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Len Rubinowitz, Criminal Law, Fall 2012

Actus Reus
MPC -Any Bodily movement -BUT! Exceptions (MPC 2.01(2)) -!e"lex o# Conv$lsion -Bodily Movement %&ile $nconscio$s'(sleep -Unde# )ypnosis -A *odily movement ot&e#%ise not t&e p#od$ct o" e""o#t o" dete#min(tion o" (cto# -BUT! +id t&ey t(,e (cts p#io# to t&is %&ic& %o$ld m(,e t&em c$lp(*le (ex epileptic d#ive#s- d#in,in. *e"o#e p(ssin. o$t %&ile d#ivin.) -Possession (MPC 2.01(/)) -0no%in.ly #eceived o# p#oc$#ed1 -A%(#e o" &is cont#ol1 -2$""icient time pe#iod to te#min(te possession1 Common Law -M(#tin v. 2t(te 3 .$y d#(..ed o$tside o" &o$se d#$n,- *y police 3 45T vol$nt(#y (ct -People v. 4e%ton 3 )$ey is $nconscio$s %&en s&ootin. police 3 t&is is ( 6$#y 7$estion -!o*inson v. C(li"o#ni( 3 !U8E 3 constit$tion(l #e7$i#ement o" (n (ct9 2t(t$s (s d#$. $se# c(nnot *e c#ime in itsel"- m$st &(ve (n (ct. -Po%ell v. Tex(s 3 st(t$s is not ( de"ense to speci"ic c#imes (i.e. p$*lic d#$n,enness).

Act (MPC 2.01)

5mission (MPC 2.01(:))

MPC -+$ty to (ct1 (MPC 2.01(:)(*)) -Cont#(ct$(l !e(ltions&ip1 -2t(t$s !el(tions&ip1 -;ol$nt(#y c(#e co$pled %it& secl$sion1 -<&(t co$nts (s secl$sion1 -C#e(tin. ( pe#il -<&(t limits (#e *$ilt into d$ty1 -+$ty to t#y- not s$cceed -+on=t &(ve to #is, yo$# o%n li"e -Mo#(l +$ty not eno$.&- no m(tte# &o% st#on.. 4eed 8E>A8 d$ty -5mission exp#essly m(de o""ense *y l(%1 (MPC 2.01(:)(()) Common Law -?ones v. U.2. 3 <om(n (nd *(*y in +=s &o$se- + &(s (mple

$l(te #e"$s(l o" t#e(tment. -E(sie# to dete# people i" t&ey=#e *ein.02(1)) -If culpability is not prescribe by la!" must be purposeful" #no!in$ly" or rec#less" %&' ne$li$ent (2. )e(lt& 3 8e. t&(t ( m(te#i(l element exists o# %ill #es$lt "#om &is cond$ct. o" P$*.*(*y dies 3 no 6$#y inst#$ction on d$ty (!U8E 2o$#ce o" common l(% d$ties) -Pope v. +ept.doesn=t.lyA $nless st(t$te &(s p$#pose to t#e(t it ot&e#%ise (C&ee.(l d$ty9 Misprision of felony no lon. 45T (n omission to pe#"o#m le.(tion di""e#ent "#om le. 8evels (2. 2t(te 3 c&$#c& l(dy t(. -B(#*e# v. +i#. is not (n (ct (i" "(mily does it is in (n (ct)9 in t&is c(se no d$ty to contin$e @&opelessA t#e(tment. -Must meet level of mens rea for EACH material element (2. G(il$#e to pe#ceive is ( .(#ds ( s$*st(nti(l (nd 6$sti"i(*le #is.%o#.#oss devi(tion "#om st(nd(#d o" cond$ct t&(t ( l(% (*idin.(l "iction p$llin.02(1)(2)) Purposely conscio$s o*6ect is to en. p$nis&ed "o# ( c&oice.#oss devi(tion "#om st(nd(#d o" c(#e ( #e(son(*le pe#son %o$ld o*se#ve. Mens Rea 0EC DUE2TE54 E4 C!EME4A8 8A< E" not de"ined in st(t$te. c(se viol(tes t&is (nd t#e(ts (s p$#posely) Rec lessly conscio$sly dis#e.isl(t$#e c(n #e.02(F)) -E" st(t$te s(ys @%ill"$lA t#e(t it (s @.me(ns to c(#e. citiBen %o$ld o*se#ve in (cto#=s sit$(tion !egligently &e s&o$ld *e (%(#e o" ( s$*st(nti(l (nd $n6$sti"i(*le #is.& p#o*(*ility o" its existence. t&e pl$.t&en le(ves *(*y in #oom %&e#e it dies9 )(d s&e vol$nt(#ily (ss$med #esponsi*ility19 Mo#(l o*li. t&(t m(te#i(l elements exists'%ill #es$lt "#om &is cond$ct.es mot&e# (nd c&ild into &omemot&e# *e(ts c&ild in "#ont o" &e#.(#d involves ( .e in cond$ct o" t&e n(t$#e o" t&e o""ense o# c($se s$c& ( #es$lt9 (%(#e'*elieves'&opes t&(t (ttend(nt ci#c$mst(nces exist Knowingly &e is (%(#e t&(t &is cond$ct is o" t&e n(t$#e o" t&e o""ense't&(t (ttend(nt ci#c$mst(nces exist't&(t &is (ctions %ill (lmost ce#t(inly c($se t&e #es$lt -T&is c(n (lso *e s(tis"ied i" pe#son is (%(#e o" ( &i.Miss.e# ( c#ime.& (ll levels on ex(m! -People (#e *l(me%o#t&y *ec($se t&ey m(de ( c&oice.(l d$ty9 8e.02(()) .no%in. -C#$B(n v. 2$pe#io# Co$#t 3 +octo#s t$#ned o"" li"e s$ppo#t (t #e7$est o" "(mily. t&#o$..$nless &e (ct$(lly *elieves it does not exist (MPC 2. +is#e.p(tient died.(.

(s mete#.(#ds to one element.(s (. ?e%ell 3 m(#i6$(n( sm$.ent c&ild (*$se st(t$te 3 m$st *e const#$ed (s st(nd(#d o" c#imin(l ne.li. "o# PUB8EC <E8GA!E @%e . 5nly &(ve st#ict li(*ility i" -5""ense is ( viol(tion.*$t &is sentence %ill *e #ed$ced to t&e de.&(m 3 stole .isl(t$#e imposes it explicitly in st(t$te.ni"e 3 ne.e o" c&ild %(s (l%(ys (ss$med ( st#ict li(*ility element -8oo.st#ict li(*ility %ill not *e (ss$med.no#(nce is not o. E" it=s not cle(#. -BUT! P#ince c(se t&ey (ss$med st#ict li(*ility %it& #e. -U.02(+)) -.li.it=s still dismisses t&e o""ense *ec($se need mens #e( "o# EAC) element -E" pe#son %o$ld still *e .0/(2)) .in( v.$p to t&em to p#ove it %(sn=t Mist(.li.#ee o" t&e c#ime &e %o$ld &(ve *een committin.2. v.not ( c#ime -8e. (M*C 2.no% it %o$ld c($se . -Common 8(% (lso tends to not impose st#ict li(*ility $nless it=s ve#y cle(#. Especi(lly i" t&e#e is ( st#ict p$nis&ment. Mista e o) Fact -M(y ne.li.& %(ll to mot&e#-in-l(%.it=s not (ss$med o# (pplied.edA -2(ntill(nes v.s %e#e (s &e t&o$.$ilty o" (not&e# c#ime i" t&in.(te t&e mens #e( t&(t=s #e7$i#ed "o# ( p(#tic$l(# element o# o""ense (s ( %&ole -E" 6$st one element.lin.ence.0/) -Common l(% t#e(ts t&ese di""e#ent. 4e% Mexico 3 C$ts nep&e%=s nec.no% it %&en %e see itA -C(n(di(n (pp#o(c& s&i"t *$#den o" p#oo" to de"end(nt.o t&#o$.-If culpability is prescribe for an offense !it)out istin$uis)in$ amon$ elements" t)at level applies to all elements unless t)ere is contrary purpose plainly appears.no!le $e/rec#lessness/ne$li$ence in re$ar s to !)et)er t)e con uct constitutes an offense or t)e e0istence/meanin$/application of t)e la! is not an element of t)e crime unless t)e efinition of t)e offense so provi es -!e.MPC t#e(ts t&em t&e s(me. %it& .02(-)) -. (nd . (MPC 2. Ass$me ne.ence.s %e#e (s &e s$pposed.&e c(nnot $se t&is (s (n exc$se. C$nnin.didn=t . in sec#et comp(#tment 3 deli*e#(te i. @M(licio$sA s(tis"ied *ec($se &e co$ld "o#esee someone %o$ld *e in6$#ed *y &is (ction 3 @%ic.)en la! provi es a culpability level" a )i$)er level of culpability suffices (2. 3 MPC 2"02#$% & ostric' (e)ense not o & see Comment Paragrap' #$% *will)ul blin(ness not o +" 2t#ict 8i(*ility -MPC is not ( "(n o" st#ict li(*ility.#e% o$t o" common l(% (s mens #e( %(s (l%(ys (ss$med.e (2.&t. i" t&in.ence not civil ne..(s to le(.espeic(lly st(t$tes t&(t .

-C&ee. -8(m*e#t v.i#l %(s ove# 1H. P#ince 3 )e *elieved ..oin.ist#yK) -People v. *(c.s 1HI.es (*o$t t&e l(% %o$ld *e enco$#(.ns on t&e *o#de#s. 5lsen 3 >i#l consents'#(ped *y t%o *oys in t#(ile#s.&t &e %(s (llo%ed $nde# st(t$to#y de"inition.*$t t&is isn=t (l%(ys t#$e -MPC t#e(ts t&is t&e s(me (s mist(. $n#e.e si.e &e m(y not *e convicted.*$t &e %(sn=t.s&e loo.in( v.*$sesdet(ilin.innin.edA 3 (""i#med conviction9 B(c.no% o" d$ty.e purpose o) protecting girls is not ser.-!e. -People v.&t lo(ded %e(pon into ni.mist(. l(%.s&o$ld &(ve c&ec.et p#oxim(te c($se -Activities %it& little soci(l *ene"it (nd &i.eon $n"(it&"$l %ives9 2om(li=s c(n do "em(le .iste#ed "i#e(#m 3 t&o$.enit(l m$til(tion (con"lict *et%een "eminism (nd m$ltic$lt$#(lism) - Causation -B$t "o# c($se1 -P#oxim(te c($se1 -8ot o" P58ECC involved in dete#minin.iste#in. Conviction (""i#med @*ec($se t&e (ct %(s %#on.& #is. U. +idn=t . v.no%led. itsel"A 3 *e.s&e &(d told &im so.(nd no p#o*(*ility o" s$c& . o""ende# #e.#o$nd p$*lic policy 3 C54TELT 3 *#o$.s ( lot o" t&e time9 C&inese &$s*(nds c(n *l$d. "o#%(#d1 5t&e#%ise do yo$ need l(#.e( by allowing mista e o) )act (e)ense )or age" Mista e o) Law -Common l(% s(ys t&is is no exc$se. @exceptions %o$ld s%(llo% t&e #$le. 1 Pilot doesn=t %(nt to p(y t(xes 3 *elieved &e didn=t o%e (ny t(xes.%&e#e pe#son did not .tells t&em s&e is 1H. t&e di""e#ent c$lt$#e o" de"end(nt (s evidence to #e*$t existence o" ( p(#tic$l(# mens #e( #e7$i#ed9 <o#.%(#ds to .(nd t&(t it %(s $nconstit$tion(l9 )(d to %ill"$lly not p(y t(xes 3 t&is %(s ( 6$#y 7$estion to decide i" &is $nde#st(ndin. o" t&e income %(s #e(son(*le .(i#po#ts.e (*o$t t&e l(% (ct$(lly viol(ted1 5# ( di""e#ent l(% t&(t is ( m(te#i(l element o" t&e l(% viol(ted1 -<(s t&e#e notice1 B$#den is on de"end(nt to p#ove t&e#e %(sn=t (8(m*e#t Jd#$. M(##e#o 1 Pe(ce o""ice# c(##yin.no% (*o$t d$ty to #e. o" st#ict li(*ility. o" de(t& (#e li.&tcl$*.ed "i#st.is #e(lly 1: 3 legislati.2. (ll t&e l(%s1 -Cultural -e)ense 1 m(y involve $sin.iven t&e #e7$i#ement o" ( %ill"$l (ct. (45TECE E22UE)9 +oes t&is 2$p#eme co$#t decision s(tis"y notice . C(li"o#ni( 1 @convicted pe#sonA c(n=t *e in 8A %it&o$t #e. p#oxim(te c($se -A#e t&ese people *l(me%o#t&y1 <o#.ely to &(ve mo#e (*st#(ct p#oxim(te c($se in o#de# to dete# *e&(vio# Go#esee(*ility (nd Coincidence -+i""e#ent levels o" (*st#(ction .iste# .e o" "(ct -Es mist(.

!oot 3 +#(."i#e"i.*$t t&em #ec. +id &e c($se t&e de(t&1 5ne victim $ses m(c&ine on &e#sel". c($se . c($ses1 -People v.. Bec($se cond$ct #ende#ed dece(sed mentally irresponsible./A 0nten(e( to Cause t'e . t&e c($s(l c&(in t&ese s$*se7$ent &$m(n (ctions &(ve to #e"lect ($tonomy o" t&ose (ctions (000 c(se. .li. c($s(l c&(in) -T%o . Entent %(s not to .-+o %e need to speci"ic(lly "o#esee ( &elicopte# c#(s&1 -+o %e 6$st need to "o#esee ( de(t& in ( &i. t&e #es$lt mi. -eat' 'as to be (irect an( natural result o) (e)en(ant2s act" .convinces .'!$ssi(n #o$lette c(ses -To *#e(.e "o# %ee.+oes it *#e(. c(se.victim opened c(niste#. &e(vily.ill &imsel". -+o t&ei# (cts *ecome s$pe#sedin. #(cin. .& speed c&(se1 -5*6ective.$#e o$t.( s$*se7$ent &$m(n (ction co$ld *#e(. -Alte#ed &elicopte# &ypo (still "o#esee(*le de(t&s. t#(""ic. 4uilty o) mur(er.doesn=t m(tte# i" (cto# &imsel" "o#es(% events -People v.intended to c($se t&e #es$lt.$y "o# sleepin.i(n 3 Assisted s$icide m(c&ine. !1 causation.>i#l on t#(in #(ped (nd &eld &ost(. !e(son(*ly "o#see(*le t&(t ( p$#s$e# mi.$n %it& *$llets.+#in.&te# dies. #(cin.ill.i(n c(ses.pl(ces m(s. is "o#esee(*le.& speed c&(se.t#y to .&e *#in.ot&e# victim "(ils.ently in &e(t o" c&(se.ictim s&oots &imsel". %it& %i"e.&te#s #espond. +ece(sed m(de ( decision to s%e#ve into oncomin. )e(d on collision.2nd independent "i#e (not c($sed *y +) stops t&em.&t *#e(.*$t &oped victim %o$ld .victims intended to die.$y to commit s$icide.(n.so &e meets t&e c($s(tion #e7$i#ement. on victim.&t (ct ne.in.(s t(n. +e"end(nt pl(ced victim in v$lne#(*le position to t&e sep(#(te "o#ce.&i. -Common%e(lt& v. t&e c($s(l c&(in.not #e(l ($tonomy) -2tep&enson v.ame Result -0evo#. >ets poison (nd commits s$icide *ec($se o" s&(me. 0evo#. 2t(te ."i#e"i.s . 2end it *(c./A 3'at Rec lessly Ris t'e Result -+#(. Go#esee(*le t&(t "i#em(n %o$ld #espond.o""e#s &im ( . to lo%e# co$#t to "i.lessly #is. C(mp*ell . +ece(sed (ttempts to p(ss de"end(nt in opposin.in.#y (t . -People v.et o$t.inds o" s$pe#sedin. Acost( 3 )elicopte# c(se. t&e c($s(l c&(in to #emove li(*ility1 -<&en s&o$ld %&(t victim't&i#d p(#ty does t&(t cont#i*$tes to t&e &(#m #emove li(*ility1 -Even i" somet&in.&elicopte# c#(s&es into (not&e# one. 2o p#oxim(te c($se is "o$nd -People v.(nd le(ves it t&e#e %it& &im. *in(ispensable lin in t'e c'ain o) e. t#(""ic. A#Bon 3 <&(t is t&e @itA t&(t is "o#esee(*le1 )e st(#ted one "i#e "o# (#son. 45T A 2UGGECEE4T8C +E!ECT CAU2E to *e c#imin(lly li(*le.ents t'at resulte( in (eat'+ 2$*se7$ent )$m(n Actions .

*$t (s p#(ctic(l m(tte# p#esence o" #esist(nce is still $sed ( lot in p#ovin.e in #e(lity..in(lly t&is involved #esist(nce. -Emp(ct o" #e"o#m e""o#ts l(% does some t&in.&e s(id yes. t&e o""ense.e t&e c(se. McG(dden 3 +#(.es ( *i. T&e . -T&e v(#i(tions (#e (*o$t *ot& t&e (ct$s #e$s side (nd mens #e( side. T&e#e (#e ot&e# %(ys "o#ce mi. (nd pl(yin. !$ssi(n #o$lette.so t&is m(.inds o" "o#ce *esides p&ysic(l "o#ce1 Entellect$(lmo#(l "o#ce.etc. !$s.&e c&o. doesn=t %(nt to .ed to le(ve ("te#.&t *e c(##ied o$t. #(ce.o in.coe#cive envi#onment.does not *(# de"end(nt "#om *ein.eys. +ece(sed 6oint p(#ticip(nt loses cont#ol (nd s%e#ves into oncomin. to (pt..ind o" evidence (s its too &(#d to m(.&e t(.*$t i" soci(l no#ms don=t c&(n.eeps p#ess$#in.oes *(c. -And ( lot o" p#osec$to#s %ill not p#osec$te i" t&ey don=t &(ve t&is .e t&e#e c(n only *e so m$c& c&(n. 3 st(t$te #e7$i#ed "o#ce 3 %om(n .oes in. -<&(t is eno$.illin.& p&ysic(l "o#ce o# t&#e(t o" t&(t s(tis"ies t&is element1 -5#i. -2t(te v. convicted o" invol$nt(#y m(nsl($.*esides 6$st p&ysic(l "o#ce. -P(#t o" t&is is t&e#e is ( lot o" #e"o#m le.&te# (!E?ECT2 !55T) -Common%e(lt& v.-2t(te v. +$ty not to coope#(te %it& .#(vity o" t&e de"enseA Rape -T&is is p#o*(*ly %&e#e t&e#e is .in.one.&tly (nd &(s sex %it& &e#. "o#ce.(t "i#st @#esist to t&e $pmostA %&ic& is p#etty m$c& . &e#. di""e#ence.s.. @4ot too #emote o# (ccident(l to &(ve ( 6$st *e(#in. ?oint coope#(tion.. Go#ce -C#$ci(l iss$e is $se o" "o#ce (nd %&(t de"ines "o#ce (o# t&#e(t o" "o#ce). Atencio 3 : *oys d#in.(nd c#(s&es into c(#. on t&e (cto#=s li(*ility o# t&e . As. (4o soci(l *ene"it "#om t&is (ctivity 3 so t&e de"end(nt is .(me. #(cin.#(yest v(#i(tion in (pp#o(c&es (mon. st(tes *ot& in st(t$tes (nd in co$#ts inte#p#et(tions o" t&ose st(t$tes.0: 1) Cond$ct is t&e c($se o" ( #es$lt %&en A) it is (n (ntecedent *$t "o# %&ic& t&e #es$lt in 7$estion %o$ld not &(ve occ$##ed9 (nd B) t&e #el(tions&ip *et%een t&e cond$ct (nd t&e #es$lt s(tis"ies (ny (ddition(l c($s(l #e7$i#ements imposed *y t&e Code o# *y t&e l(% de"inin.es . -<&(t (*o$t ot&e# .isl(tion (nd some st(tes &(ve done ( lot mo#e t&(n ot&e#s %&o &(ve done only ( little o# (lmost none. m$ltiple people (nd H ye(# old.es &e# li.$ilty) MPC App#o(c& to C($s(tion MPC 2.s&e . 5icarious liability9 vol$nt(#y (ction o" dece(sed in t&e d#(.

(nd . -People v. Mlin(#ic& 3 >i#l sent to &(l"%(y &o$se (1/ ye(# old).no%A s&e didn=t consent 3 B.& "o# 6$#y to "ind @"o#ceA -2t(te v.es $p. t&is time. (Context 3 1H ye(# old d#in.yo$ (ss$me t&e #is.*$t o"ten t&e#e is silence (nd t&is is t&e dete#mined *y t&e co$#ts inte#p#et(tion. >i(#d(no 3 1H ye(# old d#in.e o" "(ct is s$""icient to ne. Ev(ns 1 @2ed$ction c(seA 3 pic.o# (pp#e&ension.in.& to meet "o#ce #e7$i#ement1 E" so t&en t&e "o#ce #e7. 2t(t$te #e7$i#ed "o#ce o" t&#e(t o" "o#ce.Bosni(n m$slim ..isl(tion. o" consent. B$l.$ilty *ec($se &e is sc$m*(.in.const(ntly lies to &e#.it doesn=t m(tte# %&(t ot&e# cond$ct s&e m(y &(ve.$y &(s sex %it& &e#. T&ey s&o$ld &(ve . -2o %&(t constit$tes consent1 -People v.i#l in colle.&t t&(t p#evio$s enco$nte#s me(nt sex %(s o. (A>AE42T Go#ce #e7$i#ement) -Common%e(lt& v.es it necess(#y to &(ve (""i#m(tive %o#ds'(cts.not *ec($se &e *#o.&.e.(#i( 1 Ente#n(tion(l c#imin(l t#i*$n(l (Cited c(se . >i#l in #oom sleepin. t&(t s&e %ill p#ess #(pe c&(#. is de(d. T&is is not t&e c(se P#oposed Model 2t(t$te -Mo#e mode#n (nd m(.sometimes "#om le. *o$#*on p(#ticip(tes in n$me#o$s (cts o" inte#co$#se (nd o#(l sex9 intoxic(tion inv(lid(tes consenteven i" it is 45T p&ysic(lly inc(p(cit(tin.#(d$(te i" s&e doesn=t sleep %it& &im. )E8+ 3 "o#ce does not incl$de intimid(tion. t$#ns) in *(t&#oom. Gisc&e# 1 >$y &(d &(d sex %it& .c&o. -2t(te in t&e Ente#est o" MT2 1 Es non-consens$(l penet#(tion eno$. -Common%e(lt& v.i#l "#om 4CC (i#po#t "#om 4C. -2ometimes in t&e st(t$tes.s $p . -Common%e(lt& v.i#l #(ped *y 2e#*i(n >ene#(l 3 &e didn=t @.(nd ( co$ple st(tes &(ve ( st#ict li(*ility (pp#o(c& to . 2&e##y 3 +octo#s (nd n$#se (t ( p(#ty.t&ey t(. %(s eno$. T&ompson 1 non6p'ysical t'reats9 p#incip(l t&#e(tens st$dent to not .in.(te mens #e(ot&e# st(tes s(y &onest (nd #e(son(*le mist(. ?$#y "inds &im ..e t&e l(%.no%led.event$(lly &(ve sex %it& &e# (t(.$y t&#e(tens to send &e# *(c.. to detention. !(pe #e7$i#es (ct$(l p&ysic(l comp$lsion o# violence o# ( t&#e(t o" p&ysic(l comp$lsion o# violence s$""icient to p#event #esist(nce *y ( pe#son o" #e(son(*le #esol$tion.e &e# to isol(ted spot (&o$se) d(ncin.).e *e"o#e&e t&o$.in.e o" consent.. -MC v.e o" "(ct #e7$i#ed. Mista e o) )act wit' respect to consent -2ome st(tes &onest mist(.s&e event$(lly sleeps %it& &im.no%n."e(#. )E8+ 3 i" s&e s(ys no.s&e %(. 4o consent 3 penet#(tion eno$.2.) Mens !e('Consent -C#$ci(l iss$e is t&(t t&e intend(nt ci#c$mst(nce in (ll o" t&ese c#imes is l(c.

#e.$n on *ed "o# &e# to "eel s("e.e t&e c#ime mo#e se#io$s1 -Me#cy .#ee -M(nsl($.&te# -. /omici(e >#(din.s v. point is p(#(di. -!e(son(*leness in p(#t "o# (ct$s #e$s (nd in p(#t mens #e(.et ( se#io$s p$nis&ment.niBes t&(t (ss($lt in ( . -2t(te v.&t o" t&ei# (#. C(##oll 3 4o time is too s&o#t. 2t(te 3 p#emedit(tion c(n *e "o#med %&en p$llin.ent )omicide P#emedit(tion -P#emedit(tion (s ( %(y o" dete#minin. t&e t#i. t&e ni.le"t it t&e#e.#ee -2econd +e. >$t&#ie .li.s -M$#de# -Gi#st +e.e#.ene#(l t&eme is ve#y m$c& (*o$t sex$(l ($tonomy.io$s .m s&i"t to sex$(l ($totomy inste(d o" violence (&o%eve# t&e#e is still ( violence (spect to it).ol$nt(#y -Envol$nt(#y -4e.oes *(c. -C#e(tes / di""e#ent "elony o""enses so t&ey (#e (ll se#io$s o""enses t&(t .To%el sn(p to t&e nose9 C54T!A2T %' C(##oll 3 time #e7$i#ed to "o#m intent 45T met.ene#(l sense is "o#ce o# t&#e(t o" "o#ce.&e p$t t&e .d$#in.illin.o#ies o" p#ovoc(tion in common l(% (nd i" yo$ "it in one yo$ . -2peci"ic c(te.ill yo$!A -2&o$ld p#emedit(tion m(tte#1 -+oes it m(.ives ( ton o" ex(mples o" non-consent. E.one so "(#. p#ocess m$st *e p#oven *y p#osec$tion -Contin. -To *e s$#e yo$ &(ve consent o" ot&e# pe#son. seve#ity o" c#ime -<&(t is p#emedit(tion1 -5ne vie% intent to .ent intent is is intent @E" yo$ don=t MMMMM E=ll .$ment l(te# &e s&ot &e# -Co$n.#eco.s some &isto#y "o#%(#d..s @in t&e momentA -MPC doesn=t mention p#emedit(tion! -Common%e(lt& v.45 p#emedit(tion. -B#in. -2t(#tin.yo$ c(n "o#m it in seconds -Anot&e# vie% deli*e#(te pl(nnin. B$t . to common l(%.illin.(lso . P#ovoc(tion -P#ovoc(tion .ill. v.t&is (s (*o$t (s "(# (s it=s .

4eeds to &(ve ( #e(son(*le expl(n(tion "o# t&e ext#eme level o" t&e dist$#*(nce.e to pro.&te#. o" t&is not (s t&e MPCs (pp#o(c& to p#ovoc(tion. )e %(s cle(#ly ext#emely dist$#*ed.*$t (lso &(s o*6ective component.still #ec.(nd s&o$ld . -)(s in it notion o" &e(t o" p(ssion. -T&in. -T&in.li.. People 3 Gollo%s %i"e into %oods. o"" pe#iod not in MPC (t (ll.c(ses .*ed#idden. policy iss$es.& "o# p#ovoc(tion. o"" pe#iod9 o*6ective v. on &im.&te#.&e=s lo$sy..(tion "#om 2nd M$#de# to m(nsl($.ocation. o" t&e @even i" yo$=#e too st$pid to .&.y p(#t is t&(t i" it=s invol$nt(#y m(nsl($. &e dis#e.co$ld move do%n "#om m$#de# to m(nsl($. C(s(ss( 3 d(ted c(s$(lly. <el(ns.)e cited ext#eme emotion(l dist$#*(nce9 coolin. +e*(te on i" someone tellin. -@Envol$nt(#yA me(ns $nintended. t&(t t&e de"end(nt c&oose to t(.*ec($se #esponse not reasonable 71R-. T&is co$ld &(ve *een #e(son(*le p#ovoc(tion.no%.es to t&in. -<o#ds (#e not eno$.o to ( 6$#y.ent &omicide.y 1 /N2 people die *ec($se exit doo#s loc. -T#ic.ocation must occur in 'is presence" -People v.e $p.less cond$ct "o$nd *y s&o%in. ->i#o$(#d v. -Ede( o" &e(t o" p(ssion'coolin.(tion'p#ovoc(tion cl(im. -Common%e(lt& v. (*o$t c#eepy *#e(. <(nton (nd #ec. -MPC &(s ( di""e#ent (pp#o(c& to t&is.one (t time.onn( do1A9 t&#e(tened to &(ve &im co$#t m(#ti(led9 )e st(**ed &e# 1N times.8!3: cause o) pro. !13 8!194/ -M(&e# v.edo%ne# .s&e=s le(vin.&t cl$* c(se (nd $nde#lyin.time is ne$t#(l. -0.less.co$#t did t&(t (nd "o$nd it %(sn=t #e(son(*le.lessA ni.e.*$t t&ei# alternati.(#ded t&e s("ety o" &is p(t#ons in t&e event o" "i#e "#om . .s&e tells &im s&es c&e(tin. -T&e#e is no time to cool o"".$y o$t o" %oods into *(#."ollo%s ..s (*o$t ext#eme emotion(l dist$#*(nce. s$*6ective9 o."#iend tells &im t&(t t&ey &(ve &(d sex *e"o#e. 2t(te 3 co$ple m(##ied "o# t%o mont&s. -MPC t(l. )E8+ 3 45 miti.e#y s$*6ective.oes in (nd s&oots .*$t %(s it #e(son(*le to *e t&(t dist$#*ed1 <&(t t&is does to p#ovoc(tion is t&(t t&e dist$#*(nce need not come "#om t&e victim.$y. someone (*o$t in"idelity is eno$. Unintended 0illin. )e li. to (pply t&e s$*6ective test "o# reasonableness.told t&(t s&e is c&e(tin.so p#osec$to# &(s to p#ove t&(t t&e de"end(nt 04E< t&e#e %(s ( s$*st(nti(l$n6$sti"i(*le #is. Ultim(te test is #e(son(*leness (7$(si s$*6ective o*6ective "#om MPC @pe#son in t&e s&oes o" t&e de"end(ntA).s -Us$(lly t&e o""ense involved is invol$nt(#y m(nsl($.event$(lly *#o. $p c(se.o *ot& %(ys.&te# mens #e( is #ec.&te# o# ne.i" t&e#e is time to cool o"" yo$ lose t&e miti. &im9 @<&(t (#e yo$ .

<illi(ms 3 n(tive Ame#ic(ns don=t t(.noll collides %it& .e -2t(#t %it& notion t&(t p#osec$to# &(s to p#ove mens #e( %it& #espect to t&e de(t& (.oes (. *ec($se ( #e(son(*le pe#son co$ld &(ve "o$nd t&(t &e conscio$sly dis#e. d#ivin.li.*$t #ec. -)$.ence.2(1)(*) &(ve @ext#eme indi""e#enceA o" t&e v(l$e o" &$m(n li"e is #e7$i#ed to #(tc&et $p t&e c#ime to m$#de# -T&is indi""e#ence is p#es$med i" (cto# is in en.e yo$# victim (s yo$ "ind t&em9 m$#de# $p&eld. o" ( $nc(lled "o# (ct (Public policy.e t&ei# 1Fmont& c&ild to t&e docto#. -People v.etc) -9ninten(e( illing as mur(er #$ssi(n #o$lette.$y on >< P(#.$npoint.son dies..%(y .#e(t #is.. %&ic& is imp(i#ed.l(#iBed (nd #o**ed (t . 210.ids &e(d.oes in opposites l(nesc#e(tes .#ee o" li. 2$""icient evidence "#om %&ic& t&e co$#t "o$nd ( reasonably pru(ent person exe#cisin. 1 +#$n.(#ded9 -2t(te v.e# %&ile &oldin.(.speci"ic "elonies.&te# t#i(l %o$ld &(ve *een o. this is intentional because no social benefit in the activities.ills &im.less *eyond t&e d#$n.in. (4ot 6$st d#$n.& de.$y (nd .e p$nis&ment. (.iin.#oss #ec.eli&ood to in6$#e (not&e#A 3 di""e#ent t&(n civil ne.ed in- .lessness) -BUT p#osec$to# . v.(#d "#om t&e li"e (nd s("ety o" ot&e#s.in( v.45T t&(t &e #ec. -!e. -People v.e#o$s..en t&e c&ild to t&e docto#.n(##o% st#ict li(*ility 3 to (cts li.treme (isregar( )or 'uman li)e.*ec($se m(lice %(s s(tis"ied *y t&e intention(l doin. ot&e# c&ild#en (%(y.(inst ot&e# .(inst policy iss$es o" st#ict li(*ility. M(lone 1 0ids pl(yin.9 T(.mo#(l *l(me%o#t&iness 3 t(. and great risk given potential harm is too much) -U. 2e#ne 1 >$y *$#ns &is &o$se do%n "o# (#son.&e(d on collision. (Punis'ment 3 dette#(nce. 8. -Common%e(lt& v.illed p$lled t#i.en st$pe#) Gelony-M$#de# !$le -<&(t "elonies co$nt "o# GM!1 -5ne (pp#o(c& is to s(y (ny "elony-Anot&e# is to s(y ce#t(in d(n. @!$ssi(n po. or(inary care %o$ld &(ve t(.ets some &elp.d#$n. !ec.ely o# . )(ll 3 +e"end(nt s..lessly c($sed t&e "i#e9 @)i.no%n to c($se de(t&.less m(nsl($. Glemmin.2. 2t(mp 1 B$#. -C#itic(l iss$e in "elony m$#de# #$les is t&e#e is no mens #e( #e7$i#ed %it& #espect to t&e de(t& (still needs mens #e( "o# "elony). -2till &(ve to p#ove c($s(tion.(ny c($se.victim s$""e#s c&est p(ins (nd dies o" &e(#t (tt(c. . Co$#t "o$nd t&is %(s m$#de#. d#ivin.ve#y se#io$s. M(lice "o$nd *y intention(l ope#(tion o" c(# in ( m(nne# t&(t %(s %it&o$t #e. Felony mur(er not limite( to )oreseeable (eat' MPC alternati. "lies ove# .e#A *$t ot&e# .

-2m(ll%ood v.%e don=t %(nt police to inte#vene too soon *ec($se sometimes it loo.o(l.e t&ei# minds (nd %(nt to . o# (ttemptin. -Mens rea wit' respect to result is “purposely causin$ result or believin$ it !ill cause result4 -2o.lessness. 2 %(ys -Complete (nd impe#"ect.& level o" mens #e(.C54+UCT (nd !E2U8T need &i.no% (s m$c& (*o$t mens #e( (s %e do %&en t&in.&t *e pe#"ectly innocent (nd %e donOt %(nt people &eld li(*le "o# innocent (ctions.told to p#(ctice s("e sex o# &e co$ld . 2t(te 3 )E. t&e scene ("te# committin.*$t it=s not (c&ieved. "o# ( )E>) level o" mens #e( %it& (ttempt -T&e#e is $nce#t(inty. -Gelonio$s esc(pe -P#es$mption doesn=t me(n t&e#e is .01) -4otion in . Mens !e( -2t(#t %it& Mens !e( in #e(lm o" intent (P.&(#m &(sn=t &(ppened so %e don=t . -<e (lso %(nt people to c&(n.l(#y -0idn(ppin.ene#(l is loo. to%(#ds ( c#ime *$t mi.e t&ei# minds.ive people (s m$c& oppo#t$nity (s possi*le to do so.et to next line %&ic& s(ys 2purposely en$a$es in con uct4 %&ic& tells yo$ mens rea o) purposely wit' respect to con(uct "o# (ttempt. -5n t&e ot&e# &(nd.s&oot t&e *$llet into ( pillo%. -2Actin$ !it) t)e #in of culpability ot)er!ise re3uire for t)e crime4 so$nds simple eno$. positive. Attempt T&e#e is ( c#imin(l . to commit -!o**e#y -!(pe -A#son -B$#.o to 6$#y (nd 6$#y c(n decide.& -BUT! t&en yo$ .s &(ve *een completed.s li. (p#event(tive (pp#o(c&). B$t p#es$mption is #e*$tt(*le.e it=s &e(din.#oss #ec. 2o %e need police not to inte#vene too soon in c(se people c&(n.(ccomplice o".o# "leein.ot&e# atten(ant circumstances mens rea (e)ine( by statute. &(ppened *e"o#e yo$ completed t&e (ttempt -T&is #(ises most iss$es (nd policy iss$es.*$t it %ill .in. -Encomplete intent %(s t&e#e *$t somet&in. -<e %(nt t&e police to *e (*le to inte#vene (nd stop c#imes "#om &(ppenin.

-2t(t$to#y (pp#o(c&es (#e desi.01(2)) @s&(ll not *e &eld ins$""icient (s ( m(tte# o" l(%A -Al%(ys t&in."i#st step not necess(#ily s$""icient. -McD$i#te# v.(nd #o**e#y implements (s&ot. t&e next time. "o# speci"ic . ?$st intends to #(pe.$ilty... -People v.dimes t&em o"" to t&e GBE. (ct$(l c#ime.c&(#.none o" %&ic& (#e "o#m$l(s. (nd "o#t& *et%een (ttempt (nd p#ep(#(tion -)(s to *e vol$nt(#y (nd complete. 5ne is (##ested.ot #e(lly.ed *y cops.&(ve %it& t&em toy . Attempt -.innin.*$t in (ttempt %o#ld. o" (lte#n(tives MPC. -T&is is l(#.*$t *(sic(lly yo$ . v. T#o$*lesome c(se.e#o$s P#oximity &(ve to *e ne(# pl(ce c#ime is s$pposed to &(ppen. -Complete #en$nci(tion &(s to *e pe#m(nent.et o$t o" t&e c(#spoo.ed %it& (ss($lt %it& intent to #(pe. -0in. ?(c.*$t (lso &(s element t&(t=s close# to t&e end *ec($se s$*st(nti(l steps &(ve to *e co##o*o#(tive o" c#imin(l p$#pose -2e#ies o" ex(mples o" possi*le s$*st(nti(l steps (P.2.(nd not 6$st (*o$t .e o) t'eir criminal intent" !en$nci(tion (MPC P. v.2t(t$tes. T&ey .e# 3 loc$s penitenti(e (oppo#t$nity to #epent)9 "in(l step mi.not *ec($se yo$ t&o$. Et loo.&(ndc$""s.time elements (s %ell."(.&t yo$ %e#e . -+(n. -Une7$ivoc(l i" yo$ see it yo$ 045< t&e c#imin(l p$#pose so it c#osses "#om p#ep to (ttempt. Applying t'e MPC t'is is strongly corroborati.don=t . 4o speci"ic intent to (ss($lt %it& intent to m$#de#.e it lite#(lly (s l(st (ct is c#ime itsel".o to *(n. (#o$nd loo. B(#. T&ey d#ive (#o$nd t&e *(n.m(s.&t o# decided to %(it "o# ( *ette# time to commit t&e c#imeetc.ely (n MPC notion. -MPC (pp#o(c& (p 121N) is ide( o" @s$*st(nti(l stepA -st(#ts "#om *e.$ns.(#iety o" tests. -8(st (ct don=t t(.%&e#e t&e#e is #en$nci(tion it $ndoes (incomplete) (ttempt.s).&t not *e #e7$i#ed.$ns. Dangerous proximity test #/olmes% & t&ey %e#e not close eno$.5nce c#ime &(ppens yo$ c(n=t #eno$nce. 2t(te 3 Bl(c.& to *e .oin. !iBBo 3 +#ivin. m(n @(ccostsA %&ite m(n in st#eet.Common l(%.s li.$y to #o* "o# p(y#ollc(n=t "ind &im..son 1 intend to #o* ( *(n.et c($.(##est t&em *e"o#e t&ey do (nyt&in.#e(lly close to doin.ned to "ix ( pl(ce'line *et%een p#ep (nd (ttempt.sp#e(d.in.e t&is is %&(t &e %(nts to do e!uivocality test" -U.e license pl(te. to .end *ec($se too &(#d.01(/)) . (nd #esc&ed$le "o# ( "$t$#e %ee. -C(n c#oss *(c. JAccused acts conduct or words can indicate specific intent – didn’t show anyK P#ep(#(tion v.police tipped o"". !(ped people %it&o$t condom.

-2ometimes @"(ctsA (#e ( le. $p %it& "(.oods (#e stolen'not stolen (s "(ct.es distinction *et%een "(ct$(l (nd le.*$t t&ey (#e not stolen %&en &e (ct$(lly *$ys t&em.*ec($se "#om MPC st(ndpoint t&(t=s %&e#e c$lp(*ility lies. ?(""e 1 >$y *$ys %&(t &e t&in.(l st(t$s (.(l *$t in "(ct it=s not (*$yin.&t *e (live. +l$.s is stolen clot&. -C(n=t *e &eld li(*le "o# inten in$ to do somet&in."i#ed H s&ots into &im. #o**in. +(vis 1 &i#es $nde#cove# cop to . -e)en(ant acte( wit' t'e belie) t&(t &e mi. 5*vio$sly %ill %(nt to (#. -MPC doesn=t c(#e %&et&e# it=s possi*le o# not.& evidence %(s p#esented to (""i#m &is conviction. Am*i.%e c(#e (*o$t de"end(nt=s c$lp(*ility.oin. -5"ten depends on &o% yo$ c&(#(cte#iBe it. T&is needs to *e p#oven *y p#eponde#(nce o" evidence.in. PR2 . -T&is is ve#y &(#d to do (nd %on=t &(ppen o"ten.$ity is i" yo$ #eno$nced c#ime (lto.(s& 3 2&oots .p(#tic$l(# inst(nce -4ot completely decide not to #o* t&is *(n.p(ys t&e money.(l possi*ility. to #o* ( di""e#ent one.e &it-m(n t&e#e=s (n (ttempt (not (ll co$#ts (.ill &e# &$s*(nd.01. -T&is is (n (""i#m(tive de"ense.) MPC does (%(y %it& impossi*ility (s ( de"ense p#etty m$c& (lto. yo$ need onedi""e#ent "#om intendin. Empossi*ility 2t(#t %it& common l(%. -C(se o" 8(dy Eldon=s G#enc& 8(ce 1 p. -8e. to *$y &e#oin (nd endin.ed yo$# mo#(l comp(ss (nd no lon.*$t (lso ( le.*$t %(nt to incentiviBe #en$nci(tion so %e &(ve it.ci#c$mst(nces A2 T)E +EGE4+A4T BE8EE.ill &e# &$s*(nd. -<&(t t&e de"end(nt *elieves is %&(t=s c#itic(l.#ee %it& t&is).t&(t &(d (l#e(dy *een s&ot. *ec($se yo$=#e .et&e#. -2t(te v. QP. 3'is isn2t impossibility.1 Co$ *(sic(lly need to p#ove to 6$#y t&(t yo$ @"o$nd #eli.$e t&is on ex(m i" it s&o%s $p. 5nly sit$(tion %&e#e yo$ c(n essenti(lly $ndo ( c#ime. tylenol %it&o$t p#esc#iption t&in. but a principle o) legality" -People v. 45T TA4TAM5U4T T5 ATTEMPT 3 *ec($se cop neve# intended to (ct$(lly .et&e#.E2 T)EM T5 BE.e &e#oin).so *$#den is on de"end(nt.ionA o# &(ve completely c&(n. 2olicit(tion -MPC s(ys i" yo$ &i#e ( "(.(l st(t$s o" stolen.e# %(nt to commit c#imes.. t&(t=s ille.ed %it& (ttempted m$#de#.(l impossi*ility is ( de"ense -"(ct$(l impossi*ility is not ( de"ense. 45 C!EME *ec($se legal impossibility -People v. C&(#.$y.m(.so eno$.o# #eno$nced *(n.

-E" yo$ . ( pin in t&e doll (cond$ct) isn=t d(n.e needs to loo.*$t t&en %e &(ve to decide i" (cto# is s$""iciently d(n.$n).ely to *e d(n. -!et#e(t #e7$i#ement ve#y cont#ove#si(l. -2t(tes t&(t don=t $se it (#e essenti(lly c(#vin.so no% E=ll t#y ( .s co$ldn=t &(ve *een t&(t *(d.Mitigation <"0<#2% -. -4on-MPC i" someone reasonably belie.*$t &(s limit(tions (nd %(nts to *e #e(listic (*o$t it. (nd "o#t& *ec($se it=s so cont#ove#si(l.$ments'expe#t testimony (*o$t B<2 is (*o$t imminence o" t&(t t&#e(t.t&(t s&e s&e *elieves t&e t&#e(t it imminent not%it&st(ndin.it=s not necess(#y to $se de(dly "o#ce. s&e s(ys *ec($se s&e didn=t le(ve so t&in.(nd (n (ct. (t *ot& t&e cond$ct (nd t&e (cto#.t#yin. some 6$#o#s inclin(tion not to *elieve (nyt&in.e to &(ve disc#etion %it& sentencin.culpation P#otection o" 8i"e (nd Pe#son -Mostly &(s to do %it& sit$(tions involvin. -!et#e(t #e7$i#ement *(sic(lly s(ys i" yo$ c(n #et#e(t s("ely "#om t&e t&#e(t.et slipped in (ci#c$mst(nces'expe#iences).*$t s$*st(nti(l disconnect *et%een . o$t (n exception to t&e #e7$i#ement o" necessity. -Goc$s is on lives s(ved.no%s t&is m(n *ette# t&(n (nyone else (nd is in *est position to p#edict &is *e&(vio# (nd detect t&e imminence o" t&e t&#e(t. -T&e#e=s (ll t&e mens #e(.oodoo ex(mple. -MPC incl$des #et#e(t #e7$i#ements. -4eit&e# C54+UCT no# t&e ACT5! (#e li. -Et depends on t&e st(te -some &(ve #et#e(t #e7$i#ement -some &(ve @t#$e m(nA conception -(nd some . T&is %om(n . -B(tte#ed <omen=s 2ynd#ome -5$tside o" t&e MPC t&e "oc$s is on imminence o" t&#e(t.. p#osec$tion. to sin. +EA+8C G5!CE.*$t (lso &(s some s$*6ective elements t&(t . -5*6ective vie%. ( *(ttles&ip %it& ( *o% (nd (##o%. -Also &elps to $nde#st(nd &e# cl(im t&(t it %(s ( #e(son(*le pe#ception t&(t t&e t&#e(t %(s imminent.$ment is *elieve &e# &onesty.es it=s necess(#y to $se de(dly "o#ce to co$nte# de(dly "o#ce.e#o$s. -MPC (llo%s 6$d.e#o$s.'dismissin.e#o$s to t#y somet&in. -5ne (#.oodoo ex(mple p$ttin. -A#. else (voodoo doll didn=t %o#.o *(c. -. 8. -?$d.no% (t t&e time t&(t yo$ c(n #et#e(t %it& complete .o(l (nd me(ns $sed.

t&e *elie"1 !ec. -Comment(#y s(ys t&is is *#o(denin.e.less mist(..ent in &(vin.&t imminent %(s too n(##o%.t&ey &(ve lost t&(t p#ivile. 0elly 1 B<2 c(se 3 st(**ed &$s*(nd %it& scisso#s 3 s$*6ective *elie" t&(t %(s in imminent d(n. -E" yo$# (.e o" sel" de"ense.idn(ppin. -U. >oetB 1 >$y in s$*%(y.li.otten into c(# to le(ve (so no lon. e(#lie# in t&e d(y. -2t(te v.ene#(l notion is (.comes (t . o$t t&e possi*ility o" sel" de"ense ((lt&o$.!U8E cannot use (ea(ly )orce i) you are t'e aggressor" .ent.#esso# is someone %&o does somet&in.li.$y %it& l$.$y in %(ves. -U. Pete#son 3 2$*6ective A4+ o*6ective test o" %&et&e# $sin. !et#e(t #$le only (pplies to $se o" de(dly "o#ce. -MPC &(s sli.t&en yo$ m(y not $se de(dly "o#ce.#esso# -.e so e(sily.2. %it& ."o#ci*le #(pe.0/.#ession %(s to intended to c($se t&e de(t& t&e ot&e# pe#son t&en yo$ lose it.$n (nd t&#e(tens .(tion). B#o(dens it ( little. -T&ey c(n le(ve (nd #e.s("ety. -MPC A.#esso#).less o# ne. v.&te#ne..&t v(#i(tion on imminence (:. 5t&e#%ise %&y didn=t s&e 6$st le(ve1 -2t(te v.%&o %(s in (lley ste(lin.& %o$ld (llo% miti..*$t s&o#t o" t&(t yo$ still &(ve sel" de"ense.*$t i" t&(t *elie" is #ec.e S #ec.li. Pete#son .*$t %&ile t&ey (#e in p#ocess o" *ein.*$t not m$c&. )omeo%ne# comes *(c. -Co$ c(n still do somet&in. so t&ey &(ve "o#"eited t&ei# p#ivile. )omeo%ne# is no% (..$o$s).li.*odily in6$#y.$y %&o %(s le(vin..#esso#.1) -@immedi(tely necess(#yA @on t&e p#esent occ(sionA.less o# ne. %inds&ield %ipe# *l(des. 4o imminent t&#e(t (t t&(t moment "o# &e#. 5nly need to #et#e(t %&en yo$ c(n do so %it& complete s("ety (MPC). 4o#m(n 1 *imminence re=uirement+ "o# sel" de"ense.less m(nsl($. -MPC %&(t .e# %(s t&e (.e 3 ne.#esso#.#esso# iss$e -Co$ don=t loose t&(t sel" de"ense p#ivile.yo$ co$ld still *e .inds o" t&#e(ts co$nt "o# sel" de"ense1 -+e(t&.2.ent &omicide. "o#ce is (pp#op#i(te (s$*6ective 3 &is *elie") (o*6ective 3 &o% #e(son(*le is t&(t *elie"1) -People v. -2t(te v.("te# ve#y *(d *e(tin..(nd *y doin. -T&e (. )(d ..e# (nd %&et&e# it %(s o*6ectively #e(son(*le 3 need expe#t testimony to s&o% #e(son(*leness 3 B<2. $nl(%"$l to%(#ds t&e ot&e# pe#son (nd $se sel" de"ense i" t&ey come (t yo$ %it& de(dly "o#ce.s . 2o 45 2E8G +EGE42E.. %#enc&. -T&o$. A**ott 1 retreat rule 3 nei.& it=s (m*i.(in it. +id &e *elieve s$*6ectively1 <(s &e #ec. -2t(#ts %it& %&olly s$*6ective ide( @i" t&e pe#son *elievesA. (.&*o# "(mily (tt(c. 2&e s&ot &im t&#ee times %&en &e %(s in *ed.ent mist(.$ilty ((lt&o$. v. $nl(%"$l to t&e ot&e# pe#son...

>l$c.ind o" cle(# d(n. (n innocent pe#son (nd still &(vin.& ( lot o" people m(y die (s ( #es$lt o" yo$ s(vin. 3 #i.(nd incl$des t&e possi*ility o" .to . (s ( de"ense) (nd in irect civil isobe ience (%&ic& is not o.ton v. t&e &(#m t&#o$. -!e. !e(sonin. 2t(te o" Es#(el 3 2t(te c(n=t le.ill people1 -<#on.(inst t&e de(t& pen(lty.ind o" #e(son(*le expect(tion t&(t %&(t yo$ do %ill *e e""ective. yo$#sel". de"ense o" c&oice o" lesse# evil.e o" sel" de"ense even t&o$.s*e#. +ept.C&oice o" t&e 8esse# Evil -P(#t o" t&e common l(% t#(dition. -Es it mo#(l "o# t&e st(te.in. Bec($se %e %(nt to p#otect v$lne#(*le peoples. -MPC (pp#o(c& #eco. -People v.&t to #e"$se t#e(tment.?.o "o# o# (. -U. ( levy to "lood ( "(#m (nd s(ve mo#e people in t&e to%n.*$t necessity c(n *e ( de"ense to its $se.ed people.(#ds to dete##ence. 2c&oon 1 E!2 (nd El 2(lv(do# p#otest 3 distinction *et%een irect civil isobe ience (%&ic& is o.(l "iction.(l p#otection (s #i.(inst To#t$#e v.no%in. <&et&e# &e %(s 6$sti"ied *y necessity1 T&is s&o$ld *e ( 6$#y 7$estion.&t to #e"$se t#e(tment.P9 .niBes c&oice o" lesse# evil."$l convictions . eve#).& yo$# indi#ect (ctions.e# 3 %(l.&t to commit s$icide &(s not en6oyed s(me le. is ( le. -E" mo#e people (#e s(ved t&en lives lost. Bec($se it c(nnot meet necessity 3 yo$ (#en=t eve# p#eventin. v. GitB6(mes 2tep&ens3 @s$c& c(ses (#e *est decided (s t&ey (#iseA -P. +i#.e# (nd &(ve some .(nd t#$e conce#n t&(t t&e co$#t &(s to de(l is dis(dv(nt(.(s @t&e st(teA. Un. -Glipside o" t&(t is sel" de"ense yo$ c(n exe#cise p#ivile.in( v. o" )e(lt& 1 2&e &(s ( #i.(liBe to#t$#e. (.does t&is . "o# 2t(te o" Misso$#i to p$t limits on t&e c#edi*ility o" ext#insic evidence o" &e# %is&es -<(s&in.C. Misso. E$t&(n(si( -MPC 210.*$t t&e#e is no %(y o" .2."(#me# c(n (ct in sel" de"ense).it=s ( c&oice o" lesse# evil. +$dley (nd 2tep&ens . (Pe#son *#e(. s$icide i" p$#posely -C#$B(n v.s o"" &ono# "(#m *ec($se o" t&#e(t o" de(t& (nd &omosex$(l #(pe. -)(ve to *e "(ced %it& some . -2eems to *e st#ictly (*o$t t&e n$m*e#s. s$icide only i" p$#posely %it& "o#ce d$#ess o# deception9 (idin. i" s&e %(nts to #e"$se t#e(tment9 its o. Punis'ment +e(t& Pen(lty -+ete##ence 7$estion does it dete# M5!E t&(n li"e %it&o$t p(#ole1 -E" %e &(ve $nce#t(inty %it& #e.c($sin.illin.

-8oo.-Cost iss$e.s (t lots o" iss$es t&(t %e#enOt p(#t o" t&e t#i(l.e# st(nds *y t&is.&.not o. -A.*$t (#e no%. "(cto#s. -Bo##o%ed t&e notion o" @.*$t t&is &o% t&e st(t$tes in o$# co$nt#y . on t&is -2peci"ic evidence (*o$t disc#imin(tion in speci"ic c(se. -McCles. -!(ce iss$e is ( policy iss$e (nd p(#t o" t&e de*(te.(#ds to #(ce'e7$(l p#otection.$ided disc#etionA "#om MPC.mi. -2$p#eme co$#t (lso #est#icts ot&e# (spects o" t&e de(t& pen(lty -C(n=t &(ve de(t& pen(lty "o# yo$t&s (nd t&e ment(lly #et(#ded. %it& t&e %(y it=s set $p (nd t&e most "$nd(ment(l seemed to *e t&e (#*it#(#y met&od %it& &o% it=s (pplied.es pl(ce. -5nce conviction t(.ene#(lly %o#..*$t it didn=t.t&e#e is ( second decision to *e m(de. -Also c(n=t do it "o# most c#imes. %#on.(tin.s (t constit$tion(lity o" de(t& pen(lty in #e. -Ame#ic(n 8(% Enstit$te (%#ites t&e MPC) no lon..'miti.y c(se loo.even c&ild #(pe. -T%o possi*ilities "o# s$cceedin.ed li. B$t t#e(son is still p$nis&(*le *y de(t&.e it %o$ld end de(t& pen(lty.&t come $nde# sc#$tiny l(te#.#(v(tin. Utilit(#i(n ?$sti"ic(tion !et#i*$tive ?$sti"ic(tion . -5t&e# is to s&o% t&e st(te m(int(ined t&e de(t& pen(lty "o# t&e p$#pose o" disc#imin(tion. -?$st s(id t&e#e is somet&in. "o# #(pe. -Es it disc#imin(to#ily imposed1 -+oes t&is me(n it s&o$ld *e (*olis&ed1 -Constit$tion(l iss$es -G$#m(n loo. -2t(tistics not eno$.