16 (b) a body, organisation or group that at the date of the coming into operation of this
17 Schedule is a public body but subsequently comes under private ownership and
18 control,

19 (c) a body, organisation or group performing functions which previously stood vested in
20 a body, organisation or group under public ownership or control, or

21 (d) any other body, organisation or group on which functions in relation to the general
22 public or a class of the general public stand conferred or permitted by any
23 enactment or by any licence or authority given under any enactment.

24 2. A body, organisation or group standing prescribed pursuant to regulations for the
25purposes of clause (b) of paragraph 1(5) shall be a public body only as respects functions
26referred to in that clause.

27 3. The Minister may, with the consent of such other (if any) Minister of the Government as
28the Minister considers appropriate having regard to the functions of that other Minister of the
29Government, by regulations amend subparagraph (2) of paragraph 1 by the insertion or
30deletion of a reference to any public body.

31 4. A reference in paragraph 1 to any particular Department of State shall be construed as
32—

122 122
1 (a) including a reference to a body, organisation or group specified in relation to that
2 Department of State in the Schedule to the Ministers and Secretaries Act 1924
3 (not being another public body specified in that paragraph), and

4 (b) not including any other body, organisation or group.

5 SECOND SCHEDULE

6 An Coimisinéir Teanga

7Section 20.

8 1. Subject to the provisions of this Schedule, a person appointed to be the Commissioner
9shall hold the office for a term of 6 years and may be re-appointed to the office for a second
10or subsequent term.

11 2. A person appointed to be the Commissioner—

12 (a) may at his or her request be relieved of office by the President,

13 (b) may be removed from office by the President but shall not be removed from office
14 except for stated misbehaviour, incapacity or bankruptcy and then only upon
15 resolutions passed by Dáil Éireann and by Seanad Éireann calling for his or her
16 removal, and

17 (c) shall in any case vacate the office on attaining the age of 67 years.

18 3. (1) Where a person who holds the office of Commissioner is—

19 (a) nominated as a member of Seanad Éireann,

20 (b) elected as a member of either House of the Oireachtas or a local authority or to the
21 European Parliament, or

22 (c) regarded, pursuant to section 15 (inserted by the European Parliament Elections Act
23 1993) of the European Assembly Elections Act 1977 as having been elected to the
24 European Parliament to fill a vacancy,

25he or she shall thereupon cease to be the Commissioner.

26 (2) A person who is for the time being entitled under the Standing Orders of either House
27of the Oireachtas to sit therein or who is a member of the European Parliament or a local
28authority shall, while he or she is so entitled or is such a member, be disqualified for being
29appointed to be the Commissioner.

123 123
1 4. A person who holds the office of Commissioner shall not hold any other office or
2employment in respect of which emoluments are payable or be a member of the Reserve
3Defence Force.

4 5. The Commissioner shall be paid, out of moneys provided by the Oireachtas, such
5remuneration and allowances for expenses as the Minister, with the consent of the Minister
6for Finance, may from time to time determine.

7 6. (1) The Minister may make and carry out, in accordance with its terms, a scheme or
8schemes for the granting of pensions, gratuities or allowances on retirement or death to, or in
9respect of, persons who have held the office of Commissioner.

10 (2) The Minister may at any time make and carry out, in accordance with its terms, a
11scheme or schemes amending or revoking a scheme under this paragraph.

12 (3) A scheme under this paragraph shall be laid before each House of the Oireachtas as
13soon as may be after it is made and, if a resolution annulling the scheme is passed by either
14such House within the next 21 days on which that House has sat after the scheme is laid
15before it, the scheme shall be annulled accordingly but without prejudice to the validity of
16anything previously done thereunder.

17 7. (1) The Minister may appoint to be members of the staff of the Commissioner such
18number of persons as the Minister may, with the consent of the Minister for Finance,
19determine from time to time.

20 (2) Members of the staff of the Commissioner shall be civil servants in the Civil Service of
21the State (within the meaning of the Civil Service Regulation Act 1956).

22 (3) The Minister may delegate to the Commissioner the powers exercisable by him or her
23under the Civil Service Commissioners Act 1956 and the Civil Service Regulation Acts 1956
24to 1996 as the appropriate authority in relation to members of the staff of the Commissioner
25and, if the Minister does so, then so long as the delegation remains in force—

26 (a) those powers shall, in lieu of being exercisable by the Minister, be exercisable by the
27 Commissioner, and

28 (b) the Commissioner shall, in lieu of the Minister, be for the purposes of this Act the
29 appropriate authority in relation to members of the staff of the Commissioner.

30 8. (1) The Commissioner shall keep, in such form as may be approved of by the Minister,
31all proper and usual accounts of all moneys received or expended by him or her and all such
32special accounts (if any) as the Minister may direct.

33 (2) Accounts kept in pursuance of this paragraph in respect of each year shall be submitted
34by the Commissioner in the following year on a date not later than a date specified by the
35Minister to the Comptroller and Auditor General for audit and, as soon as may be after the

124 124
1audit, a copy of those accounts, or of such extracts from those accounts as the Minister may
2specify, together with the report of the Comptroller and Auditor General on the accounts,
3shall be presented by the Commissioner to the Minister who shall cause copies of the
4documents presented to him or her to be laid before each House of the Oireachtas.
59. The Commissioner may delegate to a member of the staff of the Commissioner any of the
6functions of the Commissioner (other than those under this paragraph or section 26 ) and
7references in this Act to the Commissioner shall be construed, where appropriate having
8regard to any delegation under this paragraph, as including references to any person to whom
9functions stand delegated by the delegation.
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26 Appendix 7
27Website: http://hawaii.gov/lrb/con/conart15.html

28THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF HAWAII

29ARTICLE XV
30STATE BOUNDARIES; CAPITAL; FLAG; LANGUAGE AND MOTTO

31BOUNDARIES

125 125
1Section 1. The State of Hawaii shall consist of all the islands, together with their appurtenant
2reefs and territorial and archipelagic waters, included in the Territory of Hawaii on the date
3of enactment of the Admission Act, except the atoll known as Palmyra Island, together with
4its appurtenant reefs and territorial waters; but this State shall not be deemed to include the
5Midway Islands, Johnston Island, Sand Island (offshore from Johnston Island) or Kingman
6Reef, together with their appurtenant reefs and territorial waters. [Am 73 Stat 4 and election
7June 27, 1959; ren and am Const Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]

8CAPITAL

9Section 2. Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, shall be the capital of the State. [Ren and am
10Const Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]

11STATE FLAG

12Section 3. The Hawaiian flag shall be the flag of the State. [Ren Const Con 1978 and
13election Nov 7, 1978]

14OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

15Section 4. English and Hawaiian shall be the official languages of Hawaii, except that
16Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law. [Add
17Const Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]

18MOTTO

19Section 5. The motto of the State shall be, "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono." [Add Const
20Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]

21
22
23
24

126 126
1
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3
4
5
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16Appendix 8 (A, B, C & D)
17
18H2'Ō - Hawai'i Bilingual
19
20 A. Website: http://apps.facebook.com/causes/124832/13574130?m=95ac708a
21

22
23

Positions: 1. Hawai'i citizens shall by right receive public services in the official

127 127
language of their choice - http://www.officiallanguages.gc....
2. All public service communications shall be published in Hawai'ian, in
addition to English. Here's an example:
http://www.ahapunanaleo.org/olel...
3. The Hawai'i State Board of Education and the University of Hawai'i
shall adopt universal Hawai'ian language proficiency graduation
standards.

Category: Public Advocacy - Civil Rights and Liberties
After the unlawfull overthrow of the Hawaiian government by white
supremacists, four generations of Hawaiian people endured cultural genocide
beginning in 1898 when the Hawaiian language was banned as a medium of
public instruction. 30+ years have passed since the 1978 Hawai'i State
Constitution nominally restored Hawaiian as an official language along with
Description: English, yet speakers of Hawaiian cannot vote using their language. Without
public information readily available in Hawaiian, the current policy of English-
only community services is indeed tantamount to ethnic cleansing! Will you
please join with us to implement Hawai'i's Official Languages Act to put this
unfortunate era of cultural genocide against Hawaiian speaking people behind
us for good?

24

25 1,780 MEMBERS
26

28

29Michael E.Malulani K.Odegaard wrote at 5:08pm on October 16th, 2008

30In case your friend's either don't or won't use Facebook, there are two other options of
31websites that H2Ō - Hawai'i Bilingual will maintain - Maoliworld
32http://www.maoliworld.com/group/... and MySpace http://www.causes.com/myspace/ca...
33

35

36B. Website:
37http://apps.facebook.com/causes/view_members?cause_id=124832&m=8267094b&page
38=8

128 128
1 Members

2Back to H2'Ō - Hawai'i Bilingual
3

4
Name: Nathaniel Kinney
Joined: 10:40am June 29th, 2009
5
6
7
8
9C. Website:
10http://apps.facebook.com/causes/view_members?cause_id=124832&m=8267094b&page
11=41
12 Members
13 Back to H2'Ō - Hawai'i Bilingual
14

15
Name: J. Kalani English
Joined: 10:24am January 10th, 2009

16 • J. Kalani has recruited 1 person

129 129
1
2 D. Website:
3http://apps.facebook.com/causes/view_members?cause_id=124832&m=8267094b&page
4=58
5 Members

6Back to H2'Ō - Hawai'i Bilingual
7

8
Name: Colin Kippen
Joined: 5:24pm November 4th, 2008

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